To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity is a worldwide public health challenge. Pregnancy and beyond is a potentially important window for future weight gain in women. We investigated associations between maternal adherence to the New Nordic diet (NND) during pregnancy and maternal BMI trajectories from delivery to 8 years post delivery. Data are from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. Pregnant women from all of Norway were recruited between 1999 and 2008, and 55 056 are included in the present analysis. A previously constructed diet score, NND, was used to assess adherence to the diet. The score favours intake of Nordic fruits, root vegetables, cabbages, potatoes, oatmeal porridge, whole grains, wild fish, game, berries, milk and water. Linear spline multi-level models were used to estimate the association. We found that women with higher adherence to the NND pattern during pregnancy had on average lower post-partum BMI trajectories and slightly less weight gain up to 8 years post delivery compared with the lower NND adherers. These associations remained after adjustment for physical activity, education, maternal age, smoking and parity (mean diff at delivery (high v. low adherers): −0·3 kg/m2; 95 % CI −0·4, −0·2; mean diff at 8 years: −0·5 kg/m2; 95 % CI −0·6, −0·4), and were not explained by differences in energy intake or by exclusive breast-feeding duration. Similar patterns of associations were seen with trajectories of overweight/obesity as the outcome. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the NND may have beneficial properties to long-term weight regulation among women post-partum.
We have found that 4 new, bright IRAS quasars, out of 7 observed, have strong, non-variable, wavelength-dependent polarization. Three show degrees of polarization, pλ, increasing from infrared to UV wavelengths (Fig. 1), which implies a combination of a polarized, scattered spectrum and a much redder, unpolarized spectrum. Detailed IR and optical polarimetry and spectrophotometry of one, IRAS 13349+2438 (Wills et al.), shows a polarized flux spectrum, pλxFλ, (continuum and Pa α, Hα, and Hβ broad hydrogen lines) typical of unreddened, luminous quasars. This suggests that the path of scattered light from a central, luminous quasar is low in dust and that the polarization of the scattered spectrum is wavelength independent. The latter is most easily explained by electron scattering although the data do not exclude dust scattering. When this polarized flux spectrum is subtracted from the total spectrum, we are left with a very reddened line and continuum spectrum, E(B-V) = 0.3 to 0.7, which we attribute to the same luminous quasar seen through a thick dusty torus. The angle of polarization is parallel to the major axis of the r-band image, presumed to be that of the host galaxy. If the torus is in the plane of the galaxy, the axial ratio suggests a viewing angle of 40° to the plane of the torus. Fig. 2 illustrates the geometry. The appearance of the quasar at optical and UV wavelengths will depend strongly on viewing angle, suggesting that present samples of quasars selected by colours, optical flux density, or quasi-stellar appearance, may be seriously biased, with important consequences for studies of the space density and evolution of AGN.
Recent archaeological investigations at Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon reveal that residents constructed a large diversion channel during the eleventh century A.D. as dramatic growth resulted in the expansion of the building onto the main valley floor. Sediments in the diversion channel reflect repeated episodes of flooding, rather than slow moving water typically found in irrigation canals, and archaeobotanical data indicate deposition during late summer or early fall. Although an agricultural function is possible, the channel may have been built primarily to divert floodwaters away from Pueblo Bonito while providing a nearby water source for construction and domestic use. The diversion channel was destroyed by the entrenchment of the “Bonito paleo-channel” in the late A.D. 1000s, and then buried by a combination of cultural debris and valley flooding. Although the canyon stream system changed throughout the occupation of Pueblo Bonito, there is no evidence that the formation of a deep natural channel in the floodplain had any negative effect on the growth of the great house
We are analyzing the emission lines and continuum spectra of a sample of ~61 radio-loud quasars to investigate dependences amongst various spectral, radio, and X-ray parameters, in particular to look for dependences of spectral properties on inclination of the the radio-jet axis (Wills et al. 1997).
We have carried out conventional correlation analyses, as well as spectral principal-component analyses (SPCA) as described in the previous paper (Wills et al. 1997). We found that the single largest contribution to the spectrum-tospectrum variations was from a component — the ‘first principal component’ (PC1) — that has a more UV (or less red) continuum than the mean spectrum, and a weaker narrow-line (NLR) spectrum. The ‘second principal component’ (PC2) accounts for only 8–12% of the spectrum-to-spectrum variation, contributing a weaker UV, and stronger red continuum, and showing stronger narrow emission lines. There is also a tendency for the broad (BLR) lines in the second principal component spectrum to be narrower (note the sharper He II λ1640 and [O III] λ1663 features redward of the stronger C IV λ1549 emission line, and perhaps a narrow component of the N V λ1240 line redward of Lyα).
We have obtained HST and ground-based spectrophotometry of a sample of ~61 radio-loud quasars from shortward of Lyα to longward of Hβ. The aim was to investigate the dependence of quasar properties on orientation of the central engine axis to the observer’s line of sight. As an approximate measure of inclination we use the radio core-dominance, i.e., the ratio of beamed radiocore emission to the emission in the extended lobes at 5 GHz rest frequency. About half the radio sources have core-dominance greater than unity (jet or axis pointed close to our line of sight). Quasar pairs were matched in radio lobe luminosity and redshift to reduce bias caused by strong dependences on intrinsic luminosity.
