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Two of the most problematic Amaranthus species in soybean production today are tall waterhemp and Palmer amaranth. This study determined the percentage of tall waterhemp and Palmer amaranth seed that was retained by the weed at soybean maturity to assess the likelihood of using at-harvest weed seed control tactics for soil seedbank management. Palmer amaranth plants were collected from fields in Arkansas, Tennessee, Illinois, Missouri, and Nebraska, and tall waterhemp plants were collected from fields in Nebraska, Missouri, Wisconsin, and Illinois. Collected plants were assessed for at-harvest weed seed retention in 2013 and 2014. Within 1 wk of soybean maturity, Amaranthus plants were harvested and the loose soil and debris beneath the plants were swept into a pan with a hand broom to collect any shattered seed. Percent seed retention ranged from 95 to 100% for all states both years, regardless of species. There was a strong correlation between weed biomass (g) and total seed production (no. plant−1) in that the larger the plant, the more seeds it produced. However, there was no correlation between percent seed retention and weed biomass, which indicates that regardless of plant size and likely time of emergence, seed retention is high at the time of crop maturity. Overall, this study demonstrated that there is great opportunity for Palmer amaranth and tall waterhemp seed capture or destruction at soybean harvest. It is likely that nearly all of the seeds produced for both Amaranthus species passes through the combine during harvest to be returned to the soil seedbank. Thus, there is continued need for research focused on developing and testing harvest weed seed control tactics that aim at reducing the soil seedbank and lowering risks for evolution of herbicide resistance.
Deflection missions to near-Earth asteroids will encounter non-negligible uncertainties in the physical and orbital parameters of the target object. In order to reliably assess future impact threat mitigation operations such uncertainties have to be quantified and incorporated into the mission design. The implementation of deflection demonstration missions offers the great opportunity to test our current understanding of deflection relevant uncertainties and their consequences, e.g., regarding kinetic impacts on asteroid surfaces. In this contribution, we discuss the role of uncertainties in the NEOTωIST asteroid deflection demonstration concept, a low-cost kinetic impactor design elaborated in the framework of the NEOShield project. The aim of NEOTωIST is to change the spin state of a known and well characterized near-Earth object, in this case the asteroid (25143) Itokawa. Fast events such as the production of the impact crater and ejecta are studied via cube-sat chasers and a flyby vehicle. Long term changes, for instance, in the asteroid's spin and orbit, can be assessed using ground based observations. We find that such a mission can indeed provide valuable constraints on mitigation relevant parameters. Furthermore, the here proposed kinetic impact scenarios can be implemented within the next two decades without threatening Earth's safety.
Bi-layered ferroelectric compounds are considered most promising for non-volatile memory applications due to their high fatigue endurance. We have prepared SrBi2Ta2O9 powders with Ba (A sites) and Nb (B sites) substitutions using a novel solution based route. The powders were pressed and sintered at 1050°C to obtain high quality targets. Thin films were prepared using these ceramic targets on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The effects of growth conditions on phase formation as well as structural and electrical properties in films are studied. Initial results on films show good hysteretic characteristics. Though phase formation begins at much lower temperature, these films crystallize in a complete layered perovskite phase when prepared at 700°C. Optical phonon modes in these materials exhibit systematic variations with changing compositions. The changes in the Raman spectra are explained in terms of Ba and Nb substitutions at A and B sites, respectively. The temperature dependence of Raman spectra exhibits the substitution induced changes in the transition temperatures of these materials.
Single oxide films as well as complex oxide films are intensively studied for multi-chip modules with integrated passive functions. In this paper the processing and properties of oxide films such as Ta2O5, TiO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5 -Al2O3, Ta2O5–Nb2O5 as well as complex oxide films such as BiNbO4 and Ba1划xSrxTiO3 films will be discussed with respect to their integration into thin film functional modules.
We have prepared lanthanum strontium cobalt oxide (La0.50Sr0.50CoO3; LSCO 50/50) and lanthanum strontium cobalt nickel oxide (La0.50Sr0.50Co0.50Ni0.50O3; LSCNO) as candidate transparent electrodes for use in a shutter-based infrared sensor protection device. The shutter device requires that the electrode be transparent (80% transmission) and have moderate sheet resistance (300 ω/sq.). Because of the effects of film thickness on intrinsic material properties, such as resistivity and extinction coefficient, and simple engineering issues (i.e., the relationship between film thickness, resistance and transmission), films of various thicknesses were prepared to achieve an optimal balance of electrical and optical performance. van der Pauw measurements and FTIR spectroscopy were used to study thin film properties. The best LSCO films prepared demonstrated electrical (438 ω/sq.) and optical (68% transmission at 8 µm) properties that did not meet the target property goals for this application. However, the LSCNO films (of optimal thickness) offered performance (323 µ/sq. and 73% transmission) close to the device requirements.
Thin films of ferroelectric ABi2Ta2O9 bismuth-layered structure, where A = Ba, Sr and Ca, were prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si(100) substrates. The influence of substrate temperature between 500 to 750°C, and oxygen partial pressure 100-300 mTorr, on the structural and electrical properties of the films was investigated. The films deposited above 650°C substrate temperature showed complete Aurivillius layered structure. Films annealed at 750°C for 1h in oxygen atmosphere have exhibited better electrical properties. Atomic force microscopy study of surface topography shows that the films grown at lower temperature has smaller grains and higher surface roughness. This paper discusses the pronounced influence of A-site cation substitution on the structural and ferroelectric properties with the aid of Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and electrical properties. The degradation of ferroelectric properties with Ba and Ca substitution at A-sites is attributed to the higher structural distortion caused by changing tolerance factor. A systematic proportionate variation of coercive field is attributed to electronegativity difference of A-site cations.
