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In vivo positron emission tomography (PET) using [C11]-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B ([C11]PiB) has previously been shown to detect amyloid-β (Aβ) in late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) brain; however, the sensitivity of this technique for detecting β-amyloidosis in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) has not been systematically investigated. To validate [C11]PiB PET as a useful biomarker of β-amyloidosis, we measured the cortical and regional standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) in 16 ADAD and 15 LOAD cases and compared them with histopathologic measures of β-amyloidosis in postmortem brain. The PiB-PET data were obtained between 40–70 min after bolus injection of ∼15 mCi of [11C]PiB. MRI and PiB-PET images were co-registered and SUVRs were generated for several brain regions. Using Aβ immunohistochemistry (10D5, Eli Lilly), the burden of Aβ plaques was quantified in 16 regions of interest using an area fraction fractionator probe (Stereo Investigator, MicroBrightfield, VT). There were regional variations in Aβ plaque burden with highest densities observed in the neocortical areas and the striatum. On spearman correlations, in vivo PiB-PET correlated with postmortem Aβ plaque burden in both LOAD and ADAD, with strongest correlations seen in neocortical areas. In summary, [C11]PiB-PET has utility as a biomarker in both ADAD and LOAD.
This presentation will enable the learner to:
1.Discuss how PET-PiB beta-amyloid imaging is used as a potential biomarker of Alzheimer disease (AD)
2.Correlate postmortem neuropathologic evidence of beta-amyloidosis with PET-PiB data, and learn that PET-PiB is a potentially useful tool to detect beta-amyloidosis in presymptomatic and symptomatic individuals
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Many important oxidative reactions, such as CO oxidation, take place on metal surfaces at high temperatures and partial pressures. Understanding the atomic processes involved in these catalyzed reactions are of great importance and may be achievable by observations of the adsorbate-induced surface structure under temperatures and pressures relevant to working catalysts. Many of the prior studies, however, have only considered quenched-in structures with no dynamic interaction between the metal surface and the gas phase. This presentation describes in-situ synchrotron x-ray studies of the Cu (001) surface as a function of pO2, the oxygen partial pressure, and temperature. We utilize a controlled-flow reaction chamber specially constructed to mount onto an eight-circle diffractometer at the Advanced Photon Source. The chamber allows the flow of oxygen, hydrogen, and argon mixtures with pO2 ranging from 760 to 1×10-12 Torr and sample temperatures variable from 25 to 1000 °C. After reaching a critical pO2, oxygen adsorbs onto the initially clean Cu (001) surface, resulting in the rapid nucleation and growth of c(2×2)-O domains. Domain formation is concurrent with a small in-plane surface contraction and a large out-of-plane surface expansion associated with a compressive adsorbate-induced surface stress. The often reported (2√2×√2)R45 reconstruction is observed only below ~ 150 °C. Relationships between the different surface structures, subsurface oxygen, surface stress, and surface reactivity will be discussed.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Surface morphology modification by low-energy ion bombardment is widely used in many thin film techniques such as sputter deposition, ion-beam-assisted growth and ion polishing, in order to obtain smooth surfaces desirable for device applications. Under certain circumstances, ion bombardment on surfaces is also known to produce 2-D (ripples or wires) and 1-D (dot) structures by a self-organization process that arises from a competition of a roughing instability mechanism and surface relaxation. Knowledge of the mechanisms which govern those surface processes is very crucial to engineer technologically significant surface morphologies at the submicron or nano-scale in a more controlled way. Recently, the fast-growing advances in synchrotron x-ray scattering and detector techniques have enabled detailed investigations into the surface kinetics during ion bombardment. In this work, a study of surface smoothing on nanocorrugated sapphire surfaces by low-energy ion bombardment at normal incidence will be presented. Real time characterization by synchrotron grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering for the dependence of smoothing rate on ion energy and wavelength of sapphire ripples is performed. A ripple amplitude displays a classic behavior of profile-preserving exponential decay with time upon ion irradiation. The dependence of smoothing rate on ion energy and wavelength is discussed with existing surface smoothing mechanisms. The wavelength dependence exhibits a power law behavior with exponential close to 2 instead of 4, which suggests a dominant smoothing mechanism related to ion impact induced lateral mass redistribution for near normal incidence condition. The appearance of multiple smoothing rate constants at high temperature is thought to be relative with emerging atomic steps after surface recrystallization.
