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The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity is a worldwide public health challenge. Pregnancy and beyond is a potentially important window for future weight gain in women. We investigated associations between maternal adherence to the New Nordic diet (NND) during pregnancy and maternal BMI trajectories from delivery to 8 years post delivery. Data are from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. Pregnant women from all of Norway were recruited between 1999 and 2008, and 55 056 are included in the present analysis. A previously constructed diet score, NND, was used to assess adherence to the diet. The score favours intake of Nordic fruits, root vegetables, cabbages, potatoes, oatmeal porridge, whole grains, wild fish, game, berries, milk and water. Linear spline multi-level models were used to estimate the association. We found that women with higher adherence to the NND pattern during pregnancy had on average lower post-partum BMI trajectories and slightly less weight gain up to 8 years post delivery compared with the lower NND adherers. These associations remained after adjustment for physical activity, education, maternal age, smoking and parity (mean diff at delivery (high v. low adherers): −0·3 kg/m2; 95 % CI −0·4, −0·2; mean diff at 8 years: −0·5 kg/m2; 95 % CI −0·6, −0·4), and were not explained by differences in energy intake or by exclusive breast-feeding duration. Similar patterns of associations were seen with trajectories of overweight/obesity as the outcome. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the NND may have beneficial properties to long-term weight regulation among women post-partum.
Recent archaeological investigations at Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon reveal that residents constructed a large diversion channel during the eleventh century A.D. as dramatic growth resulted in the expansion of the building onto the main valley floor. Sediments in the diversion channel reflect repeated episodes of flooding, rather than slow moving water typically found in irrigation canals, and archaeobotanical data indicate deposition during late summer or early fall. Although an agricultural function is possible, the channel may have been built primarily to divert floodwaters away from Pueblo Bonito while providing a nearby water source for construction and domestic use. The diversion channel was destroyed by the entrenchment of the “Bonito paleo-channel” in the late A.D. 1000s, and then buried by a combination of cultural debris and valley flooding. Although the canyon stream system changed throughout the occupation of Pueblo Bonito, there is no evidence that the formation of a deep natural channel in the floodplain had any negative effect on the growth of the great house
The role of wild meat for subsistence or as a luxury good is debated. We investigated the role of wild meat in food security in Madagascar, where consumption is poorly understood in urban areas and at regional scales. Using semi-structured interviews (n = 1339 heads-of-households, 21 towns), we aimed to: (1) quantify the amount and purpose of, (2) understand the drivers of, and (3) examine changes in wild meat consumption. Few respondents preferred wild meat (8 ± 3%) but most had eaten it at least once in their lifetime (78 ± 7%). Consumption occurred across ethnic groups, in urban and rural settings. More food insecure areas reported higher rates of wild meat consumption in the 6–8 months prior to interviews. Consumption was best explained by individual preferences and taboos. Less than 1% of respondents had increased consumption during their lifetimes. Wild meat prices showed no change from 2005–2013. Most consumption involved wild pigs and smaller-sized animals, though they were consumed less in the years following the 2009 coup. These data illustrate the differences between urban and rural communities, the occasions in which wild meat is used a source of food security, and provide evidence that some taxa are not hunted sustainably in Madagascar.
Overexploitation is a significant threat to biodiversity, with live capture of millions of animals annually. An improved understanding of live capture of primates is needed, especially for Madagascar's threatened lemurs. Our objectives were to provide the first quantitative estimates of the prevalence, spatial extent, correlates and timing of lemur ownership, procurement methods, within-country movements, and numbers and duration of ownership. Using semi-structured interviews of 1,093 households and 61 transporters, across 17 study sites, we found that lemur ownership was widespread and affected a variety of taxa. We estimate that 28,253 lemurs have been affected since 2010. Most lemurs were caught by owners and kept for either short (≤ 1 week) or long (≥ 3 years) periods. The live capture of lemurs in Madagascar is not highly organized but may threaten several Endangered and Critically Endangered species.
The Australia Telescope and Anglo-Australian Telescope were used in May 2000 to record the radio and optical emissions from the dMe flare star Proxima Centauri. Eight bright optical flares over a two-day interval resulted in no detectable excess short-term radio emission at 1.38 and 2.50 GHz. However, a slowly declining 1.38 GHz emission over the two-day interval was nearly 100% right circular polarised and was restricted to a relatively narrow bandwidth with total intensity (I) and circular polarisation (V) varying significantly over the 104 MHz receiver bandwidth. These are the first observations to show that highly-polarised narrowband flare star emission can persist for several days. This signature is attributed to sources of coherent radio emission in the star's corona. Similarities with various solar radio emissions are discussed; however, it is not possible with the existing observations to distinguish between fundamental plasma emission and electron–cyclotron maser emission as the responsible mechanism.
