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A study of the reversion process in Al-Zn-Mg alloys has been made using small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The rate and mode of Guinier-Preston zone dissolutions was investigated as a function of magnesium content, prior zone radius, and reversion temperature. Results indicate that in this system the reversion process is characterized by the preferential dissolution of the smallest G-P zones present after cold aging with a corresponding decrease in the volume fraction of zones. The amount of reversion at a specific temperature is dependent on magnesium content, however, the rate of reversion is independent of magnesium content.
Double bending fatigue tests were performed on cold worked 1100 aluminum, with a maximum bending stress varying from 100 to 50% of the yield stress. Variation of residual macrostress from the cold worked state during the fatigue tests was measured by the photographic x-ray diffraction method. A general decrease of this macrostress was observed. Line profile analysis was used to study the change in the mean effective domain size and microstrain. A rate dependence of the increase in the effective domain size with respect to the maximum bending stress was observed. Microhardness and tensile tests were also made on the specimens during the fatigue testing and the results are correlated with the x-ray Parameters.
Solid solution decomposition of several aluminumrich aluminum-zinc-silver alloys were investigated using x-ray small angle scattering, x-ray diffraction (Guinier and Dewolff camera) and transmission electron microscopy. A decomposition sequence was observed directly fay means of hot stage electron microscopy, to be:
G. P. zone → ɛ' → ɛ
G.P. zones were observed to exist in all of the ternary Al-Zn-Ag alloys used in this investigation. Only one type of G.P. zone was detected and evidence is given which indicated that the G.P. zone formation was governed by the existence of a metastable miscibility gap. Experimental results also indicated that the lattice of the matrix is distorted by the presence of the G.P. zone.
A transition phase, designated ɛ', was observed to nucleate on defects in the matrix and to have a hexagonal close-packed structure. The ɛ' phase is partially coherent and much more regular in spatial distribution than the equilibrium ɛ phase.
It has been recently shown that particle size distributions can be determined from small angle x-ray scattering data. Size distributions have previously been measured in aluminum-zinc and aluminum-silver alloys containing spherical Guinier-Preston zones. Inorder to obtain the size distribution it is only necessary to calculate the Guinier radius and the Porod radius.
Dispersion hardened nickel alloys containing small spherical particles of thoria appear to be amenable to this type of analysis. A nickel-20% chromium-2% ThO2 alloy was selected for this study. The particle size distribution obtained by small angle x-ray scattering is compared with the transmission electron microscopy results found in the literature.
The reaction kinetics of forming TiB in a mixed powder compact were analyzed using internal standard and dilution methods. The dilution method was not successful due to insufficient dilution, while the internal standard method was satisfactory to confirm that diffusion is the rate controlling mechanism. Difficulties analyzing metal powders and diffusional film products in mixed powders are discussed.
Structural modifications occurring in corroded potassium silicate glasses were studied using x-ray amorphous scattering techniques. Pair function distribution curves are compared and the differential method is used to follow the structural changes. The structure appears to approach that of vitreous silica after long leaching times.
By means of a combined X-ray diffraction and metallographic study, two heretofore unrecognized phases, Zr4Fe and Zr2Fe, have been identified. Approximate verification of this finding has been made by Dr. David Levinson, using microprobe analysis. A tentative revision of the Zr-Fe phase diagram is proposed.
We review the current status and future prospects of the PLANET collaboration, an international team of astronomers performing high-precision photometric monitoring of microlensing events. Our photometric precision and sampling is characterised and the suitability of the database for variable star studies is discussed. Preliminary results on K-giant stability are presented.
Though our knowledge of the circulation in this complex region is still incomplete, recent direct current measurements have identified four separate elements of the circulation which appear to undergo a seasonal variation of some sort. These are: (i) a summer-autumn maximum in the deep overflow of Norwegian Sea Deep Water across the Wyville-Thomson Ridge; (ii) an autumn minimum in the upper-ocean circulation around Rockall Bank, ascribed to Taylor Column processes; (iii) an autumn-winter maximum in the strength and breadth of the slope current along the European continental margin; (iv) a winter-spring maximum in eddy kinetic energy in the open waters of the Rockall Channel, and over the full depth range, as a function of windstress and stratification. The first three of these elements are of localised occurrence along the northern, western and eastern margins of the Channel and are described only briefly. The fourth process, encountered at a range of sites in the northeast Atlantic, is described in detail using a total data set of 68 instrument-years of direct current measurements recovered from the Rockall Channel in 1977–84. In the seasonally-varying 3–27 day (d) band of periods, eddy kinetic energies (kE) are shown to be depth-dependent in amplitude, but with little evidence of any significant phase-lag with either depth or location between the individual timeseries of kE estimates. These time-series demonstrate clearly and for the first time that the winterspring peaks in eddy kinetic energy lag the winter peaks in windstress by between 1 and 3 months. This phase-lag is explained as the cumulative result of wind forcing and eddy dissipation.
Polymer-bonded explosives (PBXs) are being increasingly used as energetic fillings and components in many systems. They are perceived as more chemically and mechanically stable than traditional fillings such as RDX/TNT. They are castable into predetermined shapes, machinable and can be used as structural components. However, along with all these undeniable advantages, as a class, these materials are now undergoing extensive characterisation to ensure they comply with both the legal and technical requirements in energetic systems.
