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This Handbook aims to provide practical guidance on good treaty practice. It presents a range of examples from the practice of several States and international organisations and explains the actions that need to be taken to create a new treaty, bring it into force, operate it, amend it and wind it up, on both the international and the domestic plane. It also explores what constitutes good treaty practice, and develops generic principles or criteria against which to evaluate these examples. It provides a useful analytical tool to enable each government and international organisation to identify and develop the best treaty practice for their circumstances, recognising that one size does not necessarily fit all. It will be of interest to those working with treaties and treaty procedures in governments, international organisations and legal practice, as well as legal academics and students wishing to gain insight into the realities of treaty practice.
Several grass and broadleaf weed species around the world have evolved multiple-herbicide resistance at alarmingly increasing rates. Research on the biochemical and molecular resistance mechanisms of multiple-resistant weed populations indicate a prevalence of herbicide metabolism catalyzed by enzyme systems such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferases and, to a lesser extent, by glucosyl transferases. A symposium was conducted to gain an understanding of the current state of research on metabolic resistance mechanisms in weed species that pose major management problems around the world. These topics, as well as future directions of investigations that were identified in the symposium, are summarized herein. In addition, the latest information on selected topics such as the role of safeners in inducing crop tolerance to herbicides, selectivity to clomazone, glyphosate metabolism in crops and weeds, and bioactivation of natural molecules is reviewed.
In cases of non-fatal self-harm, suicide notes are a major risk factor for repeated self-harm and suicide. Suicide notes can now be left on new media services, emails or text messages, as well as on paper.
In a group of people who had harmed themselves, we aimed to compare new media note-leavers with paper note-leavers and characterise these groups demographically and by risk factors.
Clinical notes of patients who presented with non-fatal self-harm to two London emergency departments were anonymously searched for mentions of new media use. These were categorised and risk factors were compared for those who had left a new media note, a paper note, or no note to establish differences in risk of note-leaving.
New media note-leaving was associated with younger age and substance use; both risk factors for repeated self-harm. However, suicidal intent remained highest in paper note-leavers.
Paper note-leavers remain at greatest risk, however new media note leaving is still correlated with risk factors related to repeated self-harm and suicide. Clinicians should enquire about new media use during emergency department assessments of self-harm.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: More partial nephrectomies are performed every year as a surgical treatment for kidney cancer. However, this procedure remains technically challenging. Surgeons require a substantial number of cases before their performance plateaus. No established practice mode exists; thus, there is a need for training models to simulate real tumor excisions and kidney suturing. In this study, we seek to validate these silicone models using multiple simulations with urologists of different training levels. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We created silicone renal tumor models using 3D printed molds of a patient’s kidney with a mass. Medical students, urology residents, fellows, and attending surgeons are recruited to perform simulated partial nephrectomies on these models. Four trials are performed with a da Vinci surgical robot on 2 different days. We are evaluating surgeon performance and improvement using validated measures as well as operation-specific metrics. Operation-specific metrics include renal artery clamp time and surgical margins. Validated measures of self-assessed operative demand (NASA TLX) and reviewer-assessed surgical performance (GEARS) are also recorded across trials. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The preliminary results of 2 medical students, 10 urology residents, 3 endourology fellows, and 2 attending urologists are reported here. Model face validity was evaluated on a 0–100 sliding scale anchored at unrealistic and realistic. Mean results thus far are 77.7 for overall feel, 82.7 for needle driving, 75.6 for cutting, and 73.2 for visual representation. Between trials 1 and 4 there was a mean reduction of 3.26 minutes in renal artery clamp time, and a 75% reduction in positive margins. There was a reduced incidence of positive surgical margins with advanced training stage. Fellows, residents, and medical students had positive tumor margins in 25%, 50%, and 75% of their trials, respectively. We expect to recruit 15 additional subjects for this study. Upon completion of data acquisition, more robust statistical comparisons and measures will be reported. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Face validity measures indicate the model adequately represents reality. Preliminary data suggest improved surgical performance over the course of the training and better performance in urologists of higher training levels. This model may have potential for broader application and integration into minimally invasive surgery training programs.
