To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Pneumococcal serotype replacement is an important issue after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in children. After the introduction of 13-valent PCV, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 12F (Sp12F) have increased in some countries; however, an outbreak of Sp12F has not reported in the post-13-valent PCV era. We experienced a local outbreak of Sp12F during March through May 2016 in Tsuruoka city, Japan after the introduction of 13-valent PCV in 2013. The IPD patients were two children and seven adults, three of whom died with a rapid disease progress. Although the clear transmission route was not determined, eight of the nine patients (89%) had close contact with children, which suggests that transmitted colonisation of Sp12F among children and adults might be the source of transmission. Continuous monitoring of IPDs, along with the determination of pneumococcal serotypes, is warranted in the post–13-valent PCV era. New IPD control strategies may be needed if this fatal outbreak continues to occur.
A new species of Roscoea is described and illustrated. Roscoea megalantha Tosh.Yoshida & R.Yangzom occurs in the Eastern Zone of Bhutan and neighbouring Arunachal Pradesh in India. A distribution map and an IUCN conservation assessment are given. A key to the three species of Roscoea found in Bhutan is provided.
Ideal magnetohydrodynamics (IMHD) is strongly constrained by an infinite number of microscopic constraints expressing mass, entropy and magnetic flux conservation in each infinitesimal fluid element, the latter preventing magnetic reconnection. By contrast, in the Taylor relaxation model for formation of macroscopically self-organized plasma equilibrium states, all these constraints are relaxed save for the global magnetic fluxes and helicity. A Lagrangian variational principle is presented that leads to a new, fully dynamical, relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (RxMHD), such that all static solutions are Taylor states but also allows state with flow. By postulating that some long-lived macroscopic current sheets can act as barriers to relaxation, separating the plasma into multiple relaxation regions, a further generalization, multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) is developed.
Indentation deformation of glass under a sharp diamond indenter causes cracking during and after a loading–unloading cycle. To get a deeper insight into the indentation cracking in glass, it is critical to understand the elastic and inelastic deformation behavior of glass under the indenter. In this study, in situ observations during Vickers indentations are carried out for silica, soda-lime, and lead–silicate glasses. It is found that the true contact area during indentation is different from the area estimated from the contact depth and the indenter geometry, and that the ridges of a Vickers indenter affect the contact shape during indentation. The contact region of silicate glasses under a Vickers indenter is not a regular square but a concave square. This results in edge cracking during indentation. It is concluded that the contact shape and the deformation mechanism of glass under the indenter are closely related to its cracking behaviors.
Bone contouring is currently the best treatment for fibro-osseous lesions after bone growth arrest. Navigation systems available for this surgery allow intra-operative visualisation with improved cosmetic outcomes. However, conventional navigation systems using superficial skin registration cannot prevent subtle discrepancies.
To address this problem, we used a non-invasive cranial bone registration that uses patient-specific dental templates to maintain exact registration. We created the preset goal using the mirror image of the unaffected side for unilateral lesions, and using images obtained before the onset of symptoms for bilateral lesions. This system achieved precise pre-operative simulation. A sound aid in the navigation system provided information regarding proximity to critical structures and to the preset goal.
We used this system to contour fibro-osseous lesions in three patients. All patients achieved good facial contours and improvement in symptoms.
This method offers a safe, rapid surgical aid in treating orbital fibro-osseous lesions.
Alumina matrix solidification is a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) technique used to immobilize radioactive iodine (129I) in the form of silver iodide. In the present study, an alumina matrix solidification sample with a porosity of 12.9% was obtained by performing HIP at 175 MPa and 1200°C for 3 hours on a simulated spent silver-sorbent saturated with stable iodine. Material Characterization Centre-1 (MCC-1) leaching tests for the simulated waste form were performed using hydrosulfide (HS-) as a reductant at concentrations ranging from 3 × 10-7 M to 3 × 10-3 M and at pH values ranging from 8.0 to 12.5. Leached iodine concentrations were below the detection limit for ICP-MS measurements at HS- concentrations of 3 × 10-7 M and 3 × 10-5 M. This result was due to the stability of AgI. At an HS- concentration of 3 × 10-3 M, iodine leaching rapidly increased within 10 days. The maximum iodine concentration in the solution was 4.33 × 10-3 M, which corresponds to 85% dissolution of the initial iodine. This value was measured after 552 days under an HS- concentration of 3 × 10-3 M at pH 11. An analysis of specimen cross-sections suggested the following reaction: 2AgI + HS- = Ag2S + 2I- + H+. The pH affected matrix aluminum dissolution but did not significantly affect the iodine leaching behavior. Furthermore, the normalized mass loss of iodine was larger than that of aluminum by a factor greater than 104, which is due to the large porosity and the dissolution of interior AgI of the solid.