It is well-known that polymers display non-linear behaviour and are much more complex than, for example, simple metal systems at any rate of strain. The understanding of PBX systems involves areas as diverse as polymer chemistry, chemical compatibility, mechanical properties, impact tests, and thermal stability. In this paper, aspects of energetic material response are outlined which are relevant to the understanding of PBX sensitivity.
Social learning from peers can trigger herd-wide intoxication with white locoweed (Oxytropis sericea), an alkaloid-synthesizing herbaceous legume that grows on rangelands of western North America. We conducted an experiment to test the hypothesis that restriction of the area allocated to animals to feed in would inhibit social facilitation of locoweed ingestion in yearling heifers. Eight heifers that avoided white locoweed (LA) and eight heifers that readily consumed it (LE) were selected from a pool of 40 cross-bred heifers and were randomly assigned to the social facilitation or social interference treatment groups. We conducted 200 10-min feeding trials in three 5-day phases (pre-treatment, treatment, post-treatment) during which animals were presented with a set of bowls arrayed in a test arena, some of which contained ground wheat straw and others contained air-dried ground white locoweed. During the pre-treatment (days 1 to 5) and the post-treatment phases (days 11 to 15) non-social trials were conducted in which the feeding behavior of individual animals was investigated in an 80 m2 arena containing 12 feeding bowls. During the treatment phase (days 6 to 10) social learning trials were conducted in which LA + LE pairs from the social interference group were exposed to 12 bowls of food distributed in an 80 m2 arena intended to induce social interference, and LA + LE pairs from the social facilitation group were exposed to 36 bowls of food distributed in a 240 m2 arena intended to permit social facilitation. During pre-treatment phase, LA heifers consumed detectably less locoweed and wheat straw and exhibited lower preference for locoweed than LE (P ⩽ 0.05) although wheat straw preference of LA and LE was similar. During social learning trials (treatment phase), LA in the social interference group visited similar number of locoweed bowls (mean ± s.e.m.: 0.2 ± 0.12) as they had during non-social learning (0.2 ± 0.20). Conversely, LA heifers in the social facilitation group visited detectably more locoweed bowls during social learning trials (1.6 ± 0.46) compared with the pre-treatment phase (0.2 ± 0.16). Correlation between daily number of locoweed bowls visited by LA and LE during social learning trials was detected in the social facilitation (r = 0.70; P < 0.01), but not in the social interference group (r = 0.15; P = 0.52). During testing trials (post-treatment phase), locoweed and wheat straw intake and preference of LA and LE in both treatment groups was similar. Manipulation of the feeding environment delayed, but did not inhibit social learning of toxic weed ingestion in this study.
The European rabbit flea Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale) was first released on Macquarie Island in December 1968. The flea has survived and bred on the island and about 30% of the rabbits sampled from the original release area in January 1972 were flea-infested.
Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is a parasitic infection of salmonid fish characterized by an apparently abnormal immune response to the presence of the myxozoan parasite, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. In order to examine the nature of the immune response at the molecular level, the expression of a range of immune regulatory genes, including cytokines and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 was examined in naive unexposed fish and in naive fish exposed to parasite-infected water at three points during the course of a natural outbreak of PKD. Since fish with advanced PKD pathology generally exhibit increased susceptibility to secondary infections which is typical of stress/cortisol-mediated immune suppression, a further aim of this work was to examine in vitro the influence of the glucocorticoid cortisol on the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of the trout cytokine genes studied. Two weeks after the initial sampling, naive exposed fish showed a specific profile of up-regulated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α2, COX-2 and, to a lesser extent, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 expression. As the disease pathology increased, TNF-α2 and COX-2 expression returned to normal levels. Stress levels of cortisol suppressed the LPS inducibility of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, although TGF-β1 and TNF-α2 appeared to be refractory. These data demonstrate that specific immune responses at the molecular level are affected during PKD infection, with the cortisol suppression of cytokine expression in vitro providing a possible link to PKD-mediated cytokine down-regulation and immune suppression.
The objective was to evaluate foodborne outbreaks of undetermined aetiology by comparing them to pathogen-specific epidemiologic profiles of laboratory-confirmed foodborne outbreaks. National foodborne outbreak data reported to CDC during 1982–9 were categorized by clinico-epidemiologic profiles based on incubation, duration, percent vomiting, fever and vomiting to fever ratio. From the pathogen-specific profiles, five syndromes were developed: a vomiting-toxin syndrome resembling Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus; a diarrhoea-toxin syndrome characteristic of Clostridium perfringens, a diarrhaeogenic Escherichia coli syndrome, a Norwalk-like virus syndrome, and a salmonella like syndrome. Of 712 outbreaks, 624 (87·6%) matched one of five syndromes; 340 (47·8%) matched the Norwalk-like syndrome and 83 (11·7%) matched the salmonella-like syndrome. After combining information on known pathogens and epidemiologic profiles, only 88 (12·4%) outbreaks remained unclassified. Norwalk-like virus outbreaks appear as common as salmonella-like outbreaks. We conclude that profiling can help classify outbreaks, guide investigations and direct laboratory testing to help detect new and emerging pathogens.