The study of both neutral and ionised gas in young radio sources is providing key information on the effect the radio plasma has on the ISM of these objects. We present results obtained for the compact radio sources PKS 1549–79, 4C 12.50 and PKS 1814–63 and for the intermediate-size radio galaxy 3C 459. At least in the first two, low ionisation optical emission lines and HI absorption appear to be associated with the extended, but relatively quiescent, dusty cocoon surrounding the nucleus. The [OIII] lines are, on the other hand, mostly associated with the region of interaction between the radio plasma and the ISM, indicating a fast outflow from the centre. A case of fast outflow (up to ∼1000 km s-1) is also observed in HI in the radio source 4C 12.50. As the radio source evolves, any obscuring material along the radio axis is swept aside until, eventually, cavities (of the same kind as observed e.g. in Cygnus A) are hollowed out on either side of the nucleus. We may witness this phase in the evolution of a radio source in the radio galaxy 3C 459.
The thermal diffusivity of diopside, jadeite and enstatite were measured at simultaneous pressures and temperatures of up to 7 GPa and 1200 K using the X-radiographic Ångström method. The measurements herein show that the pressure dependency of thermal diffusivity in pyroxenes is significantly greater than in olivine or garnet and that in the MORB-layer of a subducting slab the thermal diffusivity of pyroxenes are a factor of 1.5 greater than that of olivine. The temperature dependence of all the data sets is well described by a low-order polynomial fit to 1/K and the pressure dependence is exponential in 1/K, formulations which are consistent with the damped harmonic oscillator model for thermal properties.
A scoping study and systematic review-meta-analyses (SR-MAs) were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of various interventions for Salmonella in broiler chicken, from grow-out farm to secondary processing. The resulting information was used to inform a quantitative exposure assessment (QEA) comparing various control options within the context of broiler chicken production in Ontario, Canada. Multiple scenarios, including use of two separate on-farm interventions (CF3 competitive exclusion culture and a 2% lactose water additive), a package of processing interventions (a sodium hydroxide scald water disinfectant, a chlorinated post-evisceration spray, a trisodium phosphate pre-chill spray and chlorinated immersion chilling) a package consisting of these farm and processing interventions and a hypothetical scenario (reductions in between-flock prevalence and post-transport concentration), were simulated and compared to a baseline scenario. The package of on-farm and processing interventions was the most effective in achieving relative reductions (compared to baseline with no interventions) in the concentration and prevalence of Salmonella by the end of chilling ranging from 89·94% to 99·87% and 43·88% to 87·78%, respectively. Contaminated carcasses entering defeathering, reductions in concentration due to scalding and post-evisceration washing, and the potential for cross-contamination during chilling had the largest influence on the model outcomes under the current assumptions. Scoping study provided a transparent process for mapping out and selecting promising interventions, while SR-MA was useful for generating more precise and robust intervention effect estimates for QEA. Realization of the full potential of these methods was hampered by low methodological soundness and reporting of primary research in this area.
Four new species of Thraulodes Ulmer (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae), Thraulodes amanda sp. n., Thraulodes pelicanus sp. n., Thraulodes xavantinensis sp. n. and Thraulodes sinuosus sp. n are described based on imagos. A new synonymy (Thraulodes lepidus [Ulmer]=Thraulodes cryptodrilus Nieto & Domínguez) is proposed and the distribution of Thraulodes schlingeri is expanded based on a new record from western Brazil.
Lower birthweight, and rapid childhood weight gain predict elevated cardiovascular risk factors in children. We examined associations between serial, detailed, anthropometric measurements from birth to 9.5 years of age and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children. Children (n = 663) born at the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India were measured at birth and 6–12 monthly thereafter. At 9.5 years, 539 (255 boys) underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, and blood pressure (BP) and fasting lipid concentrations were measured. Insulin resistance was calculated using the HOMA equation. These outcomes were examined in relation to birth measurements and changes in measurements (growth) during infancy (0–2 years), 2–5 years and 5–9.5 years using conditional s.d. scores. Larger current weight, height and skinfold thickness were associated with higher risk markers at 9.5 years (P < 0.05). Lower weight, smaller length and mid-arm circumference at birth were associated with higher fasting glucose concentrations at 9.5 years (P ⩽ 0.01). After adjusting for current weight/height, there were inverse associations between birthweight and/or length and insulin concentrations, HOMA, systolic and diastolic BP and plasma triglycerides (P < 0.05). Increases in conditional weight and height between 0–2, 2–5 and 5–9.5 years were associated with higher insulin concentrations, HOMA and systolic BP. In conclusion, in 9–10-year-old Indian children, as in other studies, cardiovascular risk factors were highest in children who were light or short at birth but heavy or tall at 9 years. Greater infant and childhood weight and height gain were associated with higher risk markers.
