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We use the spatial power spectrum for a statistical study of HI in the SMC in order to probe the intrinsic topology of the ISM. A remarkable power-law fit to the spatial power spectrum was found, supporting an alternative ISM model having a fractal nature resulting from interstellar turbulence.
The Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer (DXS) experiment is part of NASA’s SHEAL 2 mission, scheduled to be flown as an attached Shuttle payload in 1992. The DXS is designed to measure the spectrum of the low energy (0.15 to 0.28 keV) diffuse x-ray background with energy resolution better than 0.01 keV. This paper describes the DXS experiment and presents the results of calculations of the anticipated data.
To study the incidence of ectopic parathyroid adenomata from a single surgical series, and to devise a surgical algorithm from the results to follow when an adenoma cannot initially be located.
A retrospective review was conducted of prospectively collected data. The study comprised all patients who underwent parathyroidectomy between June 2001 and February 2008 under the care of the senior author. A systematic surgical protocol was developed for locating ectopic superior and inferior parathyroid adenomata based on the order of incidence identified from the database.
Parathyroid ectopia occurs in approximately 10 per cent of hyperparathyroidism cases. It is more common in superior than inferior parathyroid glands. The most common superior location is the right retroesophageal position and the most common inferior location is within the left thymic remnant.
Prospective data collection and subsequent analysis can be used to develop a systematic surgical protocol to aid the localisation of ectopic enlarged parathyroid glands in the surgical management of hyperparathyroidism.
Cognitive models suggest that distress associated with auditory hallucinations is best understood in terms of beliefs about voices. What is less clear is what factors govern such beliefs. This study aimed to explore the way in which traumatic life events contribute towards beliefs about voices and any associated distress.
The difference in the nature and prevalence of traumatic life events and associated psychological sequelae was compared in two groups of voice hearers: psychiatric voice hearers with predominantly negative beliefs about voices (PVH) and non-psychiatric voice hearers with predominantly positive beliefs about voices (NPVH). The data from the two groups were then combined in order to examine which factors could significantly account for the variance in beliefs about voices and therefore levels of distress.
Both groups reported a high prevalence of traumatic life events although significantly more PVH reported trauma symptoms sufficient for a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Furthermore, significantly more PVH reported experiencing childhood sexual abuse. Current trauma symptoms (re-experiencing, avoidance and hyperarousal) were found to be a significant predictor of beliefs about voices. Trauma variables accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in anxiety and depression.
The results suggest that beliefs about voices may be at least partially understood in the context of traumatic life events.
This paper explores the genesis of sadistic behaviour in men and its relationship to crime. Sixteen male special hospital patients, each with a diagnosis of psychopathic disorder, formed the basis of this descriptive study. In only three cases were the crimes explicable in terms of external circumstances and personality traits. The offences of the remaining 13 cases became comprehensible only when the offender's internal circumstances were explored: investigation revealed repetitive sadistic masturbatory fantasies which had spilled over into overt behaviour because the patients had felt impelled to seek and create increasingly dangerous in vivo ‘try-outs' of their fantasies. The paper discusses the crucial link between sadistic fantasy and behaviour.
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