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The Subglacial Antarctic Lakes Scientific Access (SALSA) Project accessed Mercer Subglacial Lake using environmentally clean hot-water drilling to examine interactions among ice, water, sediment, rock, microbes and carbon reservoirs within the lake water column and underlying sediments. A ~0.4 m diameter borehole was melted through 1087 m of ice and maintained over ~10 days, allowing observation of ice properties and collection of water and sediment with various tools. Over this period, SALSA collected: 60 L of lake water and 10 L of deep borehole water; microbes >0.2 μm in diameter from in situ filtration of ~100 L of lake water; 10 multicores 0.32–0.49 m long; 1.0 and 1.76 m long gravity cores; three conductivity–temperature–depth profiles of borehole and lake water; five discrete depth current meter measurements in the lake and images of ice, the lake water–ice interface and lake sediments. Temperature and conductivity data showed the hydrodynamic character of water mixing between the borehole and lake after entry. Models simulating melting of the ~6 m thick basal accreted ice layer imply that debris fall-out through the ~15 m water column to the lake sediments from borehole melting had little effect on the stratigraphy of surficial sediment cores.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Being explicit about the prevention of falls throughout an older adults’ episode of care may further help reinforce the role of physical therapy providers in falls prevention and improve dissemination of this knowledge. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The purpose of this study was to determine older adults’ awareness of and perspectives about the role of physical therapy providers for falls prevention and determine potential barriers and facilitators to utilization of preventive rehabilitation services METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We used a qualitative descriptive phenomenological approach to emphasize participants’ perceptions and lived experiences. Four focus groups were conducted with 27 community-dwelling older adults (average age = 78 years). Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, condensed, and coded using thematic analysis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Surveys indicated 37% of participants experienced a fall in the last year and 26% reported suffering an injury. Four main themes and six subthemes surrounding older adults’ perceptions of physical therapy providers’ roles for falls prevention emerged: (1) Awareness of Falls Prevention (subthemes: I Don’t Think About It, I Am More Careful); (2) Being Able to Get Up from the Floor; (3) Limited Knowledge about the Role of Physical Therapy Providers in Falls Prevention (subtheme: Physical Therapy Services are for After a Fall, Surgery, or for a Specific Problem); and 4). Barriers to Participating in Preventive Physical Therapy Services (subthemes: Perceived Need and Costs, Access Requires a Doctor’s Prescription). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Older adults lack awareness about the role of physical therapy services in falls prevention, perceiving services are only to treat a specific problem or after a fall. Physical therapists should be explicit about the role of physical therapy in falls prevention for all older adults undergoing rehabilitation, regardless of the reason.
This chapter comprises the following sections: names, taxonomy, subspecies and distribution, descriptive notes, habitat, movements and home range, activity patterns, feeding ecology, reproduction and growth, behavior, parasites and diseases, status in the wild, and status in captivity.
Both experiments and direct numerical simulations have been used to demonstrate that riblets can reduce turbulent drag by as much as $10\,\%$, but their systematic design remains an open challenge. In this paper we develop a model-based framework to quantify the effect of streamwise-aligned spanwise-periodic riblets on kinetic energy and skin-friction drag in turbulent channel flow. We model the effect of riblets as a volume penalization in the Navier–Stokes equations and use the statistical response of the eddy-viscosity-enhanced linearized equations to quantify the effect of background turbulence on the mean velocity and skin-friction drag. For triangular riblets, our simulation-free approach reliably predicts drag-reducing trends as well as mechanisms that lead to performance deterioration for large riblets. We investigate the effect of height and spacing on drag reduction and demonstrate a correlation between energy suppression and drag reduction for appropriately sized riblets. We also analyse the effect of riblets on drag-reduction mechanisms and turbulent flow structures including very large-scale motions. Our results demonstrate the utility of our approach in capturing the effect of riblets on turbulent flows using models that are tractable for analysis and optimization.