Foetal development may permanently affect muscle function. Indian newborns have a low mean birthweight, predominantly due to low lean tissue and muscle mass. We aimed to examine the relationship of birthweight, and arm muscle area (AMA) at birth and post-natal growth to handgrip strength in Indian children. Grip strength was measured in 574 children aged 9 years, who had detailed anthropometry at birth and every 6–12 months post-natally. Mean (standard deviation (s.d.)) birthweight was 2863 (446) g. At 9 years, the children were short (mean height s.d. −0.6) and light (mean weight s.d. −1.1) compared with the World Health Organization growth reference. Mean (s.d.) grip strength was 12.7 (2.2) kg (boys) and 11.0 (2.0) kg (girls). Weight, length and AMA at birth, but not skinfold measurements at birth, were positively related to 9-year grip strength (β = 0.40 kg/s.d. increase in birthweight, P < 0.001; and β = 0.41 kg/s.d. increase in AMA, P < 0.001). Grip strength was positively related to 9-year height, body mass index and AMA and to gains in these measurements from birth to 2 years, 2–5 years and 5–9 years (P < 0.001 for all). The associations between birth size and grip strength were attenuated but remained statistically significant for AMA after adjusting for 9-year size. We conclude that larger overall size and muscle mass at birth are associated with greater muscle strength in childhood, and that this is mediated mainly through greater post-natal size. Poorer muscle development in utero is associated with reduced childhood muscle strength.
Reducing the burden of Salmonella in broiler flocks presents a challenge for public health. Worldwide, grow-out broilers are routinely vaccinated to prevent or lessen clinical manifestation of other infections. In this exploratory analysis we tested if details of a routine vaccination programme delivered to conventional grow-out broilers were associated with the burden of Salmonella in the flock as it progressed through its production cycle. None of the flocks studied were vaccinated against Salmonella or received a competitive exclusion product. The flocks were reared on conventional grow-out farms in southeastern USA, and sampled in a prospective field observational study. We observed significant associations between the content and design of a grow-out vaccination programme targeting other infections and the probability of detecting Salmonella in the broiler flock at different time points throughout the production cycle. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first field report of such associations.
In this work, we use the low-redshift, narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies Ark 564 and I Zw 1 as laboratories for modeling the Fe ii emission features in the wavelength range 1200–6700 Å. We utilize data acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope and the 2.7-m telescope at McDonald Observatory.
1. Between September 1941 and January 1942 haemoglobin estimations were made by the Haldane method on 544 women and 530 children, aDd the values obtained compared with those for similar groups investigated before the war.
2. The women investigated were grouped as follows: (a) 353 nurses and students at a London teaching hospital and its base in the country, (b) 159 workers at a factory in a small town near London, and (c) 32 housewives, mothers of children attending a hospital in the East End of London.
3. The mean haemoglobin value of the 544 women was 89·5 % and the range was from 56 to 120%. The mean is very similar to that obtained by Davidson et al. in 1937 for a group of nulliparous women from the poorest class in Aberdeen. In contrast Price-Jones's (1931) mean figure of 98·3% for 100 supposedly healthy nurses and women students, and Jenkins & Don's (1933) mean figure of 100·5% for 116 women are significantly higher than the mean of the present series. The percentage haemoglobin was below 90 in 54 %, and below 80 in 10 % of our cases. In Price-Jones's series no haemoglobin value was below 90 %, though in Jenkins and Don's series it was below 90 in 9 % and below 80 in 1 % of the cases.
4. The mean haemoglobin value of all the nurses and students was 87·2 %. The mean for those working in London was 90.6 % and for those working in the country was 84·1 %: the difference between these means is significant. The mean values of the nurses and students working at the same hospital approximated closely, as did the mean value for the auxiliary nurses to that of the professional nurses at the same hospital.
5. The mode of life and conditions of work in the two hospitals did not differ materially. A comparison of the diets of the nurses at the two hospitals showed that in London, over a period of 3 months, the average daily intake yielded 1865 calories and 63·5 g. of protein, of which 41 g. were first-class protein; whereas in the country, for the same period, the diet yielded 1662 calories daily and 46·7 g. of protein, of which 28 g. were first-class protein. It was estimated that the London group had a daily iron intake of 10.8 mg. and the country group one of 9·2 mg.
6. The mean haemoglobin values of the factory workers and the London housewives were 94·0 and 89·6% respectively.
7. A small number of nurses and students with low haemoglobin values had regular iron medication and the majority showed a satisfactory response to treatment.
