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In September 2015, an outbreak of Escherichia coli Phage Type 32 with an indistinguishable multi locus variable number tandem repeat analysis profile was identified in Scotland. Twelve cases were identified; nine primary cases, two secondary and one asymptomatic case. Extensive food history investigations identified venison products containing wild venison produced by a single food business operator as the most likely source of the outbreak. Of the nine primary cases, eight had consumed venison products, and one case had not eaten venison themselves but had handled and cooked raw venison in the household. This was the first reported outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) linked to venison products in the UK, and was also notable due to the implicated products being commercially produced and widely distributed. In contrast, previous venison outbreaks reported from other countries have tended to be smaller and related to individually prepared carcases. The outbreak has highlighted some important knowledge gaps in relation to STEC in venison that are currently been investigated via a number of research studies.
The aim of the present work was to address experimentally the possible impact of exposure to air pollution during gestation on the differentiation and function of the gonads of the offspring using a rabbit model. Rabbits were exposed daily to diluted diesel exhaust gas or filtered air from the 3rd until the 27th day of gestation, during which time germ cells migrate in genital ridges and divide, and fetal sex is determined. Offspring gonads were collected shortly before birth (28th day of gestation) or after puberty (7.5 months after birth). The structure of the gonads was analyzed by histological and immunohistological methods. Serum concentrations of testosterone and anti-Müllerian hormone were determined using ELISA. The morphology and the endocrine function of the gonads collected just at the arrest of the exposure were similar in polluted and control animals in both sexes. No differences were observed as well in gonads collected after puberty. Sperm was collected at the head of the epididymis in adults. Sperm motility and DNA fragmentation were measured. Among all parameters analyzed, only the sperm DNA fragmentation rate was increased three-fold in exposed males. Mechanisms responsible for these modifications and their physiological consequences are to be further clarified.
The Southern Hemisphere SHCal04 radiocarbon calibration curve has been updated with the addition of new data sets extending measurements to 2145 cal BP and including the ANSTO Younger Dryas Huon pine data set. Outside the range of measured data, the curve is based upon the ern Hemisphere data sets as presented in IntCal13, with an interhemispheric offset averaging 43 ± 23 yr modeled by an autoregressive process to represent the short-term correlations in the offset.
Human campylobacteriosis exhibits a distinctive seasonality in temperate regions. This paper aims to identify the origins of this seasonality. Clinical isolates [typed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)] and epidemiological data were collected from Scotland. Young rural children were found to have an increased burden of disease in the late spring due to strains of non-chicken origin (e.g. ruminant and wild bird strains from environmental sources). In contrast the adult population had an extended summer peak associated with chicken strains. Travel abroad and UK mainland travel were associated with up to 17% and 18% of cases, respectively. International strains were associated with chicken, had a higher diversity than indigenous strains and a different spectrum of MLST types representative of these countries. Integrating empirical epidemiology and molecular subtyping can successfully elucidate the seasonal components of human campylobacteriosis. The findings will enable public health officials to focus strategies to reduce the disease burden.
Introduction of pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPV23) and conjugate vaccine (PCV7) programmes were expected to change the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumonia in the UK. We describe the epidemiology of IPD and hospitalization with pneumonia using high-quality surveillance data over an 8-year period, 2002–2009. Although PPV23 uptake increased from 49% to 70% and PCV7 uptake reached 98% by 2009, the overall incidence of IPD increased from 11·8/100 000 to 16·4/100 000 (P=0·13), and the incidence of hospitalization with pneumonia increased from 143/100 000 to 207/100 000 (P<0·001). Although a reduction in the proportion of IPD caused by PCV7 serotypes was observed, concurrent increases in PPV23 and non-vaccine serotype IPD contributed to an increased IPD burden overall. Marked inequalities in the geographical distribution of disease were observed. Existing vaccination programmes have, so far, not been sufficient to address an increasing burden of pneumococcal disease in our locality.
During a 15-month period in Scotland a small but important number of human Campylobacter cases (3·2%) arose from 91 putative household outbreaks. Of the 26 outbreaks with known strain composition, 89% were composed of the same MLST which supports the potential use of MLST in public health epidemiology. The number of cases associated with household outbreaks is much larger than general outbreaks and there is some evidence to indicate that there may be secondary transmission, although this is relatively rare.
A point source outbreak of haemorrhagic colitis due to Escherichia coli O 157. H7 producing verocytotoxin (VT), took place following a christening party in Birmingham in June 1987. Twenty-six people were affected, six were admitted to hospital and one developed haemolytic uraemic syndrome: there were no deaths. VT + E. coli O 157. H7 was isolated from 13 (57%) of 23 faecal specimens from affected people and from 3 (9%) of 33 specimens from asymptomatic people. Free VT was detected in the faeces of one further asymptomatic person. Illness was associated with eating turkey-roll sandwiches (P < 0·001) suggesting that cold meats might be an important source of infection.
An outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis PT 6B food poisoning, the first reported of this recently described phage type, resulted in illness among 46 of 49 members of a camping group in North Wales. 33 of whom were hospitalized. Epidemiological evidence (P < 0·0001) indicated that a lemon meringue pie was the vehicle of infection. Fresh shell eggs, stored after purchase at ambient temperature, appear to be the most likely source of infection, with multiplication during preparation and subsequent storage of the pie a significant contributory factor. Campers may be at greater risk than others and should consider the use of cold boxes for the transport and storage of eggs, and avoid the preparation of lightly cooked egg products under these basic conditions.
The first recognized outbreak of haemorrhagic colitis due to Escherichia coli O 157. H7 in the United Kingdom affected at least 24 persons living in East Anglia over a 2-week period. Theillnesses were characterized by severe abdominal pain and bloody diarrhoea of short duration. Eleven patients were admitted to hospital and there was one death. Patients were mainly adult women who had not eaten out of the home in the 2 weeks before onset. Unlike previously reported outbreaks hamburgers were not the vehicle of infection, and a case-control study suggested that handling vegetables, and particularly potatoes, was the important risk factor.
Scouring (diarrhoea) is a major concern for sheep producers as the accumulation of faecal material (dags) around the breech pre-disposes sheep to flystrike. Scouring occurs when the consistency of faeces is fluid with a low percentage of dry matter. In temperate areas such as the southern half of Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, scouring is associated with ingestion of parasitic nematode larvae, mainly Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis (Larsen et al., 1994). Breeding sheep to be resistant to these nematodes is a sustainable parasite-control strategy due to reduced reliance on chemical treatment. However, in adult sheep, scouring appears equally prevalent in resistant animals and, in some environments, is even more severe than in susceptible sheep (Karlsson et al., 2004). In this experiment, we investigated how faecal dry matter (FDM) in sheep from a flock bred for resistance to parasitic nematodes changed when challenged with infective larvae. We expected that FDM would be lower in challenged sheep compared to unchallenged controls, and FDM would also be lower in sheep with high dag scores compared to sheep with low dag scores.
Male-sterile, female-fertile plants were used to produce hybrid soybean seed. Manual cross-pollination using male-sterile plants to produce large quantities of hybrid seed is difficult and time-consuming because of the low success rate in cross-pollination. Insect pollinators may be suitable vectors to transfer pollen, but the most suitable vector for pollen transfer from the male parent to the female parent has not been identified for soybean. The objective of the present study was to evaluate seed-set on four male-sterile, female-fertile soybean lines by using alfalfa leafcutting bees (Megachile rotundata (F.)) and honey bees (Apis mellifera (L.)) as pollinators. Seed-set was evaluated in summers 2003 and 2005 near Ames, Iowa, USA and in summers 2003, 2004, and 2005 near Wooster, Ohio, USA. Neither the effect of pollinator species nor the interaction effect of pollinator species×location was significant for any year. Honey bees performed similarly to alfalfa leafcutting bees at both locations. The results indicated significant differences for seed-set among male-sterile lines, suggesting preferential pollination. Male-sterile lines, ms1 (Urbana) and ms2 (Ames 2), had higher cross-pollinated seed-set compared to ms6 (Ames 1), and ms6 (Corsoy 79). At the Ames location, ms1ms1 (Urbana) plants had the highest seed-set (50·16 seeds per male-sterile plant in 2005). At the Wooster location, ms1ms1 (Urbana) plants also had the highest seed-set (92·04 seeds per male-sterile plant) in 2005. Costs and local conditions need to be addressed to support the choice of either pollinator species as a pollination vector to produce hybrid soybean seed.
The Keck Interferometer Nuller (KIN) is one of the major scientific and technical precursors to the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer (TPF-I) mission. KIN's primary objective is to measure the level of exo-zodiacal mid-infrared emission around nearby main sequence stars, which requires deep broad-band nulling of astronomical sources of a few Janskys at 10 microns. A number of new capabilitites are needed in order to reach that goal with the Keck telescopes: mid-infrared coherent recombination, interferometric operation in “split pupil” mode, N-band optical path stabilization using K-band fringe tracking and internal metrology, and eventually, active atmospheric dispersion correction. We report here on the progress made implementing these new functionalities, and discuss the initial levels of extinction achieved on the sky.
The faecal egg count (FEC) and total egg output is reduced in parasite-resistant sheep and breeding sheep for resistance should reduce infective larval contamination of pastures. This research compares lambs and rams from the parasite-resistant flock, Rylington Merinos, with unselected controls at the same level of larval challenge and the same level of food supply in an animal-house environment. The sheep were penned individually. The parasite resistant sheep excreted 0·85-fold less eggs than the control animals after infection with Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Ostertagia circumcincta for 12 or 18 weeks. During the infection period the parasite resistant lambs had higher plasma immunoglobulin concentration and higher ratio of globulin to albumin than the control animals. In the mature rams these genotype differences diminished. They also had lighter mass of the small intestine with a higher proportion of mucosa, but heavier mass of the large intestine. Parasite infection caused a depletion of blood glutathione in the lambs given food at maintenance or 1·5 × maintenance, and the parasite-resistant sheep (both lambs and rams) also had lower glutathione concentration. Maintaining good body nutrient reserve before the infection reduced the egg output in the early stage of the infection. Food intake had little effect on worm egg production in young sheep given food at maintenance or above. It is suggested that an improvement of nutrition, sulphur-containing amino acids in particular, is required to recover the loss of productive performance caused by the infection.