This work focuses on the temperature (passive scalar) and velocity characteristics within a turbulent Kármán vortex using a phase-averaging technique. The vortices are generated by a circular cylinder, and the three components of the fluctuating velocity and vorticity vectors,
), are simultaneously measured, along with the fluctuating temperature
and the temperature gradient vector, at nominally the same spatial point in the plane of mean shear at
is the streamwise distance from the cylinder axis and
is the cylinder diameter. We believe this is the first time the properties of fluctuating velocity, temperature, vorticity and temperature gradient vectors have been explored simultaneously within the Kármán vortex in detail. The Reynolds number based on
and the free-stream velocity is
. The phase-averaged distributions of
follow closely the Gaussian distribution for
is the distance from the vortex centre), but not for
. The collapse of the distributions of the mean-square streamwise derivative of the velocity fluctuations within the Kármán vortex implies that the velocity field within the vortex tends to be more locally isotropic than the flow field outside the vortex. A possible physical explanation is that the large and small scales of velocity and temperature fields are statistically independent of each other near the Kármán vortex centre, but interact vigorously outside the vortex, especially in the saddle region, due to the action of coherent strain rate.
Guangxi, a province in southwestern China, has the second highest reported number of HIV/AIDS cases in China. This study aimed to develop an accurate and effective model to describe the tendency of HIV and to predict its incidence in Guangxi. HIV incidence data of Guangxi from 2005 to 2016 were obtained from the database of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network models, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models, generalised regression neural network (GRNN) models and exponential smoothing (ES) were used to fit the incidence data. Data from 2015 and 2016 were used to validate the most suitable models. The model performances were evaluated by evaluating metrics, including mean square error (MSE), root mean square error, mean absolute error and mean absolute percentage error. The LSTM model had the lowest MSE when the N value (time step) was 12. The most appropriate ARIMA models for incidence in 2015 and 2016 were ARIMA (1, 1, 2) (0, 1, 2)12 and ARIMA (2, 1, 0) (1, 1, 2)12, respectively. The accuracy of GRNN and ES models in forecasting HIV incidence in Guangxi was relatively poor. Four performance metrics of the LSTM model were all lower than the ARIMA, GRNN and ES models. The LSTM model was more effective than other time-series models and is important for the monitoring and control of local HIV epidemics.
The discovery of the superconducting material Y1Ba2Cu3O6+δ ( “123” material) resulted in a world wide interest in the pseudo-ternary system BaO·YO·CuO. A complete study of the phases present in this system was initiated to develop a better understanding and processing of the superconducting 123 material. The crystal structures were established for two of the three ternary compounds in this system immediately after the discovery of superconductivity. One such phase was a green insulating compound Y2Ba1Cu1O5 (”211”) which has the space group. The superconducting 123 compound was found to have the space group Pmmm and an ordered triple-celled perovskite structure.
The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.
High-energy electron radiography (HEER) has been proposed for time-resolved imaging of materials, high-energy density matter, and for inertial confinement fusion. The areal-density resolution, determined by the image intensity information is critical for these types of diagnostics. Preliminary experimental studies for different materials with the same thickness and the same areal-density target have been imaged and analyzed. Although there are some discrepancies between experimental and theory analysis, the results show that the density distribution can indeed be attained from HEER. The reason for the discrepancies has been investigated and indicates the importance of the uniformity in the transverse distribution beam illuminating the target. Furthermore, the method for generating a uniform transverse distribution beam using octupole magnets was studied and verified by simulations. The simulations also confirm that the octupole field does not affect the angle-position correlation in the center part beam, a critical requirement for the imaging lens. A more practical method for HEER using collimators and octupoles for generating more uniform beams is also described. Detailed experimental results and simulation studies are presented in this paper.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Determine if synthetic or endogenously produced butyrate can delay Parkinson’s disease (PD) progression, attenuate PD associated GI dysfunction, and impact the gut-microbiota in mice expressing human mutant aSyn. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Two transgenic mouse models expressing human mutant alpha-synuclein (aSyn) will be used. Transgenic mice expressing aSyn A53T display GI dysfunction before motor deficit onset and will be used to investigate treatment impact on PD associated GI dysfunction. Mice expressing aSyn Y39C more accurately recapitulate age-related neuropathology and behavioral deficits and will be used to assess treatment impact on PD-associated neuropathology, motor, and cognitive function. Mice will receive a synthetic sodium butyrate, sodium phenylbutyrate, or a synbiotic treatment regimen for 3 months. Disease progression will be assessed by aSyn brain and gut neuropathology, brain and gut inflammatory status, behavioral deficits, and gastrointestinal function. In addition, fecal and gut-microbiota composition and neuroprotective gene expression in the brain will be investigated. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our preliminary data shows that both sodium butyrate and sodium phenylbutyrate delay disease progression in aSyn Y39C mice. Butyrate-treated mice have reduced aSyn oligomerization, reduced Lewy body formation, and improved motor and cognitive function compared to placebo-treated mice. 16S rRNA sequencing did not reveal fecal-microbiota shifts between treatment groups or with age progression. Further analysis assessing expression levels for genes with anti-oxidant and protein degradation roles will be performed to determine if sodium butyrate and sodium phenylbutyrate similarly impact cellular mechanisms to delay neurodegeneration. Our future experiments will focus on comparing sodium butyrate and synbiotic treatment outcomes in aSyn A53T mice. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our lab developed a Tg mouse model that more accurately recapitulate age-related symptoms, pathology, and mechanisms observed in PD patients compared with animal models onset by neurotoxins. Our use of an age-dependent model of a severe form of Parkinsonism, DLB, will better predict clinical outcomes in PD populations. We will be the first to assess if elevating select microbial product production enhances neuroprotective brain activity in a PD model. Results obtained will further characterize gut-brain axis communication mechanisms. These proposed experiments will be the first to determine if elevating microbial products improves GI deficits associated with PD and may lead to insight on the gut-brain axis role in PD. Overall, this proposal will be the first to investigate a novel, highly accessible treatment with the potential to delay PD progression and target motor, cognitive, and GI deficits associated with PD. Due to the current FDA approval of probiotics and prebiotics that enhance butyrate production, results obtained may be quickly translated for clinical use.
