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X-ray diffraction topography is the name given to several x-ray diffraction techniques where large area x-ray beams diffracted from a crystal provide detailed information about the surface structure and internal perfection of crystal microstructures. Since x-ray topographic techniques are based on Bragg (reflection) or Laue (transmission) diffraction from a crystal lattice, they are extremely sensitive to any atomic lattice imperfections and strains. Alterations of the interplanar spacing as small as one part in ten thousand extending over a reasonable number of atomic ce11 lengths can be recorded as a corresponding change in the diffracted beam intensity. Line Modified-Asymmetric Crystal Topography (LM-ACT) is one such reflection technique that shows particular promise in Che field of microelectronics. The LM-ACT system is designed with low angular divergence in the x-ray beam probe. Low probe beam divergence allows details of device geometries on the order of microns to be resolved in the recorded x-ray intensity variation of the diffracted beam.
The LM-ACT system was applied here to the study of integrated circuits (IC) after specific processing steps were accomplished during IC fabrication and in the final product condition. Topographs obtained from specular crystal surfaces that were implanted through a patterned mask showed contrast variations between the implanted and non-implanted regions; details of the mask patterns have been resolved on the order of a few microns. LMACT topographs from annealed, and unannealed, Implanted specimens showed marked differences and as a result it is suggested that LM-ACT would be beneficial in optimizing the processing schedule for a particular wafer/electronic system. A significant feature of the LM-ACT technique is the capability for producing high resolution stereo-pair topographs that provide quantitative information through the depth of individual process layers in an integrated circuit.
The “misorientation. contrast” which occurs at boundaries marking the relative displacement of adjacent subgrain reflections in x-ray diffraction images is shown by a stereographic projection method of analysis to be useful for deciphering x-ray images obtained by the Berg-Barrett and Lang techniques. Experimental results are given for subgrain structures observed in Zn and A1203 crystals.
Glacier basal motion generates diurnal to multi-annual fluctuations in glacier velocity and mass flux. Understanding these fluctuations is important for prediction of future sea-level rise and for gaining insight into glacier physics and erosion. Here, we derive glacier velocity through cross-correlation of WorldView satellite imagery to document the evolution of ice surface velocity on Kennicott Glacier, Alaska, over the 2013 melt season. The summer speedup is spatially uniform over a ~12 km2 area, over which the spring velocity varies significantly. Velocity increases by 1.4-fold to tenfold across the study domain, with larger values where spring velocities are low. To investigate the cross-glacier distribution of basal motion required to explain the observed surface speedup, we employ a two-dimensional cross-sectional glacier flow model. We find the model is insensitive to the spatial distribution of basal slip because stress gradient ice coupling diffuses the surface expression of the basal velocity field. While the temporal evolution of the subglacial hydrologic system is critical for predicting a glacier's response to meltwater inputs, our work suggests that glacier and ice-sheet models do not require a detailed representation of subglacial hydrology to accurately capture the spatial pattern of glacier speedup.
The evidence underpinning the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) is overwhelming. As the emphasis shifts more towards interventions and the translational strategies for disease prevention, it is important to capitalize on collaboration and knowledge sharing to maximize opportunities for discovery and replication. DOHaD meetings are facilitating this interaction. However, strategies to perpetuate focussed discussions and collaborations around and between conferences are more likely to facilitate the development of DOHaD research. For this reason, the DOHaD Society of Australia and New Zealand (DOHaD ANZ) has initiated themed Working Groups, which convened at the 2014–2015 conferences. This report introduces the DOHaD ANZ Working Groups and summarizes their plans and activities. One of the first Working Groups to form was the ActEarly birth cohort group, which is moving towards more translational goals. Reflecting growing emphasis on the impact of early life biodiversity – even before birth – we also have a Working Group titled Infection, inflammation and the microbiome. We have several Working Groups exploring other major non-cancerous disease outcomes over the lifespan, including Brain, behaviour and development and Obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic health. The Epigenetics and Animal Models Working Groups cut across all these areas and seeks to ensure interaction between researchers. Finally, we have a group focussed on ‘Translation, policy and communication’ which focusses on how we can best take the evidence we produce into the community to effect change. By coordinating and perpetuating DOHaD discussions in this way we aim to enhance DOHaD research in our region.
