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In resource-constrained facilities or during resuscitation, immediate paediatric weight estimation remains a fundamental challenge. We aimed to develop and validate weight estimation models based on ulna length and forearm width and circumference measured by simple and portable tools; and to compare them against previous methods (advanced paediatric life support (APLS), Theron and Traub–Johnson formulas).
Cross-sectional analysis of anthropometric measurements. Four ulna- and forearm-based weight estimation models were developed in the training set (n 1016). Assessment of bias, precision and accuracy was examined in the validation set (n 457).
National Children’s Study-Formative Research in Anthropometry (2011–2012).
Multi-racial/ethnic infants and children aged <6 years (n 1473).
Developed Models 1–4 had high predictive precision (R2=0·91–0·97). Mean percentage errors between predicted and measured weight were significantly smaller across the developed models (0·1–0·7 %) v. the APLS, Theron and Traub–Johnson formulas (−1·7, 9·2 and −4·9 %, respectively). Root-mean-squared percentage error was overall smaller among Models 1–4 v. the three existing methods (range=7·5–8·7 v. 9·8–13·3 %). Further, Models 1–4 were within 10 and 20 % of actual weight in 72–87 and 95–99 % of the weight estimations, respectively, which outperformed any of the three existing methods.
Ulna length, forearm width and forearm circumference by simple and portable tools could serve as valid and reliable surrogate measures of weight among infants and children aged <6 years with improved precision over the existing age- or length-based methods. Further validation of these models in physically impaired or non-ambulatory children is warranted.
AA amyloidosis (AAA) is a disease known as amyloid arthropathy in chicken, which represents substantial economic losses, in addition to welfare concerns. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is the major pathogen found in field outbreaks of amyloid arthropathy and its specific association with this disease has been extensively confirmed. The following review discusses the sequence types of E. faecalis associated with AAA that have been identified and characterised both poultry and humans and provide different hypotheses and theories about pathogenesis and transmission of this disease. This article covers the pathology both in field and induced cases of avian amyloidosis and concludes with approaches for a possible treatment, needs for further research and future perspectives. This paper is a consolidation of current knowledge on AAA in chickens which has been obtained over the last twenty years.
An experiment applying controlled meteorological (CMET) balloons near the coast of Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, in January 2013 is described. Two balloons were airborne for 60 and 106 hours with trajectory lengths of 885.8 km and 2367.4 km, respectively. The balloons carried out multiple controlled soundings on the atmospheric pressure, temperature and humidity up to 3.3 km. Wind speed and direction were derived from the balloon drift. Observations were compared with radiosonde sounding profiles from the Halley Research Station, and applied in evaluating simulations carried out with the weather research and forecasting (WRF) mesoscale atmospheric model. The most interesting feature detected by the CMET balloons was a mesoscale anticyclone over the Weddell Sea and the coastal zone, which was reproduced by the WRF model with reduced intensity. The modelled wind speed was up to 10 m s-1 slower and the relative humidity was 20–40% higher than the observed values. However, over the study period the WRF results generally agreed with the observations. The results suggest that CMET balloons could be an interesting supplement to Antarctic atmospheric observations, particularly in the free troposphere.
We study the use of a BGaN back-barrier layer in the GaN buffer of
AlyGa1−yN/GaN highelectron mobility
transistors to improve confinement of carriers in the 2D electron gas region.
Unlike InGaN back-barrier designs, whose polarization-induced sheet charges form
an electrostatic barrier at the backbarrier/ buffer interface, BGaN back-barrier
designs create an electrostatic barrier at the channel/backbarrier interface.
This can result in carrier confinement to sub-15 nm thickness, even when the
channel is 30 nm wide. Although polarization sheet charges due to the BGaN
back-barrier form a secondary well at the back-barrier/buffer interface,
increasing the thickness of the back-barrier may move the secondary well so that
it no longer interacts with the primary channel.
Cardiorespiratory fitness is known to be cardioprotective and its association with the components of the metabolic syndrome in children is becoming clearer. The aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness may offset the weight-related association with mean arterial pressure (MAP) in schoolchildren.
Schoolchildren from the East of England, UK.
A total of 5983 (48 % females) schoolchildren, 10 to 16 years of age, had height, weight and blood pressure measured by standard procedures and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed by the 20 m shuttle-run test. Participants were classified as fit or unfit using internationally accepted fitness cut-off points; and as normal weight, overweight or obese based on BMI, again using international cut-off points. Age-adjusted ANCOVA was used to determine the main effects and interaction of fitness and BMI on MAP Z-score. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios of elevated MAP.
Prevalence of elevated MAP in schoolchildren was 14·8 % overall and 35·7 % in those who were obese-unfit. Approximately 21 % of participants were overweight and 5 % obese, while 23 % were classified as unfit. MAP generally increased across BMI categories and was higher in the aerobically unfit participants. Obese-fit males had lower MAP compared with obese-unfit males (P < 0·001); this trend was similar in females (P = 0·05).
Increasing fitness level may have a positive impact on the weight-related elevations of MAP seen in obese and overweight schoolchildren.