Observation and reduction techniques were standard, and the spectral resolution is equivalent to 230–400 km s−1 (Wills et al. 1993). We have performed correlation analyses among emission-line and continuum parameters, as well as spectral principal-component analyses (SPCA, Francis et al. 1992).
The role of wild meat for subsistence or as a luxury good is debated. We investigated the role of wild meat in food security in Madagascar, where consumption is poorly understood in urban areas and at regional scales. Using semi-structured interviews (n = 1339 heads-of-households, 21 towns), we aimed to: (1) quantify the amount and purpose of, (2) understand the drivers of, and (3) examine changes in wild meat consumption. Few respondents preferred wild meat (8 ± 3%) but most had eaten it at least once in their lifetime (78 ± 7%). Consumption occurred across ethnic groups, in urban and rural settings. More food insecure areas reported higher rates of wild meat consumption in the 6–8 months prior to interviews. Consumption was best explained by individual preferences and taboos. Less than 1% of respondents had increased consumption during their lifetimes. Wild meat prices showed no change from 2005–2013. Most consumption involved wild pigs and smaller-sized animals, though they were consumed less in the years following the 2009 coup. These data illustrate the differences between urban and rural communities, the occasions in which wild meat is used a source of food security, and provide evidence that some taxa are not hunted sustainably in Madagascar.
A γ-Ray telescope incorporating an acoustic spark chamber is included in the payload of the OGO-5 spacecraft. The performance of the instrument, which is sensitive to photons of energy 25 to 100 MeV, is discussed.
Observations are limited to a portion of the sky near Cygnus, but the first month's data indicate a variation of intensity showing a maximum in the direction of the galactic plane. If this plane contains a line source of radiation, its intensity is found to be (9 ± 5) × 10−4 photons cm−2 sec−1 rad−1 above an energy of 40 MeV.
The ESRO satellite COS-B carries one single experiment aiming at the measurement of arrival direction and energy of celestial gamma rays with energies between 25 MeV and 10 GeV. The experiment is conventional in design and consists of a veto counter, a wire spark chamber, a telescope and an energy calorimeter.
The energy measurement is obtained by a CsI scintillation crystal of 4.7 radiation length thickness. The expected energy resolution at 100 MeV is 50% FWHM. The other detector elements are designed as to cause the least possible degradation of the energy measurement.
The possibilities for the detection of a small contribution of π -origin gamma rays in the presence of a power-law type background spectrum will be discussed.
Overexploitation is a significant threat to biodiversity, with live capture of millions of animals annually. An improved understanding of live capture of primates is needed, especially for Madagascar's threatened lemurs. Our objectives were to provide the first quantitative estimates of the prevalence, spatial extent, correlates and timing of lemur ownership, procurement methods, within-country movements, and numbers and duration of ownership. Using semi-structured interviews of 1,093 households and 61 transporters, across 17 study sites, we found that lemur ownership was widespread and affected a variety of taxa. We estimate that 28,253 lemurs have been affected since 2010. Most lemurs were caught by owners and kept for either short (≤ 1 week) or long (≥ 3 years) periods. The live capture of lemurs in Madagascar is not highly organized but may threaten several Endangered and Critically Endangered species.
The Australia Telescope and Anglo-Australian Telescope were used in May 2000 to record the radio and optical emissions from the dMe flare star Proxima Centauri. Eight bright optical flares over a two-day interval resulted in no detectable excess short-term radio emission at 1.38 and 2.50 GHz. However, a slowly declining 1.38 GHz emission over the two-day interval was nearly 100% right circular polarised and was restricted to a relatively narrow bandwidth with total intensity (I) and circular polarisation (V) varying significantly over the 104 MHz receiver bandwidth. These are the first observations to show that highly-polarised narrowband flare star emission can persist for several days. This signature is attributed to sources of coherent radio emission in the star's corona. Similarities with various solar radio emissions are discussed; however, it is not possible with the existing observations to distinguish between fundamental plasma emission and electron–cyclotron maser emission as the responsible mechanism.
The study of both neutral and ionised gas in young radio sources is providing key information on the effect the radio plasma has on the ISM of these objects. We present results obtained for the compact radio sources PKS 1549–79, 4C 12.50 and PKS 1814–63 and for the intermediate-size radio galaxy 3C 459. At least in the first two, low ionisation optical emission lines and HI absorption appear to be associated with the extended, but relatively quiescent, dusty cocoon surrounding the nucleus. The [OIII] lines are, on the other hand, mostly associated with the region of interaction between the radio plasma and the ISM, indicating a fast outflow from the centre. A case of fast outflow (up to ∼1000 km s-1) is also observed in HI in the radio source 4C 12.50. As the radio source evolves, any obscuring material along the radio axis is swept aside until, eventually, cavities (of the same kind as observed e.g. in Cygnus A) are hollowed out on either side of the nucleus. We may witness this phase in the evolution of a radio source in the radio galaxy 3C 459.