In traditional transit timing variations (TTVs) analysis of multi-planetary systems, the individual TTVs are first derived from transit fitting and later modelled using n-body dynamic simulations to constrain planetary masses. We show that fitting simultaneously the transit light curves with the system dynamics (photo-dynamical model) increases the precision of the TTV measurements and helps constrain the system architecture. We exemplify the advantages of applying this photo-dynamical model to a multi-planetary system found in K2 data very close to 3:2 mean motion resonance, K2-19. In this case the period of the larger TTV variations (libration period) is much longer (>1.5 years) than the duration of the K2 observations (80 days). However, our method allows to detect the short period TTVs produced by the orbital conjunctions between the planets that in turn permits to uniquely characterise the system. Therefore, our method can be used to constrain the masses of near-resonant systems even when the full libration curve is not observed.
Self-emission x-ray shadowgraphy provides a method to measure the ablation-front trajectory and low-mode nonuniformity of a target imploded by directly illuminating a fusion capsule with laser beams. The technique uses time-resolved images of soft x-rays (
keV) emitted from the coronal plasma of the target imaged onto an x-ray framing camera to determine the position of the ablation front. Methods used to accurately measure the ablation-front radius (
), image-to-image timing (
ps) and absolute timing (
ps) are presented. Angular averaging of the images provides an average radius measurement of
and an error in velocity of
. This technique was applied on the Omega Laser Facility [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] and the National Ignition Facility [Campbell and Hogan, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 41, B39 (1999)].
Social context has a major influence on the detection and treatment of youth mental and substance use disorders in socioeconomically disadvantaged urban areas, particularly where gang culture, community violence, normalisation of drug use and repetitive maladaptive family structures prevail. This paper aims to examine how social context influences the development, identification and treatment of youth mental and substance use disorders in socioeconomically disadvantaged urban areas from the perspectives of health care workers.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with health care workers (n=37) from clinical settings including: primary care, secondary care and community agencies and analysed thematically using Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory to guide analysis.
Health care workers’ engagement with young people was influenced by the multilevel ecological systems within the individual’s social context which included: the young person’s immediate environment/‘microsystem’ (e.g., family relationships), personal relationships in the ‘mesosystem’ (e.g., peer and school relationships), external factors in the young person’s local area context/‘exosystem’ (e.g., drug culture and criminality) and wider societal aspects in the ‘macrosystem’ (e.g., mental health policy, health care inequalities and stigma).
In socioeconomically disadvantaged urban areas, social context, specifically the micro-, meso-, exo-, and macro-system impact both on the young person’s experience of mental health or substance use problems and services, which endeavour to address these problems. Interventions that effectively identify and treat these problems should reflect the additional challenges posed by such settings.
We present preliminary results on a processing protocol by chemical activation that transforms organic waste product such as coconut husk into high surface area activated carbon. Dried raw materials of the coconut husk were carbonized anaerobically into char. The char was impregnated with KOH of different ratios and were activated at 800°C and 900°C. The transmission electron microscope was used to acquire structural and morphological information of the activated carbon, and the surface area and porosity analysis were performed using Micromeritics ASAP 2020 analyzer. The activated carbons show both micropores and mesopores with specific surface area as high as 2900m2/g.
The objective of this study was to assess usability of silver nanoparticles loaded on amorphous carbon (Ag-C) hollow nanospheres for the removal of Methylene Blue (MB) molecules from aqueous solutions. Using microwave technique, silver nanoparticles of different weight ratio was deposited onto amorphous carbon templates. The carbon hollow spheres were derived from glucose using hydrothermal technique. Interestingly crystallite size of Ag decreased with the silver loading on carbon nanospheres. Using UV-vis spectroscopy, the kinetics of MB removal from the solution was assessed. The degradation of MB followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The obtained results showed that Ag-C particles are efficient MB degradation agent with the rate constant as high as 0.19 m-1 under visible light and 0.041 m -1 under UV light. Thus Ag-C particles are good alternative as low-cost scavenger of dye molecules in wastewater treatments.