8. There were in the present, series 364 children aged 6 months to 5 years. They were examined at welfare centres, diphtheria immunization clinics and day-and residentialnurseries. The curve of their mean haemoglobin values at successive ages approximates to corresponding curves of 10 years ago for British children not receiving medicinal iron. In our present series the average haemoglobin level at 6–12 months was 75·4%. Between 1 and 2 years of age the level had dropped to 72·8%, and thereafter it gradually rose, reaching 81·8% between 4 and 5 years of age. The lowest levels were found in children under 2 years of age. Since iron treatment of such infants will not only raise their mean haemoglobin level, but also halve their morbidity rate (Mackay & Goodfellow, 1931), the haemoglobin level of these untreated babies must be considered pathologically low. The incidence of severe anaemia was lower in the welfare group than in the other groups and was highest among the children in the residential nurseries.
9. The mean haemoglobin level of 90 school children aged 5–13 years was 80·3% (about 10% lower than Davidson's (1935) mean for poor children in Aberdeen), of 38 school children aged 13–15 years 89·3% and of 38 adolescent girls working at the factory already mentioned 98·7 %.
10. In all the groups of women and older children, with the exception of the small group of girls working in a factory, the mean haemoglobin values were significantly lower than those of previous groups with which we could compare them. We believe that this general lowering of the mean haemoglobin values of the older subjects and the low curves obtained for the younger children are the expression of a nutritional anaemia. We also believe that iron deficiency is one important aetiological factor, but that other factors have also played a part in the production of this anaemia. It is probable that among women and school children other dietetic deficiencies are implicated, and that in nurseries a high incidence of infection has increased the incidence and severity of an anaemia primarily due to an iron deficiency.
11. We believe that the bearing of this anaemia on the health of the nation is of sufficient importance to call both for official action at the present time, and for further investigation.
Pathogenesis, clinical disease, host response, and epidemiology: HCMV
Mark R. Wills, Department of Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, UK,
Andrew J. Carmichael, Department of Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, UK,
J. H. Sinclair, Department of Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, UK,
J. G. Patrick Sissons, Department of Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, UK
HCMV, as all persistent viruses, has to survive in the host in the face of an immune response. Antibody, and probably T-cells in particular, contain the infection in the normal host but impaired T-cell immunity is associated with HCMV disease. The virus encodes functions which can counter this immune response and may also use immune cells as sites of latency. Although our knowledge of many aspects of the virus/host relationship is still incomplete, studies on HCMV over the past 20 years have given insight into how a large DNA virus achieves this coexistence with the normal immune response. Other chapters also contain relevant material.
Cells of the immune system as sites of latency and reactivation for HCMV
Consideration of the immune response to HCMV has to take account of the fact that some cells of the immune system are strong candidates for being sites of latency (see elsewhere in this volume). It is a longstanding clinical observation that HCMV can be transmitted by blood transfusion, but the most sensitive PCR based techniques do not detect HCMV DNA in plasma or serum of healthy virus carriers (although they do in patients with active HCMV disease), implying HCMV is most likely transmitted by cells in peripheral blood. Evidence from several laboratories suggests that HCMV is latent in myeloid lineage cells (Sinclair and Sissons, 2006).
X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) have been performed upon highly radioactive samples, particularly Plutonium, at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley, CA, USA. First results from alpha and delta Plutonium are reported as well as a detailed analysis of sample quality.
Cyphocarax gilbert (Szidat, L., 1948) is a fish commonly found in coastal drainage of eastern Brazil. This fish is sometimes caught with signs of infection by the crustacean Riggia paranensis, a haematophagous parasite. A remarkable feature of infected fish is that they lack gonads. In this paper we have analysed the frequency of parasitism, the gonadal development of non-infected fish and the profile of plasma proteins in both infected and non-infected specimens. Two reproductive periods/year were observed, beginning in February and August. On average, 40% of fish were infected, in the Itabapoana River (Brazil). Sex-specific proteins were identified by electrophoresis. SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that a 143 kDa female-specific glycolipoprotein (FSP) is a calcium-binding phosphoprotein. FSP was isolated through ultracentrifugation and SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the native protein is composed of three polypeptides of 143, 100 and 70 kDa. Both FSP and a 33 kDa male-specific protein (MSP) are absent from infected fish plasma. FSP levels in female plasma changes with the developmental stage of gonads. Altogether these data suggest that the FSP corresponds to fish vitellogenin. Furthermore, the absence of the above-mentioned proteins in infected fish suggests that R. paranensis might interfere with the regular hormonal process of fish vitellogenesis.