Burkart et al. conflate the domain-specificity of cognitive processes with the statistical pattern of variance in behavioural measures that partly reflect those processes. General intelligence is a statistical abstraction, not a cognitive trait, and we argue that the former does not warrant inferences about the nature or evolution of the latter.
EZ CMa (HD 50896, WN5) is an enigmatic object. New photometry and polarimetry of EZ CMa are presented in the figure. Again the 3.77 day period is found but, as observed at previous epochs (e.g. Drissen et ai. 1989, Ap. J., 343, 426), the shapes of the curves change. The new photometry can also be interpreted in terms of a shorter period, of 1.254 days. A period of about one day is also claimed in other sets of photometric data (e.g. van der Hucht et ai., 1990, A. A., 228, 108) and in the IUE spectra of St.-Louis et ai. (1990, this symposium). However, despite the complex nature of the light curve, the 3.77 day period is strongly supported by the polarimetry, which shows no evidence for the shorter period.
Firestone & Scholl (F&S) rely on three problematic assumptions about the mind (modularity, reflexiveness, and context-insensitivity) to argue cognition does not fundamentally influence perception. We highlight evidence indicating that perception, cognition, and emotion are constructed through overlapping, distributed brain networks characterized by top-down activity and context-sensitivity. This evidence undermines F&S's ability to generalize from case studies to the nature of perception.
A previous work suggests that dietary fat may influence canine olfaction. The present study evaluated whether olfactory performance could be influenced by forms of dietary fat and exercise. Seventeen certified detection dogs were fed three different diets (high fat, low fat or high polyunsaturated fat) for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, olfactory testing was performed using a scent wheel in an olfaction laboratory using three explosive materials. The dogs completed eight to twelve scent trials before and after a 30 min treadmill exercise on five consecutive days. A mixed-effect logistic regression model was used to examine how diet, pre- or post-exercise, trial number, odourant, mass of target and target position influenced the probability of dogs alerting on the target odour. There were no significant changes in the dog's ability to find a target odour at threshold amounts. Dogs were 1·42 (1·08, 1·87; 95 % CI) times as likely to find a target on the high polyunsaturated fat diet relative to the high-fat diet (P = 0·009). The low-fat diet was not significantly different from either the high-fat diet or the high polyunsaturated fat diet (P = 0·12). Dogs were 1·49 (1·26, 1·76; 95 % CI) times as likely to find a target prior to exercise relative to after exercise (P < 0·001). Dogs on the high PUFA diet utilising maize oil showed mild improvement in olfaction. The exact reasons are unknown; however, the higher relative amount of linoleic acid in the diet may play a role in olfactory sensation which warrants further examination of optimal diets for detection dogs.
The British Archaeological Expedition to Kuwait was formed in the spring of 1998 as the result of a visit to Kuwait by Harriet Crawford in November 1997. This visit took place at the invitation of the Director of the National Museum, Dr Fahad al Wohaibi. Several possible projects were discussed and permission was later granted by the Secretary-General of the National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters for a preliminary survey by the Expedition, to be carried out jointly with a team from the National Museum of Kuwait, of the area known as as-Sabiyah at the north end of Kuwait bay (Fig. 1). The area had already been the subject of a preliminary study by Dr Fahad, who had identified one well-preserved site (H3) with both painted and plain Ubaid pottery on the surface. It was also agreed that the team should undertake exploratory work at this site. Dr Fahad's generosity in inviting a British team to work with him in the area was matched only by the kindness with which the Expedition was received in Kuwait. The achievements of the first season are due in large measure to the support offered to us by our colleagues in the National Museum and in the National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters.
The objectives of the first season, which lasted for five weeks in October and November 1998, were as follows: to begin a detailed archaeological survey of the Jazirat Dubaij, a promontory within the Sabiyah area; to conduct a preliminary examination of the geomorphology of the area in order to establish the configuration of the shoreline at a period contemporary with the Ubaid-related site now known as H3; to contour this site; to undertake a surface collection of artefacts at H3; to confirm the presence of structures at the site and to establish the depth of deposit present. All these objectives were achieved.