Soybean meal is rich in soybean isoflavones, which exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anticancer functions in humans and animals. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of soybean isoflavones on the growth performance, intestinal morphology and antioxidative properties in pigs. A total of 72 weaned piglets (7.45 ± 0.13 kg; 36 males and 36 females) were allocated into three treatments and fed corn-soybean meal (C-SBM), corn-soy protein concentrate (C-SPC) or C-SPC supplemented with equal levels of the isoflavones found in the C-SBM diet (C-SPC + ISF) for a 72-day trial. Each treatment had six replicates and four piglets per replicate, half male and half female. On day 42, one male pig from each replicate was selected and euthanized to collect intestinal samples. The results showed that compared to pigs fed the C-SPC diet, pigs fed the C-SBM and C-SPC + ISF diets had higher BW on day 72 (P < 0.05); pigs fed the C-SBM diet had significantly higher average daily gain (ADG) during days 14 to 28 (P < 0.05), with C-SPC + ISF being intermediate; pigs fed the C-SBM diet tended to have higher ADG during days 42 to 72 (P = 0.063), while pigs fed the C-SPC + ISF diet had significantly higher ADG during days 42 to 72 (P < 0.05). Moreover, compared to pigs fed the C-SPC diet, pigs fed the C-SBM diet tended to have greater villus height (P = 0.092), while pigs fed the C-SPC + ISF diet had significantly greater villus height (P < 0.05); pigs fed the C-SBM and C-SPC + ISF diets had significantly increased villus height-to-crypt depth ratio (P < 0.05). Compared with the C-SPC diet, dietary C-SPC + ISF tended to increase plasma superoxide dismutase activity on days 28 (P = 0.085) and 42 (P = 0.075) and reduce plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) content on day 42 (P = 0.089), as well as significantly decreased jejunal mucosa MDA content on day 42 (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference in the expression of tight junction genes among the three groups was found (P > 0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that a long-term exposure to soybean isoflavones enhances the growth performance, protects the intestinal morphology and improves the antioxidative properties in pigs.
Reducing stigma is a perennial target of mental health advocates, but effectively addressing stigma relies on the ability to correctly understand and accurately measure culture-specific and location-specific components of stigma and discrimination.
We developed two culture-sensitive measures that assess the core components of stigma. The 40-item Interpersonal Distance Scale (IDS) asks respondents about their willingness to establish four different types of relationships with individuals with 10 target conditions, including five mental health-related conditions and five comparison conditions. The 40-item Occupational Restrictiveness Scale (ORS) asks respondents how suitable it is for individuals with the 10 conditions to assume four different types of occupations. The scales – which take 15 min to complete – were administered as part of a 2013 survey in Ningxia Province, China to a representative sample of 2425 adult community members.
IDS and ORS differentiated the level of stigma between the 10 conditions. Of the total, 81% of respondents were unwilling to have interpersonal relationships with individuals with mental health-related conditions and 91% considered them unsuitable for various occupations. Substantial differences in attitudes about the five mental health-related conditions suggest that there is no community consensus about what constitutes a ‘mental illness’.
Selection of comparison conditions, types of social relationships, and types of occupations considered by the IDS and ORS make it possible to develop culture-sensitive and cohort-specific measures of interpersonal distance and occupational restrictiveness that can be used to compare the level and type of stigma associated with different conditions and to monitor changes in stigma over time.
Diet has direct and indirect effects on health through inflammation and the gut microbiome. We investigated total dietary inflammatory potential via the literature-derived index (Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®)) with gut microbiota diversity, composition and function. In cancer-free patient volunteers initially approached at colonoscopy and healthy volunteers recruited from the medical centre community, we assessed 16S ribosomal DNA in all subjects who provided dietary assessments and stool samples (n 101) and the gut metagenome in a subset of patients with residual fasting blood samples (n 34). Associations of energy-adjusted DII scores with microbial diversity and composition were examined using linear regression, permutational multivariate ANOVA and linear discriminant analysis. Spearman correlation was used to evaluate associations of species and pathways with DII and circulating inflammatory markers. Across DII levels, α- and β-diversity did not significantly differ; however, Ruminococcus torques, Eubacterium nodatum, Acidaminococcus intestini and Clostridium leptum were more abundant in the most pro-inflammatory diet group, while Akkermansia muciniphila was enriched in the most anti-inflammatory diet group. With adjustment for age and BMI, R. torques, E. nodatum and A. intestini remained significantly associated with a more pro-inflammatory diet. In the metagenomic and fasting blood subset, A. intestini was correlated with circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, a pro-inflammatory marker (rho = 0·40), but no associations remained significant upon correction for multiple testing. An index reflecting overall inflammatory potential of the diet was associated with specific microbes, but not overall diversity of the gut microbiome in our study. Findings from this preliminary study warrant further research in larger samples and prospective cohorts.
