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Six clusters forming part of the Hydra-Cen Supercluster and its extension on the opposite side of the galactic plane are under study at 21 cm with the Parkes radiotelescope. The infrared Tully-Fisher relation is used to determine the relative distances of the clusters. These clusters exhibit significant and generally positive peculiar velocities ranging from essentially zero for the Hydra cluster to as much as 1000 km/sec for the Pavo and Centaurus clusters. An upper limit of 500 km/sec was previously found in the study of clusters accessible from Arecibo. Data collection is not yet complete, however, and is further subject to unstudied systematic errors due to present reliance on photographic galaxy diameters. Nevertheless, these preliminary results support the notion of a large scale (and presumably gravitationally) disturbed velocity field in the second and third quadrants of the supergalactic plane.
Outbreaks of insect pests periodically cause large losses of volume in Canada’s forests. Compounded with climate change, outbreaks create significant challenges for managing the sustainable delivery of ecosystem services. Current methods to monitor damage by these pests involve both field and aerial surveys. While relatively cost effective and timely, aerial survey consistency and spatial coverage may be insufficient for detailed monitoring across Canada’s vast forest-land base. Remote sensing can augment these methods and extend monitoring capabilities in time and space by incorporating knowledge of pest-host interactions and of how damage translates into a remote sensing signal for detection and mapping. This review provides a brief introduction to major forest insect pests in Canada (two bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and six defoliators) and the damage they cause, a synthesis of the literature involving aerial survey and remote sensing, and a discussion of how these two approaches could be integrated into future pest monitoring from a Canadian perspective. We offer some lessons learned, outline roles that remote sensing could serve in a management context, and discuss what ongoing and upcoming technological advances may offer to future forest health monitoring.
The presence of the cyclophyllidean cestode Rodentolepis straminea (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae), was confirmed by molecular DNA analysis from a wood mouse (Apodemussylvaticus) population inhabiting urban woodland in Salford, Greater Manchester (UK) with a prevalence of 27.8%. It would appear that the only previously published record of this species in A. sylvaticus in the British Isles is that from south-west Ireland, where 24% of the wood mice examined were infected with R. straminea. This species has been recorded in studies on A. sylvaticus in continental Europe. The current report represents a new record for R. straminea on mainland Britain and a first study of helminth parasites in an urban wood mouse population.
Flight traps and crevice traps for catching Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky were studied in Kenya. The traps were baited with pheromones of these beetles, with or without synthetic maize volatiles. In the case of P. truncatus, which has a two component pheromone consisting of Trunc-call 1 (T1) and Trunc-call 2 (T2), the components were tested singly or in a 1:1 combination. The addition of synthetic maize volatiles to pheromone traps did not result in an increase in trap catch of either S. zeamais or P. truncatus. The pheromone of S. zeamais was an effective lure in both crevice and flight traps but the actual numbers captured were low. Captures with traps baited for P. truncatus were much greater. The response of P. truncatus to the two components of its pheromone was affected by the type of trap used. Crevice traps baited with either component alone caught fewer beetles than those baited with a mixture. In contrast, flight traps baited with T2 or the mixture were equally effective while traps with only T1 caught significantly fewer than either of these. These observations clarified apparent discrepancies between earlier studies in Tanzania and Mexico and are used to derive an hypothesis about the roles of T1 and T2; T2 appears to be a long-range attractant and T1 important for modifying the response to T2 to facilitate close-range orientation. Adult P. truncatus arriving at the traps were sexed, and in both flight and crevice traps the majority of captures were females even though in the experimental maize cribs the beetles were present in a roughly equal sex ratio. The role of the pheromone is discussed in the light of this observation.
Most of the discussion on the topic of Aboriginal education until recently has largely focused on primary education, and not without ample justification. This is without doubt the crucial stage in education. But, as the primary section becomes increasingly more successful with its Aboriginal pupils, so it becomes increasingly imperative for secondary education to respond adequately to this new challenge. The exact nature of this challenge is the concern of many teachers involved.
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