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Due to remoteness and high altitude, only a few ground-based glacier change studies are available in high-mountain areas in the Himalaya. However, digital elevation models based on remotely sensed data (RS-DEMs) provide feasible opportunities to evaluate how fast Himalayan glaciers are changing. Here we compute elevation changes in glacier surface (total area 183.3 km2) in the Khumbu region, Nepal Himalaya, for the period 1992-2008 using multitemporal RS-DEMs and a map-derived DEM calibrated with differential GPS survey data in 2007. Elevation change is calculated by generating a weighted least-squares linear regression model. Our method enables us to provide the distribution of uncertainty of the elevation change. Debris-covered areas show large lowering rates. The spatial distribution of elevation change shows that the different wastage features of the debris-covered glaciers depend on their scale, slope and the existence of glacial lakes. The elevation changes of glaciers in the eastern Khumbu region are in line with previous studies. The regional average mass balance of -0.40 ± 0.25 m w.e.a-1 for the period 1992-2008 is consistent with a global value of about -0.55 m w.e. a-1 for the period 1996-2005.
We have made 12CO(J=1−0) observations of the LMC with NANTEN. We report the results of a comparison between CO clouds and SNRs in the LMC. Among the 35 known SNRs, only 10 are possibly associated with CO clouds. These 10 CO clouds and SNRs deserve follow-up studies for possible interactions. We present overlays of CO clouds on the optical images of some of these SNRs.
We have made a 12CO(J = 1−0) survey of the LMC with NANTEN. A sample of 55 giant molecular clouds has been identified and comparisons with stellar clusters, HII regions and SNRs are presented. The connection between the clouds and cluster formation is discussed.
We have made 12CO(J=1-0) observations in the LMC with NANTEN, and compared the detected giant molecular clouds (GMCs) with HII regions and stellar clusters. It is found that ~ 80% of the GMCs are associated with HII regions. The results of comparisons of the GMCs with the HII regions and the stellar clusters are presented.
We have made 12CO(J=1−0) observations of the LMC with the NANTEN millimeter-wave telescope and identified about 100 distinct giant molecular clouds (GMCs). A detailed comparison of the GMCs with stellar clusters and a UV image is discussed.
Fully sampled 12CO(J=1−0) observations of the whole extent of the LMC have been made with a linear resolution of ~ 30 pc at a detection limit of N(H2) = 2 × 1021 cm−2. In addition, several selected regions have been mapped with higher sensitivity corresponding to a detection limit of 1 × 1021 cm−2. Based on these results, a new estimate of the molecular mass in the LMC is presented.
We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105” × 50” or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6×1011L⊙ (if Tdust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4; they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S1.1mm = 0.84 ± 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.
Magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) has attracted much interest as an n-type thermoelectric material because it is eco-friendly, non-toxic, light, and relatively abundant compared with other thermoelectric materials. In this study, we tried to improve the thermoelectric performance by doping Sb and Ge in the Mg2Si, as well as further optimizing x in the carrier concentration to cause phonon scattering. A high purity Mg2Si was synthesized from metal Mg and Sb doped Si-Ge alloy by using spark plasma sintering (SPS) equipment. The sintered samples were cut and polished. They were evaluated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses. The carrier concentration of the samples was measured by using Hall measurement equipment. The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured by using a standard four-probe method in a He atmosphere. The thermal conductivity was measured by using a laser-flash system. We succeeded in obtaining a Sb doped Mg2Si0.95Ge0.05 sintered body easily without any impurities with the SPS equipment. The electrical conductivity of the sample was increased, and thermal conductivity was decreased by increasing the amount of doped Sb. The dimensionless figure of merit ZT became 0.74 at 733 K in the Mg2Si0.95-xGe0.05Sbx sample with x = 0.0022.