Prion diseases, or Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs), are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders associated with a conformational transformation of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) into a self-feplicating and proteinase K (PK)-resistant conformer, scrapie PrP (PrPSc). Aggregates of PrPSc around neurons lead to neuropathologyical change including neuronal loss, astrogliosis, spongiform degeneration and deposition of amyloid plaques. Currently no effective treatment for prion disease exists. The development of novel therapeutic strategies against prion diseases has become a priority. Several reports have demonstrated that passive and active immune-based therapy can significantly prolong the incubation period of prionoses in vivo, and also some anti-PrP monoclonal can prevent PrP peptide toxicity in vitro. In this study, we have first time identified and purified anti-PrP antibodies from human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) by using PrP peptide affinity chromatography column. The ratio of anti-PrP antibody and IVIG is about 1:1200. In vitro study indicates these anti-PrP antibodies strongly block PrP A117V peptide fibril formation and disrupt formation of fibrillar structures. Furthermore, these antibodies almost completely prevented neurotoxicity of PrP A117V peptide in cultured rat cerebellar granule neuron cultures (CGN). In contrast, immunoglobulins depleted of anti-PrP antibodies had little effect on PrP fibril formation or protection of neuronal cells. Our study suggests that human anti-PrP antibodies may interfere with the pathogenesis of prion disease and these purified antibodies may be a potential therapeutic agent to prevent or slow prion disease progression.
The foetal programming hypothesis posits that optimising early life factors e.g. maternal diets can help avert the burden of adverse childhood outcomes e.g. childhood obesity. To improve applicability to public health messaging, we investigated whether maternal whole diet quality and inflammatory potential influence childhood adiposity in a large consortium.
We harmonized and pooled individual participant data from up to 8,769 mother-child pairs in 7 European mother-offspring cohorts. Maternal early-, late-, and whole-pregnancy dietary quality and inflammatory potential were assessed with Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII), respectively. Primary outcome was childhood overweight and obesity (OWOB), defined as age- and sex-specific body-mass-index-z score (BMIz) > 85th percentile based on WHO growth standard. Secondary outcomes were sum-of-skinfold-thickness (SST), fat-mass-index (FMI) and fat-free-mass-index (FFMI) in available cohorts. Outcomes were assessed in early- [mean (SD) age: 2.8 (0.3) y], mid- [6.2 (0.6) y], and late-childhood [10.6 (1.2) y]. We used multivariable regression analyses to assess the associations of maternal E-DII and DASH with offspring adiposity outcomes in cohort-specific analyses, with subsequent random-effects meta-analyses. Analyses were adjusted for maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, lifestyle factors, energy intake, educational attainment, offspring age and sex.
A more pro-inflammatory maternal diet, indicated by higher E-DII, was associated with a higher risk of offspring late-childhood OWOB [pooled-OR (95% CI) comparing highest vs. lowest E-DII quartiles: 1.22 (1.01,1.47) for whole-pregnancy and 1.38 (1.05,1.83) for early-pregnancy; both P < 0.05]. Moreover, higher late-pregnancy E-DII was associated with higher mid-childhood FMI [pooled-β (95% CI): 0.11 (0.003,0.22) kg/m2; P < 0.05]; trending association was observed for whole-pregnancy E-DII [0.12 (-0.01,0.25) kg/m2; P = 0.07]. A higher maternal dietary quality, indicated by higher DASH score, showed a trending inverse association with late-childhood OWOB (pooled-OR (95% CI) comparing highest vs. lowest DASH quartiles: 0.58 (0.32,1.02; P = 0.06). Higher early-pregnancy DASH was associated with lower late-childhood SST [pooled-β (95% CI): -1.9 (-3.6,-0.1) cm; P < 0.05] and tended to be associated with lower late-childhood FMI [-0.34 (-0.71,0.04) kg/m2; P = 0.08]. Higher whole-pregnancy DASH tended to associate with lower early-childhood SST [-0.33 (-0.72,0.06) cm; P = 0.10]. Results were similar when modelling DASH and E-DII continuously.
Analysis of pooled data suggests that pro-inflammatory, low-quality maternal antenatal diets may influence offspring body composition and obesity risk, especially during mid- or late-childhood. Due to variation of data availability at each timepoint, our results should be interpreted with caution. Because most associations were observed at mid-childhood or later, future studies will benefit from a longer follow-up.
Only 30% or fewer of individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) convert to full psychosis within 2 years. Efforts are thus underway to refine risk identification strategies to increase their predictive power. Our objective was to develop and validate the predictive accuracy and individualized risk components of a mobile app-based psychosis risk calculator (RC) in a CHR sample from the SHARP (ShangHai At Risk for Psychosis) program.
In total, 400 CHR individuals were identified by the Chinese version of the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes. In the first phase of 300 CHR individuals, 196 subjects (65.3%) who completed neurocognitive assessments and had at least a 2-year follow-up assessment were included in the construction of an RC for psychosis. In the second phase of the SHARP sample of 100 subjects, 93 with data integrity were included to validate the performance of the SHARP-RC.
