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Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled ‘Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets’ (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597–2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229–237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from ‘inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]’, as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88), and are not ‘more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence’.
An internationally approved and globally used classification scheme for the diagnosis of CHD has long been sought. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC), which was produced and has been maintained by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (the International Nomenclature Society), is used widely, but has spawned many “short list” versions that differ in content depending on the user. Thus, efforts to have a uniform identification of patients with CHD using a single up-to-date and coordinated nomenclature system continue to be thwarted, even if a common nomenclature has been used as a basis for composing various “short lists”. In an attempt to solve this problem, the International Nomenclature Society has linked its efforts with those of the World Health Organization to obtain a globally accepted nomenclature tree for CHD within the 11th iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The International Nomenclature Society has submitted a hierarchical nomenclature tree for CHD to the World Health Organization that is expected to serve increasingly as the “short list” for all communities interested in coding for congenital cardiology. This article reviews the history of the International Classification of Diseases and of the IPCCC, and outlines the process used in developing the ICD-11 congenital cardiac disease diagnostic list and the definitions for each term on the list. An overview of the content of the congenital heart anomaly section of the Foundation Component of ICD-11, published herein in its entirety, is also included. Future plans for the International Nomenclature Society include linking again with the World Health Organization to tackle procedural nomenclature as it relates to cardiac malformations. By doing so, the Society will continue its role in standardising nomenclature for CHD across the globe, thereby promoting research and better outcomes for fetuses, children, and adults with congenital heart anomalies.
Major depression is associated with significant disability, morbidity, and mortality. The current study estimated trends in the prevalence of major depression in the US population from 2005 to 2015 overall and by demographic subgroups.
Data were drawn from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), an annual cross-sectional study of US persons ages 12 and over (total analytic sample N = 607 520). Past-year depression prevalence was examined annually among respondents from 2005 to 2015. Time trends in depression prevalence stratified by survey year were tested using logistic regression. Data were re-analyzed stratified by age, gender, race/ethnicity, income, and education.
Depression prevalence increased significantly in the USA from 2005 to 2015, before and after controlling for demographics. Increases in depression were significant for the youngest and oldest age groups, men, and women, Non-Hispanic White persons, the lowest income group, and the highest education and income groups. A significant year × demographic interaction was found for age. The rate of increase in depression was significantly more rapid among youth relative to all older age groups.
The prevalence of depression increased significantly in the USA from 2005 to 2015. The rate of increase in depression among youth was significantly more rapid relative to older groups. Further research into understanding the macro level, micro level, and individual factors that are contributing to the increase in depression, including factors specific to demographic subgroups, would help to direct public health prevention and intervention efforts.
Up to now, the geometrical and kinematical structure of the well-known bizarre nebula NGC 7026 has not been discussed in the literature. Using the large vertical Coude spectrograph of the 2.2 m telescope on Calar Alto, Spain, we obtained long-slit spectra covering the nebula at 5 different position angles, in the ranges from 4730 to 5050 Å and from 6470 to 6770 Å. The high spectral (up to 6 km s−1 FWHM) and spatial resolution (seeing-limited ≲ 2″) reveals a rather complex structure in the lines of Hα, Hβ, (OIII) λλ 4959, 5007, HeI 6678, HeII 6560, (NII) λλ 6548, 6583, and (SII) λλ 6716, 6731. Generally, the lines exhibit a double “bowed” appearance; both components consist of several condensations of small angular extent. The velocity field suggests a non-spherical expansion of an elongated thin shell structure. The observations can be explained by an ovoidal or “bipolar” configuration of the nebula consisting of an expanding equatorial toroid (Vexp = 54 km s−1 in (SII)) and two blobs moving at higher velocities outwards along the polar axis (inclination angle with respect to the line-of-sight: 75°). The geometrical and kinematical structure observed in the lines of various excitation degrees indicates a pronounced ionization stratification and allows to derive the dependence of the expansion velocities on the radial distance inside the nebulae. No noticeable extinction within the nebula has been found. The bipolar structure of NGC 7026 resembles that of some other planetary nebulae and might be caused by an equatorial concentration of the circumstellar material lost during the late phase by the progenitor asymptotic giant-branch star. Using distances and interstellar extinctions of 48 stars within 1° of the planetary, we determined a distance of 2180 (≈ ± 700) pc for the nebula.