In this study, we fabricated Mg2Si from metal Mg and Si with different particle sizes (425 - 300, 300 - 180, and 75 μm or less) using spark plasma sintering (SPS) equipment. Additionally, the Mg2Si formation was investigated. A sieved Si powder was mixed with metal Mg powder in an inert gas (Ar) atmosphere. The mixture was placed in a graphite die while still in an Ar atmosphere and subjected to SPS at 923 K and 1113 K. The obtained sintering bodies were Mg2Si particles with a size of about 5 μm. Then, the sintered bodies were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). As a result, it was confirmed that generation of Mg2Si increased with decreasing Si particle size.
Both Ni and alkaline earth metal oxide (MO: CaO, SrO, and BaO)-impregnated SDC powders were prepared as an SOFC anode material. The averaged Ni particle size on SDC was affected by the kind of alkaline earth metal oxide added. The addition of SrO and BaO to Ni/SDC anode enhanced power densities of both H2-SOFC and CH4-SOFC and the addition of CaO lowered them. The maximum power density increased with decreasing the averaged Ni particle size of Ni-MO/SDC anode.
Optical pump-probe studies of cubic crystalline Ge2Sb2Te5/GaSb(001) have previously shown that the amplitude of a coherent optical phonon (COP) with frequency of 3.4 THz observed in the anisotropic reflectance (AR) signal exhibits a four-fold dependence upon the polarization of the probe beam. The appearance of the mode in the AR signal but not the reflectance (R) signal, and the dependence upon probe polarization, both suggest a three-dimensional mode character. Confirmation that this mode indeed has three-dimensional character, similar to the Raman inactive T2 mode in the pristine rock salt structure, is highly important in understanding the structure of the crystalline phase of Ge2Sb2Te5 that has important applications within data storage technology. A phonon of the same frequency has been observed in an epitaxial Ge2Sb2Te5/InAs(111) structure, suggesting that this phonon is indeed characteristic of epitaxial cubic GST. A theory, which considers the symmetry of the Raman tensor for a particular phonon mode, is used to predict the dependence of R and AR signal amplitude upon pump and probe polarization for the T2 mode of a (111) facet of the putative rock-salt structure.
In order to evaluate the long-term behaviour of the engineered barriers in geological disposal sites for transuranic element-bearing (TRU) waste, an evaluation by numerical analysis is required. Although chemical and hydraulic/mechanical analyses have been conducted independently until now, essentially both type of phenomena occur simultaneously and produce synergistic effects. Therefore, we focused attention on the buffer (bentonite) engineered barrier and conducted a study of which involved incorporating hydraulic/mechanical phenomena into the chemical analysis of bentonite alteration. The simulations employed weakly-coupled chemical and hydraulic/mechanical effects to study the behaviour in one dimension.
The results showed that the dissolution of the montmorillonite is suppressed in the buffer section nearest the cement material. Moreover, in order to achieve a fully coupled analysis in future, the present study also identifies issues that need to be resolved.
Slow/monoenergetic positron beams and pulsed positron beams have been used as a non-destructive probe to investigate vacancy-type defects in SIMOX substrates which were formed by high - dose oxygen implantation and high-temperature annealing. To obtain depth profiles of vacancy-type defects, a positron beam in the 0–30keV energy range was used. Doppler broadened annihilation spectrum and positron lifetime were measured as a function of incident positron energy. These measurements show the following results; vacancy -type defects exist near the surface of the top silicon layer even if the specimen was analyzed as defect -free Silicon by XTEM, and in the case of the as-implanted specimen, cavities in diameter of about 50–200A are created in the top silicon layer and they include high pressure gases.
A buried tungsten (W) mask structure with GaN is successfully obtained by epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) technique via low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (LP-MOVPE). The selectivity of GaN growth on the window region vs. the mask region is good. An underlying GaN with a striped W metal mask is easily decomposed above 500 °C by the W catalytic effect, by which radical hydrogen is reacted with GaN. It is difficult to bury the W mask because severe damage occurs in the GaN epilayer under the mask. It is found that an underlying AlGaN/GaN layer with a narrow W stripe mask width (mask/window = 2/2 νm) leads the ELO GaN layer to be free from damage, resulting in an excellent W-buried structure.