The SHARP-RC showed good discrimination of subsequent transition to psychosis with an AUC of 0.78 (p < 0.001). The individualized risk generated by the SHARP-RC provided a solid estimation of conversion in the independent validation sample, with an AUC of 0.80 (p = 0.003). A risk estimate of 20% or higher had excellent sensitivity (84%) and moderate specificity (63%) for the prediction of psychosis. The relative contribution of individual risk components can be simultaneously generated. The mobile app-based SHARP-RC was developed as a convenient tool for individualized psychosis risk appraisal.
The SHARP-RC provides a practical tool not only for assessing the probability that an individual at CHR will develop full psychosis, but also personal risk components that might be targeted in early intervention.
This paper summarizes a multi-state, multi-year study assessing the potential for local agriculture in northern New England. While largely rural, this region's agricultural sector differs greatly from the rest of the United States, and demand for locally produced food has been increasing. To assess this unique economic landscape, researchers and Cooperative Extension at the Universities of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont investigated four key areas: (1) local food capacities, (2) constraints to agricultural expansion, (3) consumer preferences for local and organic produce, and (4) the role of intermediaries as alternative local food outlets. The project included input from local farmers, Extension members, restaurants, and the general public. We present the four research areas in a sequential, overlapping fashion. The timing of our research was such that each step in the process informed the next and can be used as a template for assessing a region's potential for local agricultural production.
The primary aim of the Guangzhou Twin Eye Study (GTES) is to explore the impact that genes and environmental inﬂuences have on common eye diseases. Since 2006, approximately 1300 pairs of twins, aged 7–15 years, were enrolled at baseline. Progressive phenotypes, such as cycloplegic refraction, axial length, height and weight, have been collected annually. Nonprogressive phenotypes such as parental refraction, corneal thickness, fundus photo, intraocular pressure and DNA were collected once at baseline. We are collaborating with fellow international twin researchers and psychologists to further explore links with general medical conditions. In this article, we review the history, major findings and future research directions for the GTES.
Although numerous studies have investigated the individual effects of salinity, irrigation and fertilization on soil microbial communities, relatively less attention has been paid to their combined influences, especially using molecular techniques. Based on the field of orthogonal designed test and deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing technology, the effects of saline water irrigation amount, salinity level of irrigation water and nitrogen (N) fertilizer rate on soil bacterial community structure were investigated. The results showed that the irrigation amount was the most dominant factor in determining the bacterial richness and diversity, followed by the irrigation water salinity and N fertilizer rate. The values of Chao1 estimator, abundance-based coverage estimator and Shannon indices decreased with an increase in irrigation amount while increased and then decreased with an increase in irrigation water salinity and N fertilizer rate. The highest soil bacterial richness and diversity were obtained under the least irrigation amount (25 mm), medium irrigation water salinity (4.75 dS/m) and medium N fertilizer rate (350 kg/ha). However, different bacterial phyla were found to respond distinctively to these three factors: irrigation amount significantly affected the relative abundances of Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi; irrigation water salinity mostly affected the members of Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria; and N fertilizer rate mainly influenced the Bacteroidetes' abundance. The results presented here revealed that the assessment of soil microbial processes under combined irrigation and fertilization treatments needed to be more careful as more variable consequences would be established by comparing with the influences based on an individual factor, such as irrigation amount or N fertilizer rate.
It is well known that a rigid non-slippery particle in unsteady motion can experience a Basset history force with the signature
decay due to a Stokes boundary layer of thickness
. For a uniform slip particle with slip length
, however, a persistent force plateau can replace the usual Basset decay at
below the slip–stick transition (SST) point
(Premlata & Wei, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 866, 2019, pp. 431–449). Here we analyse the hydrodynamic force on an oscillating stick–slip Janus particle, showing that it can display unusual history force responses that are of neither the no-slip nor the purely slip type but mixed with both. Solving the oscillatory Stokes flow equation together with a matched asymptotic boundary layer theory, we find that the persistent force plateau seen for a uniform slip particle may be destroyed by the presence of the stick portion of a stick–slip Janus particle. Instead, a
Basset force of amplitude smaller than the no-slip counterpart will re-emerge to dominate the high frequency viscous force response again. This re-entry Basset force, which occurs only after making a stick patch on a slippery particle, is also found to depend solely on the coverage of the stick face irrespective of the slip length of the slip face. When the stick portion is small, in particular, the re-entry Basset decay will exhibit a slip plateau on its tail, displaying a distinctive re-entrant history force transition prior to the SST. But if changing this tiny stick face to be slippery, no matter how small the slip length is, the re-entry Basset decay will disappear and a constant force plateau will return to dominate the force response again. These unusual force responses arising from mixed stick–slip or non-uniform slip effects may not only provide unique hydrodynamic fingerprints for characterizing heterogeneous particles, but also have potential uses in active manipulation and sorting of these particles.