The “Astronomy and Astrophysics Abstracts”, edited twice a year by the “Astronomisches Recheninstitut” in Heidelberg, served as basis for the determination of some data concerning the development of planetary nebulae as a research field. From the numbered and unnumbered papers within the subject category 134 there it was, for example, possible to compare the development of the PN paper rate with that of the whole field of Astronomy; for the years 1986 to 1990, a list (including postal addresses) of all individuals (ca. 900!) who published at least one paper on PN was made. For these 5 years, we now know which scientist(s) published most, in how many countries research on PN is done, how the annual publication rate varies for a specific country etc. Below, we show two results of our statistics.
While examining Palomar Observatory Sky Survey prints for various purposes, we came upon a number of hitherto uncatalogued nebulous objects, all of them of low surface brightness. Four of them are considered by us as new planetary nebula candidates due to their morphology. For the brightest one of them, spectroscopic observations were carried out with the Cassegrain spectrograph attached to the 74-inch telescope of the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory: this object (1 = 65.49°, b = +3.18°) is clearly confirmed as a planetary nebula and obviously is in an advanced stage in its evolution; in Fig. 1, a spectrum of it is shown.
Moringa oleifera is a rich source of antioxidants and a promising feed for livestock, due to significant amounts of protein, vitamins, carotenoids and polyphenols, and negligible amounts of anti-nutritional factors. The current study tested whether ensiling would preserve the antioxidant capacity of M. oleifera plants, and assessed whether Moringa silage, fed as a substitute for maize silage, would confer health-promoting traits and affect milk production in dairy cows. To this end, hand-harvested M. oleifera plants were ensiled, with or without molasses and inoculants, in anaerobic jars at room temperature (25 °C) for 37 days. At the end of the storage period the silages were analysed for pH, lactic acid and acetic acid concentrations, aerobic stability, antioxidant capacity, polyphenols and protein content, and tocopherols and carotenoids concentrations. Moringa silages exhibited higher antioxidant capacity compared with fresh and dried Moringa plants, not related to polyphenol content but presumably attributed to accumulation of amino acids and low molecular weight peptides. Based on these findings, a large-scale ensiling protocol was implemented, followed by a feeding trial for dairy cows, in which Moringa silage replaced 263 g maize silage/kg in the diet. Cows fed Moringa silage had higher milk yield and antioxidant capacity and lower milk somatic cell counts compared with controls, during some stages of lactation. These findings imply that ensiling M. oleifera is an appropriate practice by which health and production of dairy cows can be improved.
This study aimed to review available disaster training options for health care providers, and to provide specific recommendations for developing and delivering a disaster-response-training program for non-disaster-trained emergency physicians, residents, and trainees prior to acute deployment.
A comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature of the existing training options for health care providers was conducted to provide specific recommendations.
A comprehensive search of the Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane databases was performed to identify publications related to courses for disaster preparedness and response training for health care professionals. This search revealed 7,681 unique titles, of which 53 articles were included in the full review. A total of 384 courses were found through the grey literature search, and many of these were available online for no charge and could be completed in less than six hours. The majority of courses focused on management and disaster planning; few focused on clinical care and acute response.
There is need for a course that is targeted toward emergency physicians and trainees without formal disaster training. This course should be available online and should utilize a mix of educational modalities, including lectures, scenarios, and virtual simulations. An ideal course should focus on disaster preparedness, and the clinical and non-clinical aspects of response, with a focus on an all-hazards approach, including both terrorism-related and environmental disasters.
HansotiB, KelloggDS, AberleSJ, BroccoliMC, FedenJ, FrenchA, LittleCM, MooreB, SabatoJJr., SheetsT, WeinbergR, ElmesP, KangC. Preparing Emergency Physicians for Acute Disaster Response: A Review of Current Training Opportunities in the US. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(6):643–647.