We show that high-efficiency and low-degradation hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) p-i-n solar cells can be obtained by depositing absorber layers in a triode-type plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. Although the deposition rate is relatively low (0.01-0.03 nm/s) compared to the conventional diode-type PECVD process (∼0.2 nm/s), the light-induced degradation in conversion efficiency of single-junction solar cell is substantially reduced (Δη/ηini∼10%) due to the suppression of light-induced metastable defects in the a-Si:H absorber layer. So far, we have attained an independently-confirmed stabilized efficiency of 10.11% for a 220-nm-thick a-Si:H solar cell which was light soaked under 1 sun illumination for 1000 hours at cell temperature of 50°C. We further demonstrate that stabilized efficiencies as high as 10% can be maintained even when the solar cell is thickened to >300 nm.
Hydroxyapatite-chondroitin sulfate (HAp/ChS) composites were synthesized with calcium hydroxide suspension and phosphoric acid solution containing ChS through a precipitation method, and the microparticles were then fabricated by a spray dry method with the suspension of the composites. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) with negative charge or lysozyme (LYZ) with positive charge at pH7.0 was adsorbed onto the HAp/ChS microparticles. However, the HAp/ChS microparticles adsorbed LYZ more than the HAp microparticles compared with BSA due to the electrostatic interaction from negatively-charged sulfate or carboxyl group of ChS in the composites. The release property of BSA from the HAp/ChS microparticles was evaluated in Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline (pH7.2). The HAp/ChS microparticles released quickly 100% of the adsorbed BSA, while HAp microparticles released 45% of BSA. These results indicated that incorporation of ChS in the microparticles controls the adsorption and release properties of protein due to the electrostatic interaction. The HAp/ChS microparticles therefore are a candidate of a carrier for drugs like vaccines.
Toward complete artificial photosynthesis systems to generate hydrogen and
oxygen using visible light and water, we firstly design and fabricate
oxygen-generating gel systems using the electrostatic interactions of ionic
functional groups and steric effects of a polymer network. By using a graft
polymer chain with Ru(bpy)32+ units as sensitizers to closely arrange RuO2
nanoparticles as catalyst, the functional groups transmit multiple electrons
cooperatively to generate oxygen. In this study, a novel strategy is shown
to design a hierarchical network structure using colloidal nanoparticles and
This study details the feeding ecology of arrow squid, Nototodarus gouldi, collected opportunistically from trawlers in waters south-east off Australia in 2007 and 2008. Combined stomach content and fatty acid (FA) signature analyses provided clear evidence of seasonal dietary shifts in prey composition. Teleost fish remains (mainly otoliths) were found in 67% of stomachs with the two mesopelagic planktivorous fish, Lampanyctodes hectoris and Maurolicus muelleri dominating. Cephalopods and crustaceans were supplementary dietary components, with an increased representation in the diet over winter. Digestive gland lipid content was moderate (16.4 ± 8.4% wet weight) and was rich in triacylglycerol and monounsaturated fatty acids. Multivariate analysis of FA profiles grouped arrow squid with profiles of mesopelagic fish and cephalopods, thus supporting the findings of stomach content analysis. Seasonal differences in total lipid content were likely related to summer upwelling events and local changes in productivity, while intraspecific differences in lipid class and FA composition were related to seasonal differences of prey consumption. FA analyses also demonstrated dietary differences associated with gender, size and female maturation. Such relationships demonstrate that the diet of N. gouldi is closely linked to prey size, abundance and availability and possibly also, to key life-history stages.
We present new, wide, and deep images in the AzTEC/ASTE 1.1 mm continuum and the 12 CO (J = 1–0) emission toward the northern part of the Orion-A GMC. We have found evidence for interactions between molecular clouds and the external forces that may trigger star formation. Two types of possible triggers were revealed: (1) Collisions of the diffuse gas on the cloud surface, particularly at the eastern side of the OMC-2/3 region, and (2) Irradiation of UV on the pre-existing filaments and dense molecular cloud cores. Our wide-field and high-sensitivity imaging has provided the first comprehensive view of the potential sites of triggered star formation in the Orion-A GMC.
We have prepared a CrO2 thin film by chemical vapor deposition from a Cr8O21 precursor and studied the bulk and surface physical properties. The CrO2 thin film is grown on TiO2(100) substrate by heating precursor and TiO2 (100) substrate together in a sealed quartz tube. The prepared film is found from x-ray diffraction analysis to be an (100)-oriented single phase. The magnetization and resistivity measurements indicate that the film is a ferromagnetic metal with a Curie temperature of about 400 K. Cr 3s core-level and valence band photoelectron spectroscopy spectra reveal the presence of a metallic CrO2 in the surface region of the film. Our work indicates that preparation from a Cr8O21 precursor in a closed system is promising for obtaining a CrO2 thin film with the metallic surface.