PZT and PLZT powders were prepared from nitrate and chloride precursors in a continuous constant volume precipitator. After precipitation, the powders were dried by a variety of methods, including: spray-drying, freeze-drying (in liquid nitrogen), and centrifugal freeze-drying. Spraydried powders were found to have a spherical morphology, and to be solid. The particle size was in the micron range. Powders dried by nitrogen freezedrying were characterized by an open morphology of agglomerated platelets. For centrifugally freeze-dried powders, particle size analyses were found to fit a population balance model, giving crystallite, cluster, and agglomerate population densities and growth rates.
As a consequence of the unusual nature of plutonium's electronic structure, point- and extended-defects are expected to, and do exhibit extraordinary properties. Low temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements on Pu and fcc-Pu(Ga) show that the magnetic susceptibility increases as a function of time, yet upon annealing the specimen returns to its initial magnetic susceptibility. This excess magnetic susceptibility (EMS) arises from the alpha-decay and U recoil damage cascades which produce vacancy and interstitials as point and extended defects. The temperature of the first annealing stage defines a temperature (<35K) below which we are able to characterize the time and temperature evolution of the accumulating damage cascades as being a saturation function. The temperature dependence of the EMS is well described by a time independent, Curie-Weiss curve arising from a volumetric region surrounding each U damage cascade. This saturation picture also leads directly to a determination of the microscopic volume of the specimen that is affected by the frozen-in damage cascade. For our measurements in δ-Pu we calculate a diameter of the magnetically affected volume of ∼250Å per damage cascade. This should be compared with an estimated volume that encloses the damage cascade itself (determined from molecular dynamics) of ∼100 Å. Hence, the ratio of these volumes is ∼8. The observed anomalous magnetic behavior is likely a consequence of the highly correlated nature of the electrons. Similarities with defects in hole-doped superconductors suggest a general phenomenon in strongly correlated electron systems, of which Pu may be a particularly unusual or special example.
X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) have been performed upon highly radioactive samples, particularly Plutonium, at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley, CA, USA. First results from alpha and delta Plutonium are reported as well as a detailed analysis of sample quality.
The standard method to determine the band structure of a condensed phase material is to (1) obtain a single crystal with a well defined surface and (2) map the bands with angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (occupied or valence bands) and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy (unoccupied or conduction bands). Unfortunately, in the case of Pu, the single crystals of Pu are either nonexistent, very small and/or having poorly defined surfaces. Furthermore, effects such as electron correlation and a large spin-orbit splitting in the 5f states have further complicated the situation. Thus, we have embarked upon the utilization of unorthodox electron spectroscopies, to circumvent the problems caused by the absence of large single crystals of Pu with well-defined surfaces. Our approach includes the techniques of resonant photoelectron spectroscopy , x-ray absorption spectroscopy [1,2,3,4], electron energy loss spectroscopy [2,3,4], Fano Effect measurements , and Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy , including the utilization of micro-focused beams to probe single-crystallite regions of polycrystalline Pu samples. [2,3,6]
Ferroelectric PZT 53:47 thin films were prepared by two different solution deposition methodologies. Both routes utilized carboxylate and alkoxide precursors and acetic acid, which served as both a solvent and a chemical modifier. We have studied the effects of solution preparation conditions on film microstructure and ferroelectric properties, and have used NMR spectroscopy to characterize chemical differences between the two precursor solutions. Films prepared by a sequential precursor addition (SPA) process were characterized by slightly lossy hysteresis loops, with a Pr of 18.7 μC/cm2 and an Ec of 55.2 kV/cm. Films prepared by an inverted mixing order (IMO) process were characterized by well saturated hysteresis loops, a Pr of 26.2 μC/cm2 and an Ec of 43.3 kV/cm. While NMR investigations indicated that the chemical environments of both the proton and carbon species were similar for the two processes, differences in the amounts of by-products (esters, and therefore, water) formed were noted. These differences apparently impacted ceramic microstructure. Although both films were characterized by a columnar growth morphology, the SPA derived film displayed a residual pyrochlore layer at the film surface, which did not transform into the stable perovskite phase. The presence of this layer resulted in poor dielectric properties and lossy ferroelectric behavior.
The list of physical properties which are important in the design of materials and which are routinely calculated from first principles within the local density approximation to density functional theory is continually growing. In this paper we discuss the application of multiple scattering theory to the calculation of the residual resistivity of disordered alloys. Progress has been made on two fronts. First, the coherent potential approximation for the resistivity, which sums to all orders a limited set of multiple scattering diagrams, has given resistivities in agreement with experiment for alloys where the site occupation is roughly random. Second, the linearized KKR was used to evaluate the Kubo formula for several large configurations of atoms and obtain the resistivity with all multiple scattering paths included. This method is not limited to random alloys, but can be applied to short range ordered and amorphous alloys provided the resistivity is high enough to limit the mean free path to a single unit cell.
The atomic structure of the Σ = 5 (310)  grain boundary in NiAl has been determined by a synergistic approach combining high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) and atomistic structure calculations. A bicrystal of controlled orientation was produced by diffusion bonding and imaged with the electron beam parallel to the  tilt axis. The results showed that the material remains chemically ordered up to the boundary plane. Atomistic structure calculations employed N-body empirical potentials developed for the NiAl phase to examine the changes in interfacial energy due to the incorporation of various point defects at the grain boundary. A self-consistent model structure was determined which was of lowest energy and produced calculated images which matched experimental images of the boundary. Monte Carlo simulations confirm the stability of this structure at finite temperatures.