We critically compare the practicality and accuracy of numerical approximations of phase field models and sharp interface models of solidification. Here we focus on Stefan problems, and their quasi-static variants, with applications to crystal growth. New approaches with a high mesh quality for the parametric approximations of the resulting free boundary problems and new stable discretizations of the anisotropic phase field system are taken into account in a comparison involving benchmark problems based on exact solutions of the free boundary problem.
This review presents a progression strategy for the discovery of new anti-parasitic drugs that uses in vitro susceptibility, time-kill and reversibility measures to define the therapeutically relevant exposure required in target tissues of animal infection models. The strategy is exemplified by the discovery of SCYX-7158 as a potential oral treatment for stage 2 (CNS) Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT). A critique of current treatments for stage 2 HAT is included to provide context for the challenges of achieving target tissue disposition and the need for establishing pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (PK–PD) measures early in the discovery paradigm. The strategy comprises 3 stages. Initially, compounds demonstrating promising in vitro activity and selectivity for the target organism over mammalian cells are advanced to in vitro metabolic stability, barrier permeability and tissue binding assays to establish that they will likely achieve and maintain therapeutic concentrations during in-life efficacy studies. Secondly, in vitro time-kill and reversibility kinetics are employed to correlate exposure (based on unbound concentrations) with in vitro activity, and to identify pharmacodynamic measures that would best predict efficacy. Lastly, this information is used to design dosing regimens for pivotal pharmacokinetic–pharmacodyamic studies in animal infection models.
The Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) has defined and implemented an early discovery strategy over the last few years, in fitting with its virtual R&D business model. This strategy relies on a medium- to high-throughput phenotypic assay platform to expedite the screening of compound libraries accessed through its collaborations with partners from the pharmaceutical industry. We review the pragmatic approaches used to select compound libraries for screening against kinetoplastids, taking into account screening capacity. The advantages, limitations and current achievements in identifying new quality series for further development into preclinical candidates are critically discussed, together with attractive new approaches currently under investigation.
Water tracks are zones of high soil moisture that route shallow groundwater down-slope, through the active layer and above the ice table. A water track in Taylor Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, was analysed for surface hydrogeological, geochemical, and biological characteristics in order to test the hypothesis that water tracks provide spatial structure to Antarctic soil ecosystems by changing the physical conditions in the soil environment within the water tracks from those outside the water tracks. The presence of the water track significantly affected the distribution of biotic and abiotic ecosystem parameters: increasing soil moisture, soil salinity, and soil organic matter within the water track relative to soils outside the water track, and reducing soil phosphate, soil pH, and the population of nematodes and other invertebrates in water track soils relative to off track soils. These results suggest that water tracks are distinct and extreme ecological zones in Taylor Valley that provide long-range (kilometre to multi- kilometre) structure to Antarctic hillslope ecosystems through physical control on soil moisture and solute content. Contrary to expectations, these high soil-moisture sites are not hotspots for faunal biological activity because high soil salinity makes them suitable habitats for only the most halo-tolerant organisms.
Specimens of aluminum-uranium alloys at 10 and 18 weight percent uranium were exposed to a saturated water vapor condition at 200 °C up to about 12 weeks and compared to previous results for aluminum 1100. The aluminum-uranium materials exhibited a range of initial corrosion rates and approached similar rates with the formation of a passive film of boehmite (Al2O3·H2O). The initial corrosion rates of the aluminum-uranium materials were one to four times higher than that for aluminum 1100. It is postulated that a micro-galvanic coupling between the large UA14 particles and the aluminum matrix has caused this difference. Sectioning the exposed specimens shows different characteristics of the oxide layers. In the oxide on the aluminum-10% uranium alloy (Al-10%U), small uranium aluminide particles can be seen in a boehmite matrix and do not seem to be corroded. The oxide film on the aluminum- 18% uranium alloy (Al-18%U) appears to have two distinct oxide layers. The outer layer has mass aggregates in a boehmite matrix, while the inner layer contains UA14 particles as in the case of Al-10%U.