We first analytically show, starting with the Navier–Stokes equations, that the value of the derivative flatness is controlled by pressure diffusion of energy, viscous destructive effects and large-scale effects (decay and/or production). The latter two terms tend to zero when the Taylor-microscale Reynolds number
is sufficiently large. We argue that the pressure-diffusion term should also tend to a constant at large
. Available data for the velocity derivative flatness,
, in different turbulent flows are re-examined and interpreted in the light of the finite-Reynolds-number effect. It is found that
can differ from flow to flow at moderate
; for a given flow,
may also depend on the initial conditions. The data for
in various flows, e.g. along the axis in the far field of plane and circular jets, and grid turbulence, show that it approaches a constant, with a value slightly larger than 10, when
is sufficiently large. This behaviour for
is supported, at least qualitatively, by our analytical considerations. The constancy of
violates the refined similarity hypothesis introduced by Kolmogorov (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 13, 1962, pp. 82–85) to account for the intermittency of the energy dissipation rate. It is not, however, inconsistent with Kolmogorov’s original similarity hypothesis (Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol. 30, 1941, pp. 299–303), although we contend that the power-law relation
(Kolmogorov 1962), which is widely accepted in the literature, has in reality been almost invariably used to ‘model’ the finite-Reynolds-number effect for the laboratory data and has been strongly influenced by the weighting given to the atmospheric surface layer data. The inclusion of the latter data has misled previous investigations of how
Thousand Island Lake (TIL) is a typical fragmented landscape and an ideal model to study ecological effects of fragmentation. Partial fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene of 23 island populations of Dendrolimus punctatus in TIL were sequenced, 141 haplotypes being identified. The number of haplotypes increased significantly with the increase in island area and shape index, whereas no significant correlation was detected between three island attributes (area, shape and isolation) and haplotype diversity. However, the correlation with number of haplotypes was no longer significant when the ‘outlier’ island JSD (the largest island) was not included. Additionally, we found no significant relationship between geographic distance and genetic distance. Geographic isolation did not obstruct the gene flow among D. punctatus populations, which might be because of the high dispersal capacity of this pine moth. Fragmentation resulted in the conversion of large and continuous habitats into isolated, small and insular patches, which was the primary effect on the genetic diversity of D. punctatus in TIL. The conclusion to emphasize from our research is that habitat fragmentation reduced the biological genetic diversity to some extent, further demonstrating the importance of habitat continuity in biodiversity protection.