The behavior of threading dislocations during mass transport of GaN was investigated in detail by transmission electron microscopy. Mass transport occurred at the surface. Therefore, growing species are supplied from the in-plane direction. The behavior of threading dislocations was found to be strongly affected by the mass transport process as well as the high crystallographic anisotropy of the surface energy of the facets particular to GaN.
Nanoindentation test is known as instrumented indentation test (IIT) in the nano range for hardness and material parameters (ISO14577). It is a simple and effective method for evaluating the mechanical properties such as elasticity/stiffness, hardness and adhesion. Generally IIT is the method that doesn’t have to observe the residual impression. However, it is necessary to observe the residual impression and surface of test piece to obtain the material behavior such as pile-up/sink-in, crack. In past work, the phase shifting interferometric scanning confocal microscope (PSISCM)-nanoindenataion combined system was developed to obtain the tilt of surface and the geometrical shape of residual impression that are deeper than one micron. This system is useful to obtain the geometrical shape of the surface of test piece in macro and micro range. However, it is well known that the results of nanoindentation test become unstable in the nano range.
In this work, authors focused the geometry observation system for nanoindentation system. Confirmation the capability of PSISCM system and development of objective type atomic force microscopy to obtain the geometrical shape in nano range are examined. The AFM that has an excellent performance is developed by SII nanotechnology Inc. Japan, and it built into system. In many cases, it performs enough to observe the residual impression and the surface of the test piece. This system uses three methods to obtain the geometrical shape of surface in each range. Generally, AFM has the observation range at about several microns. It is difficult to search the small residual impression by only AFM. Before the observation of AFM, the observation area should be selected by using PSISCM. New measurement tool using PSISCM and AFM to obtain the surface geometry from macro range to nano range is proposed. This tool is very simple, quick and useful tool.
Nanoscale superlattice-like (SLL) dielectric was employed to reduce the power consumption of the Phase-change random access memory (PCRAM) cells. In this study, we have simulated and found that the cells with the SLL dielectric have a higher peak temperature compared to that of the cells with the SiO2 dielectric after constant pulse activation, due to the interface scattering mechanism. Scaling of the SLL dielectric has resulted in higher peak temperatures, which can be even higher after material/structural modifications. Furthermore, the SLL dielectric has good material properties that enable the cells to have high endurance. This shows the effectiveness of the SLL dielectric for advanced memory applications.
We present the initial results of a spectral line survey of L1157 B1 with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. So far, we have covered the frequencey range of 13.7 GHz (82.0–94.5 GHz and 96.3–97.5 GHz), and have detected 22 species including CH3CHO, HCOOH, HCOOCH3, HNCO, NH2CHO, CH3CN, and CCS. We have also detected the line of CH2DOH. These results demonstrate rich chemistry in this shocked region, which would mainly originate from evaporation of ice mantles by means of shocks.
Renewable energy can provide a host of benefits to society. In addition to the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, governments have enacted renewable energy (RE) policies to meet a number of objectives including the creation of local environmental and health benefits; facilitation of energy access, particularly for rural areas; advancement of energy security goals by diversifying the portfolio of energy technologies and resources; and improving social and economic development through potential employment opportunities. Energy access and social and economic development have been the primary drivers in developing countries whereas ensuring a secure energy supply and environmental concerns have been most important in developed countries.
An increasing number and variety of RE policies–motivated by a variety of factors–have driven substantial growth of RE technologies in recent years. Government policies have played a crucial role in accelerating the deployment of RE technologies. At the same time, not all RE policies have proven effective and efficient in rapidly or substantially increasing RE deployment. The focus of policies is broadening from a concentration almost entirely on RE electricity to include RE heating and cooling and transportation.
RE policies have promoted an increase in RE capacity installations by helping to overcome various barriers. Barriers specific to RE policymaking (e.g., a lack of information and awareness), to implementation (e.g., a lack of an educated and trained workforce to match developing RE technologies) and to financing (e.g., market failures) may further impede deployment of RE.