We present the results of an investigation of M1-79 and K3-82. Physical parameters like expansion velocities, spatial shapes, Zanstrahydrogen-temperatures, etc. were obtained by use of high resolution spectroscopy and CCD-images.
The two PN are medium excitation and exhibit usual expansion velocities. To find out the spatial shapes we utilized the simple model of a truncated spherical shell. A comparison between the theoretical intensity ratios from this model and the measurements is leading to the conclusion that both PN have the structure of a ring. K3-82 is seen pole-on, Ml-79 is seen edge-on.
2MASS has provided a three-dimensional map of the > 360°, wrapped tidal tails of the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf spheroidal galaxy, as traced by M giant stars. With the inclusion of radial velocity data for stars along these tails, strong constraints exist for dynamical models of the Milky Way-Sgr interaction. N-body simulations of Sgr disruption with model parameters spanning a range of initial conditions (e.g., Sgr mass and orbit, Galactic rotation curve, halo flattening) are used to find parameterizations that match almost every extant observational constraint of the Sgr system. We discuss the implications of the Sgr data and models for the orbit, mass and M/L of the Sgr bound core as well as the strength, flattening, and lumpiness of the Milky Way potential.
The peculiar new object (α2000 = 17h52m32.7s, δ2000 = −17°41′08″) in Sagittarius discovered by Y. Sakurai (IAU Circ. 6322 (1996)) first classified as a slow nova turned out to be a star experiencing a late He-flash. The only other examples in historical times are V605 Aql, the central star of A 58 in 1919 and possibly FG Sge. The extremely H-poor central nebulae in A 30 and A 78 are considered the remainder of late He-flashes that happened thousands of years ago.
The knowledge of the planetary nebula central star - white dwarf transition region has dramatically increased during the most recent years and dozens of stars now populate this former gap in the HRD. Each addition to the limited sample of central stars that has been studied spectroscopically in detail is, however, of value.
The distance determination to planetary nebulae (PNe) remains a serious problem as illustrated during the last IAU symposium in 1991 (Terzian, IAU 155, p.109). Since then the situation has not improved significantly. The number of stars for which reddening and spectral data are available, though, has increased tremendously over the last decade. Using data from the literature we have determined extinction distances for more than 50 PNe. The extinction distance method has been pioneered by Lutz (ApJ 181, 135 (1973)) and Acker (A&AS 33, 367 (1978)). The basic assumption of the extinction method is that a reddening vs distance relation (RDR) exists along the line of sight to a given object. Once this relation and the reddening of the object itself is known, a distance to the object can be derived. Gathier et al. (A&A 157, 171 (1986)) present a thorough discussion of the advantages and possible problems of the method. The most recent contributions are by Martin (A&A 281, 526 (1994)) and Saurer (A&A 297, 261 (1995)).
The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) has observed a portion of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) at J (1.25 μm), H (1.65 μm), and Ks (2.17 μm), as part of its routine nightly operations with an automated 1.3-m telescope at CTIO, Chile. The camera observes the sky in the three channels simultaneously, using 256 × 256 HgCdTe detector arrays. The survey samples the sky in 6° x 8.′3 scans. The 2MASS Production Processing System provides final atlas images and source extractions with precise photometric calibration and astrometric positions. The survey's 10σ sensitivity is 15.8 mag at J, 15.1 at H, and 14.3 at Ks. 2MASS will ultimately detect ~107 point sources in the LMC and will support analyses of the ages, luminosity and mass functions, and metallicities of the red stellar populations and a census of AGB and carbon stars, as well as extinction maps, across the LMC. This work presents an initial analysis of ~20 square degrees.
Our department has a long–standing tradition of discovery of planetary nebulae (PN), see e.g. Tamura & Weinberger (A&A 298, 204 (1995)) and Kerber et al. (A&AS in press (1996)) for the latest contributions.