The oxidative study has always been particularly topical in poultry science. However, little information about the occurrence of cellular apoptosis and autophagy through the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signal pathway was reported in the liver of broilers exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). So we investigated the change of growth performance of broilers exposed to H2O2 and further explored the occurrence of apoptosis and autophagy, as well as the expression of NF-κB in these signaling pathways in the liver. A total of 320 1-day-old Arbor Acres male broiler chickens were raised on a basal diet and randomly divided into five treatments which were arranged as non-injected treatment (Control), physiological saline (0.75%) injected treatment (Saline) and H2O2 treatments (H2O2(0.74), H2O2(1.48) and H2O2(2.96)) received an intraperitoneal injection of H2O2 with 0.74, 1.48 and 2.96 mM/kg BW. The results showed that compared to those in the control and saline treatments, 2.96 mM/kg BW H2O2-treated broilers exhibited significantly higher feed/gain ratio at 22 to 42 days and 1 to 42 days, ROS formation, the contents of oxidation products, the mRNA expressions of caspases (3, 6, 8), microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II/LC3-I, autophagy-related gene 6, Bcl-2 associated X and protein expressions of total caspase-3 and total LC3-II, and significantly lower BW gain at 22 to 42 days and 1 to 42 days, the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, the expression of NF-κB in the liver. Meanwhile, significantly higher feed/gain ratio at 1 to 42 days, ROS formation, the contents of protein carbonyl and malondialdehyde, the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and the protein expressions of total caspase-3 and total LC3-II, as well as significantly lower BW gain at 22 to 42 days and 1 to 42 days were observed in broilers received 1.48 mM/kg BW H2O2 treatment than those in control and saline treatments. These results indicated that oxidative stress induced by H2O2 had a negative effect on histomorphology and redox status in the liver of broilers, which was associated with a decline in growth performance of broilers. This may attribute to apoptosis and autophagy processes triggered by excessive ROS that suppress the NF-κB signaling pathway.
In 2013, the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Foundation developed an updated guideline for infection prevention and control (IP&C) practices for CF. We sought to assess the adoption of specific recommendations by CF care centers.
Directors of the 277 CF care centers in the United States were asked to complete a confidential online survey regarding the adoption of selected IP&C recommendations. Selected recommendations were those we considered less likely to be incorporated into a center’s written IP&C policies.
Center directors from 198 of 277 CF centers (71%) completed the survey between December 2015 and June 2016; pediatric and larger centers were more likely to do so. Overall, 70% have adopted ≥75% of the selected recommendations. As recommended, almost all provided education to CF center staff (98%) and patients and families (97%); fewer developed educational materials in collaboration with local IP&C teams (59%) and/or patients and families (37%). Among 108 centers with non–English-speaking patients, 65 (60%) provided educational materials in relevant languages. Most (74%) held group education events; of the 138 centers with in-person meetings, 45% allowed 1 individual with CF to attend, and 51% allowed no individuals with CF to attend. Most centers (93%) held outdoor events, and 84% allowed >1 individual with CF to attend. Audits of exam-room cleaning were performed by 49% of CF centers.
Cystic fibrosis centers in the United States have adopted many of the recommendations addressed in this survey. Nonetheless, these findings suggest opportunities for improvement. More CF centers should provide education to non–English-speaking patients and families, and CF centers should perform audits of room cleaning.
Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the absence of clinical management, making identification of these cases crucial. We examined characteristics of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections by using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Each jurisdiction used an automated deterministic matching method to link surveillance data for persons with reported acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to persons reported with HIV infection. Of the 504 398 persons living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2014, 2.0% were coinfected with HBV and 6.7% were coinfected with HCV. Of the 269 884 persons ever reported with HBV, 5.2% were reported with HIV. Of the 1 093 050 persons ever reported with HCV, 4.3% were reported with HIV. A greater proportion of persons coinfected with HIV and HBV were males and blacks/African Americans, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Persons who inject drugs represented a greater proportion of those coinfected with HIV and HCV, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Matching HIV and viral hepatitis surveillance data highlights epidemiological characteristics of persons coinfected and can be used to routinely monitor health status and guide state and national public health interventions.
This paper reports the measurement of the energy loss of protons at the energy of 100 keV penetrating a partially ionized hydrogen plasma. The plasma of ne ≈ 1015–16 cm−3; Te ≈ 1–2 eV and lifetime of about 8 µs is created by the hydrogen gas discharge. The experimental results show an increase of a factor of 2.8 in the energy loss, which are in good agreement with the Bethe, Standard Stopping Model, Li–Petrasso and Vlasov models’ predictions within the error limit. The Bethe–Bloch Coulomb logarithm term is found to increase by a factor of 4.0 for free electrons as compared with the situation where bound electrons prevail. The potential application of protons energy loss for diagnosing the electron density in plasma is proposed too.
To investigate the effectiveness and usability of automated procedural guidance during virtual temporal bone surgery.
Two randomised controlled trials were performed to evaluate the effectiveness, for medical students, of two presentation modalities of automated real-time procedural guidance in virtual reality simulation: full and step-by-step visual presentation of drillable areas. Presentation modality effectiveness was determined through a comparison of participants’ dissection quality, evaluated by a blinded otologist, using a validated assessment scale.
While the provision of automated guidance on procedure improved performance (full presentation, p = 0.03; step-by-step presentation, p < 0.001), usage of the two different presentation modalities was vastly different (full presentation, 3.73 per cent; step-by-step presentation, 60.40 per cent).