Guangxi, a province in southwestern China, has the second highest reported number of HIV/AIDS cases in China. This study aimed to develop an accurate and effective model to describe the tendency of HIV and to predict its incidence in Guangxi. HIV incidence data of Guangxi from 2005 to 2016 were obtained from the database of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network models, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models, generalised regression neural network (GRNN) models and exponential smoothing (ES) were used to fit the incidence data. Data from 2015 and 2016 were used to validate the most suitable models. The model performances were evaluated by evaluating metrics, including mean square error (MSE), root mean square error, mean absolute error and mean absolute percentage error. The LSTM model had the lowest MSE when the N value (time step) was 12. The most appropriate ARIMA models for incidence in 2015 and 2016 were ARIMA (1, 1, 2) (0, 1, 2)12 and ARIMA (2, 1, 0) (1, 1, 2)12, respectively. The accuracy of GRNN and ES models in forecasting HIV incidence in Guangxi was relatively poor. Four performance metrics of the LSTM model were all lower than the ARIMA, GRNN and ES models. The LSTM model was more effective than other time-series models and is important for the monitoring and control of local HIV epidemics.
When there exists slip on the surface of a solid body moving in an unsteady manner, the extent of slip is not fixed but constantly changes with the time-varying Stokes boundary layer thickness
in competition with the slip length
. Here we revisit the unsteady motion of a slippery spherical particle to elucidate this dynamic slip situation. We find that even if the amount of slip is minuscule, it can dramatically change the characteristics of the history force, markedly different from those due to non-spherical and fluid particles (Lawrence & Weinbaum, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 171, 1986, pp. 209–218; Yang & Leal, Phys. Fluids A, vol. 3, 1991, pp. 1822–1824). For an oscillatory translation of such a particle of radius
, two distinctive features are identified in the frequency response of the viscous drag: (i) the high-frequency constant force plateau of
much greater than the steady drag due to a constant shear stress caused by
much thinner than
and (ii) the persistence of the plateau while lowering the frequency until the slip–stick transition point
, beyond which
becomes thicker and the usual Basset decay reappears. Similar features can also be observed in the short-term force response for the particle subject to a sudden movement, as well as in the behaviour of the torque when it undergoes rotary oscillations. In addition, for both translational and rotary oscillations, slip can further introduce a phase jump from the no-slip value to zero in the high-frequency limit. As these features and the associated slip–stick transitions become more evident as
becomes smaller and are exclusive to the situation where surface slip is present, they might have potential uses for extracting the slip length of a colloidal particle from experiments.
Low-pressure regional aureoles with steep metamorphic field gradients are critical to understanding progressive metamorphism in high-temperature metasedimentary rocks. Delicately layered pelitic and psammitic metasedimentary rocks at Mt Stafford, central Australia, record a greenschist- to granulite-facies Palaeoproterozoic regional aureole, associated with S-type granite plutons, reflecting metamorphism in the range 500–800 °C and at ∼3 kbar. The rocks experienced minimal deformation during metamorphism and partial melting. Partial melting textures evolve progressively along the steep metamorphic field gradient from the incipient stages of melting marked by cuspate grains with low dihedral angles, to melt proportions sufficient to form diatexite with schollen. Phase equilibria modelling in the NCKFMASHTO system for pelitic, semi-pelitic and high- and low-ferromagnesian psammitic samples quantitatively illustrates the dependence of partial melting on rock composition and water volume. Pelitic compositions are more fertile than psammitic compositions when the water content in the rocks is low, especially during the early stages of melting. The whole-rock ferromagnesian component additionally influences melt fertility, with ferromagnesian-rich psammite being more fertile than psammite with a lower ferromagnesian component. Subtle variations in free water content can result in obvious changes in melt volume but limited variation in melt composition. Distinct melting histories of pelitic and psammitic rocks inferred from field relationships may be partially attributed to potential differences in water volume retained to super-solidus conditions. Melt composition is more dependent on the rock composition than the variation in water content.
The progenitors of many core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are expected to be in binary systems. By performing a series of three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, we investigate how CCSN explosions affect their binary companion. We find that the amount of removed stellar mass, the resulting impact velocity, and the chemical contamination of the companion that results from the impact of the SN ejecta, strongly increases with decreasing binary separation and increasing explosion energy. Also, it is foud that the impact effects of CCSN ejecta on the structure of main-sequence (MS) companions, and thus their long term post-explosion evolution, are in general not dramatic.