Four new species of Thraulodes Ulmer (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae), Thraulodes amanda sp. n., Thraulodes pelicanus sp. n., Thraulodes xavantinensis sp. n. and Thraulodes sinuosus sp. n are described based on imagos. A new synonymy (Thraulodes lepidus [Ulmer]=Thraulodes cryptodrilus Nieto & Domínguez) is proposed and the distribution of Thraulodes schlingeri is expanded based on a new record from western Brazil.
The thermal diffusivity of diopside, jadeite and enstatite were measured at simultaneous pressures and temperatures of up to 7 GPa and 1200 K using the X-radiographic Ångström method. The measurements herein show that the pressure dependency of thermal diffusivity in pyroxenes is significantly greater than in olivine or garnet and that in the MORB-layer of a subducting slab the thermal diffusivity of pyroxenes are a factor of 1.5 greater than that of olivine. The temperature dependence of all the data sets is well described by a low-order polynomial fit to 1/K and the pressure dependence is exponential in 1/K, formulations which are consistent with the damped harmonic oscillator model for thermal properties.
A scoping study and systematic review-meta-analyses (SR-MAs) were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of various interventions for Salmonella in broiler chicken, from grow-out farm to secondary processing. The resulting information was used to inform a quantitative exposure assessment (QEA) comparing various control options within the context of broiler chicken production in Ontario, Canada. Multiple scenarios, including use of two separate on-farm interventions (CF3 competitive exclusion culture and a 2% lactose water additive), a package of processing interventions (a sodium hydroxide scald water disinfectant, a chlorinated post-evisceration spray, a trisodium phosphate pre-chill spray and chlorinated immersion chilling) a package consisting of these farm and processing interventions and a hypothetical scenario (reductions in between-flock prevalence and post-transport concentration), were simulated and compared to a baseline scenario. The package of on-farm and processing interventions was the most effective in achieving relative reductions (compared to baseline with no interventions) in the concentration and prevalence of Salmonella by the end of chilling ranging from 89·94% to 99·87% and 43·88% to 87·78%, respectively. Contaminated carcasses entering defeathering, reductions in concentration due to scalding and post-evisceration washing, and the potential for cross-contamination during chilling had the largest influence on the model outcomes under the current assumptions. Scoping study provided a transparent process for mapping out and selecting promising interventions, while SR-MA was useful for generating more precise and robust intervention effect estimates for QEA. Realization of the full potential of these methods was hampered by low methodological soundness and reporting of primary research in this area.
We have used the ab-initio full potential LMTO method to model native defects and chlorine-impurity-related defects in ZnSe and ZnxMg1−xSe. Our results show that there is a strong tendency for formation of a defect complex between a chlorine impurity at the Se site and a vacancy at the neighboring Zn site. The formation energies of this complex and other chlorine related defects decrease in the presence of magnesium. However, the maximum achievable electron concentration in the presence of magnesium is lower because of the increase in the band gap.
This paper describes the use of an automated Large Sample Array Differential Scanning Calorimeter (LSA-DSC or LSA) for process optimization. The LSA was designed specifically for screening studies of multi-variable arrays where a large number of samples need to be examined simultaneously. It is ideal for kinetic evaluation of both biological and chemical reactions. The LSA can be used in either a temperature scanning (DSC) or isothermal (IMC) mode. An example where this equipment was used to optimize epoxy formulations will be presented. These formulations were prepared with high throughput techniques and evaluated using the LSA-DSC to determine the cure kinetics.
We have developed a new methodology to design conducting polymers with pre-specified properties using genetic algorithms (GAs). The methodology combines GAs with the Negative Factor Counting (NFC) technique. NFC is a powerful technique to obtain the eigenvalues of large matrices without direct diagonalization.We present the results for a case study of polyanilines, one of the most important families of conducting polymers. The methodology proved to be able of generating automatic solutions for the problem of determining the optimum relative concentration for binary and ternary disordered polyaniline alloys exhibiting metallic properties. The methodology is completely general and can be used to design new classes of materials.
Magnetic properties of Co-doped rutile (Ti1-xCoxO2) film in combinatorial composition-spread form have been surveyed by means of a Scanning Superconducting-quantum-interference-device Microscope (SSM). As a consequence, we found magnetic domains in the spatial regions with x>0.05 without external field, giving strong evidence for ferromagnetism with finite spontaneous magnetization. The magnetic moment was monotonously increased with increasing doping level x from 0.05 to ∼ 0.13. On the other hand, it was almost unchanged for x > ∼ 0.13, suggesting that Co does not dissolve into rutile film beyond x ∼ 0.13. The SSM results on the rutile Ti0.95Co0.05O2 thin films with different thickness showed that the magnetic moment is proportional to film thickness, leading to a conclusion that the presently observed ferromagnetism does not result from Co or Co-based oxide particles on the film surface.