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We propose a modified self-aligned silicide (salicide) process that uses Ge implantation and a silicon cap to reduce the silicon substrate consumption by 75% as compared with a conventional salicide process. We have used Ge implants to increase the cobalt disilicide formation temperature. This forces the cobalt to react primarily with a deposited silicon cap, thus minimizing consumption from the silicon substrate. We expect this process to be useful for making silicide on shallow junctions and thin SOI films, where silicon consumption is constrained.
We discuss a modified self-aligned silicide (salicide) process that uses a silicon cap to reduce the substrate silicon consumption by 50% as compared with a conventional salicide process. We have used a metal-silicon mixture to form the metal-rich phase reliably in the first anneal. After etching the unreacted mixture we deposit a silicon cap. This forces the metal to react with the silicon cap as well as with the substrate during the second anneal, thus minimizing silicon consumption from the substrate. The unreacted portion of the silicon cap is selectively etched, leaving a structure with a raised source and drain. We expect this process to be useful for forming silicide on shallow junctions and thin SOI films, where silicon consumption is constrained.
We demonstrate the use of a synchrotron radiation source for in situ x-ray diffraction analysis during rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of 0.35 μm Salicide (self-aligned silicide) and 0.4 μm Polycide (silicided polysilicon) TiSi2 Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) gate structures. It is shown that the transformation from the C49 to C54 phase of TiSi2 occurs at higher temperatures in submicron gate structures than in unpatterned blanket films. In addition, the C54 that forms in submicron structures is (040) oriented, while the C54 that forms in unpatterned Salicide films is randomly oriented. Although the preferred oreintation of the initial C49 phase was different in the Salicide and Polycide gate structures, the final orientation of the C54 phase formed was the same. An incomplete conversion of C49 into C54-TiSi2 during the RTA of Polycide gate structures was observed and is attributed to the retarding effects of phosphorus on the transition.
The growth of ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films by rf-sputtering using a facing targets geometry is described. This study focuses on the influence of the substrate on PZT thin film composition, structure, and electrical properties. The deposition temperatures ranged from room temperature to 700 °C and the process gas was a mixture of argon and oxygen. Effects of deposition conditions and post-deposition annealing on film composition, microstructure, and properties were evaluated using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and measurements of the permittivity and polarization. The microstructure, composition, and permittivity of the films were found to be strongly dependent on the substrate temperature and on the preparation history of the films.
Single crystal films of C60 of different thickness values have been deposited on mica substrates by resistance evaporation. Electron diffraction and high resolution microscopy have been used to assess the orientational ordering and the nature of the defects present in these face-centered cubic films which exhibit a 〈111〉 direction normal to the film surface.
In this study we report on the KrF excimer laser deposition of crystalline films of lead magnesium niobium oxide (PMN) and solid solutions of PMN and lead titanate (PT) in a 65:35 ratio. These materials have potential microelectronic applications as thin film capacitors due to their high dielectric constants (εPMN(bulk) ≥ 10,000). Films were typically deposited in an oxygen background at elevated substrate temperatures(Ts = 525 °C) on substrates of Pt(111)/SiO2/Si or Pt(111)/glass. The deposited films were characterized by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), x-ray diffraction, and capacitance/loss measurements. Films prepared from a nearlystoichiometric commercial PMN target were low in Mg and Pb and yielded only the low-c pyrochlore phase (measured εfilm ≃ 100), even after cx-situ annealing at temperatures up to 650°C. Films deposited from Pb,Mg-rich targets prepared by a sol-gel process (tailored to produce the desired film stoichiometry) contained mixtures of perovskite and pyrochlore, with typical r values of order 600–1200.
The modification of film properties in evaporated tungsten was studied as a function of deposition environment. Using concurrent argon ion bombardment of the growing film, the stress varied in the same manner at all ion energies and substrate temperatures. Initial increases in tensile stress are followed by a monotonic trend toward compressive stress, for all sets of films. On the other hand, the qualitative changes in film resistivity with concurrent bombardment were dependent on the ion energy and substrate temperature, showing increases at high temperature and energy and decreases at low temperature and energy. Changes in the microstructure and impurity content in deposited films were found to be strongly linked to stress and resistivity changes. The trend toward compressive stress induced by high levels of ion bombardment is primarily reflected in an increase in (110) orientation. Increased resistivity is related to decreased grain size, increased (110) texture, and increased levels of film argon and oxygen content. By choice of deposition conditions, both the resistivity and stress can be minimized.
The development of microstructure in metal films deposited by ion-assisted evaporation has been studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Films of Ni, Co, and Fe of about 350 to 500 nm thickness were deposited by electron beam evaporation with concurrent argon ion bombardment during growth. Films grown at high ion/atom ratios develop compressive stress as revealed by lattice dilatation. The trends in grain size, orientation, and shape as a function of ion bombardment are documented by TEM.
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