‘Translation [translatio] is the exposition of meaning through another language [expositio sententiae per aliam linguam]’, claims Hugutio of Pisa in the Magnae derivationes which he compiled between 1197 and 1201. That sentiment, which is rooted in grammatical theory, makes it abundantly clear that medieval ‘translation’ does not mean merely the production of a replacement text: exposition, exegesis, interpretation (however one wishes to denote hermeneutic process) is involved as well. Hence in a twelfth-century gloss on Priscian interpretatio is defined as the exposition (expositio) of one language through another, and in his Summa super Priscianum Peter Helias describes interpretatio as ‘translatio de una loquela in aliam’. Such theoretical discourse is echoed in one of the most widely disseminated vernacular prefaces of the later Middle Ages, Jean de Meun's introduction to his French Boethius (c. 1300). If he had ‘expounded [expons] the Latin by the French word by word, Jean explains, the book would have been too obscure for laymen’ and clerks of moderate learning would have found it difficult to understand the Latin from the French. Therefore he has opted for a freer form of translation – an activity which, quite clearly, remains inseparable from expositio.
The activities of expositio or interpretatio and translatio were complexly interrelated. This chapter seeks to explore some of those relationships, with reference to late-medieval English, French, German and Spanish literary traditions. It will range from quite pedestrian vernacular renderings of standard glosses along with the texts which they expounded, to exceptionally sophisticated exploitations of the techniques – and the scholarly prestige – of commentary in the valorisation of texts composed anew in the emergent European languages.
In all temperate countries campylobacter infection in humans follows a striking seasonal pattern, but little attention has been given to exploring the epidemiological explanations. In order to better characterize the seasonal patterns, data from nine European countries and New Zealand have been examined. Several European countries with weekly data available showed remarkably consistent seasonal patterns from year to year, with peaks in week 22 in Wales, week 26 in Scotland, week 32 in Denmark, week 30 in Finland and week 33 in Sweden. In Europe, the seasonal peak was most prominent in Finland and least prominent in Scotland and Austria. In New Zealand the seasonality was less consistent since the peak was more prolonged. Possible explanations for the seasonal peaks are discussed. Research into the causes of campylobacter seasonality should help considerably in elucidating the sources of human infection.
We investigated an outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis involving at least 19 British tourists
returning from one hotel in another European country. A retrospective cohort study of 47
hotel guests identified lasagne as the most likely vehicle of transmission (RR 11·5; 95% CI
3·0–44·1; P<0·0001). However, difficulties in information exchange and lack of formal
mechanisms to agree on the aims of the cross-national investigation hampered efficient
management of the outbreak. The factors leading to contamination of the food vehicle were
not identified and therefore specific action to prevent reoccurrence could not be taken. There is
need to develop protocols for cross-national investigations of outbreaks in Europe which
should include specifying objectives, roles and responsibilities of investigators and control
agencies, with formal reporting of the outcome of the investigation.
We report the development of a new family of electron beam resists based on liquid crystalline polysubstituted derivatives of triphenylene. These new resists show excellent performance in terms of both high resolution and high durability to plasma etching. Films of the derivatives have been produced in a controlled manner via room temperature spin coating on hydrogen terminated silicon substrates. The dissolution behaviour of the derivatives in various organic solvents was altered by exposure to a 20 keV electron beam. The solubility of the derivative hexapentyloxytriphenylene, in polar solvents, was substantially increased by electron doses greater than ∼ 3 × 10-4 C/cm2 (positive tone behaviour). Doses greater than ∼ 2.5 × 10-3 C/cm2 led to negative tone behaviour in both polar and non-polar solvents. Other derivatives also demonstrated a reduction in their dissolution rate for doses between ∼ 1 × 10-3 and ∼ 7 × 10-3 C/cm2. The derivative sensitivity was found to be roughly proportional to the molecular mass. Negative tone patterns were found to have an etch durability ∼ 70 % greater than that of a conventional novolac based negative tone resist (SAL601). The performance of these new resists has been demonstrated by the definition of line and space patterns with a resolution of ∼ 14 nm, whilst structures with an aspect ratio of.∼ 50 to 1 were etched into the silicon substrate.
We report systematic studies of the response of C60 derivatives to electron beam irradiation. Films of fourteen different mono, tris and tetra adduct methanofullerene C60 derivatives were produced by spin coating on hydrogen terminated silicon substrates. Exposure of the films to a 20 keV electron beam substantially altered the dissolution rate of the derivative films in organic solvents such as monochlorobenzene. All of the derivatives exhibited negative tone resist behaviour with sensitivities between ∼ 8.5 × 10-4 and ∼ 4 × 10-3 C/cm2 107, much higher than that of C60. Features with widths of ∼ 20 nm were produced using these compounds, and the etch ratios of the compounds were found to be more than twice those of a standard novolac based resist (SAL601).