“Senile” PNe are very old nebulae of extremely low surface brightness and large linear size; they offer e.g. the possibility of probing the conditions of the ISM also non-locally. We give three examples of huge nebulae in a preliminary inquire.
NGC 3242: An ESO Schmidt plate obtained in April 1996 shows the ‘wrapped’ morphology of the faint arc discovered by Deeming (1966, Astrophys. J. 146, 287) 11′ south-west of this PN. Probably this arc is part of a giant halo of very low surface brightness around NGC 3242, but up to now the detection of the halo is questionable. A spectrum of the filament obtained at Las Campanas shows [O iii]/Hα ∼ 5 compared with a value of ∼ 3 in the nebula (Perinotto et al. 1994, Astron. Astrophys. Supp., 107, 481). This high ratio is larger than that expected for the excitation class of NGC 3242, even larger than the maximum allowed for a photo-ionized nebula of more or less normal chemical abundance. Thus, due to the spectral characteristic and to the filamentary structure of the arc we suspect that shocks appear to play a role.
The light of the night sky consists of atmospheric components (airglow, light scattered in the atmosphere) and – even in the case of spaceborne observations – of zodiacal, galactic and extragalactic light. Although all components are of similar importance, investigations on zodiacal light have profitted most by the space age since their object of research, the interplanetary dust cloud, became accessible to direct in-situ measurements. Lunar samples and measurements by micrometeoroid detectors provide individual and eventually detailed information on impact events, which however are limited in number and therefore restricted in statistical significance. Zodiacal light investigations involve scattered light of many particles in large volume elements and therefore provide global information about physical properties and spatial distribution of interplanetary dust grains, however just in terms of average values. Therefore both sources of information are complementary and a synthesis can only be achieved by synoptic interpretation of zodiacal light, micrometeoroid, and meteoroid investigations also including dynamical aspects. Measurements of zodiacal light (and emission) from rockets, manned or non manned spacecraft, and deep space probes gained drastically in importance compared to ground based observations. On the other hand investigations on airglow have become more and more a topic of geophysics Caeronomy). They remain relevant however to astronomy as far as photometric features are concerned. These general trends continued in the last triennium and have influenced the activities of our commission.
The light of the night sky includes several components which spread all over the celestial sphere. These light components are terrestrial (airglow), interplanetary (zodiacal light), galactic (integrated starlight, diffuse galactic light) and extragalactic (extragalactic background light). Thus the study of nature of each light source, covering large distance, is pursued in different fields of astronomy. However, the techniques of measurement for respective components are similar and the knowledge of other lights is indispensable even in the study of a particular component.
The different components of the light of the night sky have their origin in different formations of matter in the universe - encompassing a huge scale of distances ranging from a few kilometers in the earth’s atmosphere to the most distant known galaxies and beyond. Correspondingly, the borderlines to other Commissions are not very well defined and thus material relevant to Commission 21 can also be found in the reports of other Commissions on the following topics: zodiacal light and zodiacal IR emission (Comm. 22, 44), integrated starlight (33, 25), diffuse galactic light (34), extragalactic background light (47), airglow and atmospheric scattered light (50), and space-borne observations of the LONS (44). From the Commission 21 point of view the connecting link between these various fields is the special techniques utilized in the surface photometric measurements and reductions of background radiations which extend over the entire sky. One crucial problem is the separation of the LONS into its several components. The approach for solving this task is to utilize the different spatial distributions and different broad and narrow band spectral properties of each of the LONS component. Thus the successful measurement and separation of one of the LONS components requires a knowledge of the properties of all the other components. This situation has become apparent in recent years as the infrared background radiation database, provided by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), has been analyzed: both the zodiacal and galactic dust emissions have to be analyzed hand in hand, and both these components must be very accurately mastered before any conclusions are possible on the extragalactic component. It is also obvious that very similar problems are encountered in the ultraviolet and infrared wavelength regions as in the more traditional optical domain. Thus the techniques developed in one of these wavelength domains are directly applicable in the others.