The economic impact of wildlife-associated recreation in the Southeast United States was evaluated using a general equilibrium model. Exogenous demand shocks to the regional economy were based on estimates of expenditures by wildlife recreationists on hunting, fishing, and wildlife watching activities. Counterfactual simulations were carried out, making alternative assumptions about labor and capital mobility and their supply. Without wildlife-associated recreation expenditures, regional employment would have been smaller by up to 783 thousand jobs, and value added would have been $22 to $48 billion less. These findings underscore the significance of regional factor market conditions in economic impact and general equilibrium analysis.
We demonstrate improved compatibility of poly(ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hole transport layer with acid-sensitive materials by addition of a simple base, NaOH or NH4OH, to the aqueous suspension to increase pH. Addition of NaOH to the acidic PEDOT:PSS allowed the deposition of PEDOT:PSS on top of an inverted poly(3-hexylthiophene):ZnO nanoparticle blend hybrid photovoltaic device, and improved device performance due to preservation of the ZnO electron acceptor. To quantitatively investigate the impact of base addition to hole transport layer properties and device performance, we deposited PEDOT:PSS with different pH values on inverted poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester bulk heterojunction devices. We find that NaOH modification results in a substantial work function decrease and series resistance increase. In contrast, the volatile NH4OH leaves PEDOT:PSS with minimal changes in film properties and device performance.
We review here the recent characterization of vacuum deposited monolayer and multilayer thin films of two different perylenetetracarboxylic-dianydride-bisimides (Cn-PTCDI; n =4,5), quinacridone, and two new bis-(N-alkyl)-quinacridone dyes (DIQA and DEHQA) on single crystal alkali halides using a combination of in situ luminescence spectroscopies and ex situ tapping mode AFM. Flat lying monolayer structures are indicated for PTCDA on the (100) faces of NaCl, KCl and KBr, for C4-PTCDI on KCl, for C5-PTCDI on both KCl and KBr and for DIQA on both KCl and KBr. Coherent thin films, exhibiting layer-by-layer growth can be achieved for PTCDA on all substrates, for C4-PTCDI on KCl and for DIQA on both KBr and KCl. Both C4-PTCDI and DIQA appear to fulfill the requirements for dyes which exhibit layered growth with the molecular plane inclined at steep angles to the surface normal.
A rapid thermal processor has been used for the study of epitaxial silicon growth. Without the need for UHV conditions, bulk contamination levels of oxygen and carbon have been reduced to 5E17 cm−3, at a growth temperature of 750°C. In-situ cleans have been assessed as substrate preparation techniques. High temperature H cleans can reduce interfacial doses of both oxygen and carbon to below 5E13 cm−2. I-owever, low temperature cleaning, using a remote fluorine-based plasma, has as yet only achieved oxygen and carbon doses of 5E14 cm−2 and 3E15 cm−2 respectively. Minority carrier lifetimes of a few micro seconds and electron carrier concentrations of about 1E15 cm−3 are typical for undoped films grown at 750°C. In-situ doping with phosphine has also been employed. Typical doping levels of 5E19 cm−3 uniformly distributed throughout the layers have been achieved. The phosphorus is electrically active in the as-grown film with typical carrier mobility estimated to be 104 cm2v−1s−1.
Current approaches of mixing fuel and oxidizer nanoparticles or adding fuel nanoparticles to oxidizer gel lead to an overall reduced interfacial area of contact between them and thus, limit their burn rates severely. We have developed an approach of self-assembling fuel nanoparticles around an oxidizer matrix using a monofunctional polymer, poly(4)-vinyl pyridine (P4VP). The polymer has been used to accomplish binding of fuel and oxidizer in a molecularly engineered manner. We use composite of Al-nanoparticles and CuO nanorods for executing this self-assembly. TEM images of this composite confirms the self-assembly of Al-nanoparticles around the oxidizer nanorods. The burn rate of self-assembled composite has been found significantly higher than that of the composite prepared by simple mixing.