Automated procedural guidance in virtual temporal bone surgery is effective in improving trainee performance. Step-by-step presentation of procedural guidance was engaging, and therefore more likely to be used by the participants.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
This work aims to improve our understanding of the turbulent energy dissipation rate in the wake of a circular cylinder. Ten of the twelve velocity derivative terms which make up the energy dissipation rate are simultaneously obtained with a probe composed of four X-wires. Measurements are made in the plane of mean shear at
, 20 and 40, where
is the streamwise distance from the cylinder axis and
is the cylinder diameter, at a Reynolds number of
and free-stream velocity. Both statistical and topological features of the velocity derivatives as well as the energy dissipation rate, approximated by a surrogate based on the assumption of homogeneity in the transverse plane, are examined. The spectra of the velocity derivatives indicate that local axisymmetry is first satisfied at higher wavenumbers while the departure at lower wavenumbers is caused by the Kármán vortex street. The spectral method proposed by Djenidi & Antonia (Exp. Fluids, vol. 53, 2012, pp. 1005–1013) based on the universality of the dissipation range of the longitudinal velocity spectrum normalized by the Kolmogorov scales also applies in the present flow despite the strong perturbation from the Kármán vortex street and violation of local isotropy at small
. The appropriateness of the spectral chart method is consistent with Antonia et al.’s (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 45105) observation that the two major assumptions in Kolmogorov’s first similarity hypothesis, i.e. very large Taylor microscale Reynolds number and local isotropy, can be significantly relaxed. The data also indicate that vorticity spectra are more sensitive, when testing the first similarity hypothesis, than velocity spectra. They also reveal that the velocity derivatives
play an important role in the interaction between large and small scales in the present flow. The phase-averaged data indicate that the energy dissipation is concentrated mostly within the coherent spanwise vortex rollers, in contrast with the model of Hussain (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 173, 1986, pp. 303–356) and Hussain & Hayakawa (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 180, 1987, p. 193), who conjectured that it resides mainly in regions of strong turbulent mixing.
Characterizing ruminal parameters in the context of sampling routine and feed efficiency is fundamental to understand the efficiency of feed utilization in the bovine. Therefore, we evaluated microbial and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles, rumen papillae epithelial and stratum corneum thickness and rumen pH (RpH) and temperature (RT) in feedlot cattle. In all, 48 cattle (32 steers plus 16 bulls), fed a high moisture corn and haylage-based ration, underwent a productive performance test to determine residual feed intake (RFI) using feed intake, growth, BW and composition traits. Rumen fluid was collected, then RpH and RT logger were inserted 5.5±1 days before slaughter. At slaughter, the logger was recovered and rumen fluid and rumen tissue were sampled. The relative daily time spent in specific RpH and RT ranges were determined. Polynomial regression analysis was used to characterize RpH and RT circadian patterns. Animals were divided into efficient and inefficient groups based on RFI to compare productive performance and ruminal parameters. Efficient animals consumed 1.8 kg/day less dry matter than inefficient cattle (P⩽0.05) while achieving the same productive performance (P⩾0.10). Ruminal bacteria population was higher (P⩽0.05) (7.6×1011v. 4.3×1011 copy number of 16S rRNA gene/ml rumen fluid) and methanogen population was lower (P⩽0.05) (2.3×109v. 4.9×109 copy number of 16S rRNA gene/ml rumen fluid) in efficient compared with inefficient cattle at slaughter with no differences (P⩾0.10) between samples collected on-farm. No differences (P⩾0.10) in rumen fluid VFA were also observed between feed efficiency groups either on-farm or at slaughter. However, increased (P⩽0.05) acetate, and decreased (P⩽0.05) propionate, butyrate, valerate and caproate concentrations were observed at slaughter compared with on-farm. Efficient had increased (P⩽0.05) rumen epithelium thickness (136 v. 126 µm) compared with inefficient cattle. Efficient animals also spent 318% and 93.2% more time (P⩽0.05) in acidotic (4.14% v. 1.30%) (pH⩽5.6) and optimal (5.6<pH<6.0) (8.53% v. 4.42%) RpH range compared with inefficient cattle. The circadian patterns revealed lower (P⩽0.05) RpH and no differences (P⩾0.10) in RT pre-, during, and post-prandial periods in efficient compared with inefficient cattle. In essence, superior feed efficiency in cattle seems linked to rumen features consistent with improved efficiency of feed utilization. Microbial abundance, rumen epithelial histomorphology, and RpH, may serve as indicators for feed efficiency in cattle. The divergences of assessments made on-farm and at slaughter should be considered in the development of proxies for feed efficiency.