In 2011, Bailes et al. reported on the discovery of a detached companion in a 131 minute orbit around PSR J1719–1438, a 173 Hz millisecond pulsar. The combination of the very low mass function and such a short orbital period is unique. The discoverers suggested that the progenitor system could be an ultracompact X-ray binary (UCXB), which is a binary with a sub-hour orbital period in which a (semi-)degenerate donor fills its Roche lobe and transfers mass to a neutron star. The standard gravitational-wave driven UCXB scenario, however, cannot produce a system like PSR J1719–1438 as it would take longer than the age of the Universe to reach an orbital period of 131 min. We investigate two modifications to the standard UCXB evolution that may resolve this discrepancy. The first involves significant heating and bloating of the donor by pulsar irradiation, and in the second modification the system loses orbital angular momentum via a fast stellar wind from the irradiated donor, additional to the losses via the usual gravitational wave radiation. In particular a donor wind is effective in accelerating orbital expansion, and even a mild wind could produce the 131 minute period within the age of the Universe. We note that UCXBs could be an important class of progenitors of solitary millisecond radio pulsars.
Ultracompact X-ray binaries (UCXBs) have orbital periods shorter than about 80 minutes and typically consist of a neutron star that accretes hydrogen-poor matter from a white dwarf companion. Angular momentum loss via gravitational wave radiation drives mass transfer via Roche-lobe overflow. The late-time evolution of UCXBs is poorly understood – all 13 known systems are relatively young and it is not clear why. One question is whether old UCXBs actually still exist, or have they become disrupted at some point? Alternatively they may be simply too faint to see. To investigate this, we apply the theories of dynamical instability, the magnetic propeller effect, and evaporation of the donor, to the UCXB evolution. We find that both the propeller effect and evaporation are promising explanations for the absence of observed long-period UCXBs.
Recent studies have claimed the existence of very massive stars (VMS) up to 300 M⊙ in the local Universe. As this finding may represent a paradigm shift for the canonical stellar upper-mass limit of 150 M⊙, it is timely to discuss the status of the data, as well as the far-reaching implications of such objects. We held a Joint Discussion at the General Assembly in Beijing to discuss (i) the determination of the current masses of the most massive stars, (ii) the formation of VMS, (iii) their mass loss, and (iv) their evolution and final fate. The prime aim was to reach broad consensus between observers and theorists on how to identify and quantify the dominant physical processes.
Angular momentum transport plays an important role in mass transfer systems, and can significantly spin up an accreting star. When the accretor is a white dwarf (WD) on its way to becoming a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), the spin up of the WD can have significant consequences for the appearance of the progenitor, the characteristics of the explosion and its aftermath, the geometry of the supernova remnant, and for single-degenerate models, the appearance of the donor star post-explosion. These consequences can be “game changers”, altering results that have long been taken for granted. We discuss key features of our spin-up/spin-down models and their implications. We relate our models to work still needed to address the difficult physical issues related to angular momentum transport and its effects on the properties and appearance of Type Ia supernova progenitors.
This patient case study represents the introduction of adaptive radiotherapy (ART) at the Andrew Love Cancer Centre (ALCC) with non-uniform margins for invasive bladder cancer treatment. Invasive bladder cancer has historically had poor local control with radiotherapy treatment; however, with the introduction of cone-beam computer tomography (CBCT) and adaptive treatment, there is potential for improvements in disease control and reduced toxicities.
The behaviour of a miniature calorimetric sensor, which is under consideration for catheter-based coronary-artery-flow assessment, is investigated in both steady and pulsatile tube flows. The sensor is composed of a heating element operated at constant power and two thermopiles that measure flow-induced temperature differences over the sensor surface. An analytical sensor model is developed, which includes axial heat conduction in the fluid and a simple representation of the solid wall, assuming a quasi-steady sensor response to the pulsatile flow. To reduce the mathematical problem, described by a two-dimensional advection–diffusion equation, a spectral method is applied. A Fourier transform is then used to solve the resulting set of ordinary differential equations and an analytical expression for the fluid temperature is found. To validate the analytical model, experiments with the sensor mounted in a tube have been performed in steady and pulsatile water flows with various amplitudes and Strouhal numbers. Experimental results are generally in good agreement with theory and show a quasi-steady sensor response in the coronary-flow regime. The model can therefore be used to optimize the sensor design for coronary-flow assessment.
Arid and semi-arid climates are mainly characterised as those areas where precipitation is less (and often considerably less) than potential evapotranspiration. These climate regions are ideal environments for salt to accumulate in natural soil and groundwater settings since evaporation and transpiration essentially remove freshwater from the system, leaving residual salts behind. Similarly, the characteristically low precipitation rates reduce the potential for salt to be diluted by rainfall. Thus arid and semi-arid regions make ideal ‘salt concentrator’ hydrologic environments. Indeed, salt flats, playas, sabkhas and saline lakes, for example, are ubiquitous features of arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world (Yechieli and Wood,2002). In such settings, variable density flow phenomena are expected to be important, especially where hypersaline brines overlie less dense groundwater at depth. In contrast, seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers is a global phenomenon that is not constrained to only arid and semi-arid regions of the globe and is inherently a variable density flow problem by its very nature. These two examples make it clear that variable density flow problems occur in, but importantly extend beyond, arid and semi-arid regions of the globe. The intention of this chapter is therefore not to limit ourselves to modelling arid zone hydrological systems, but rather to present a more general treatment of variable density groundwater flow and solute transport phenomena and modelling. The concepts presented in this chapter are therefore not climatologically constrained to arid or semi-arid zones of the world, although they do apply equally there.
There is continued interest in developing more stable contacts to a variety of GaN-based devices. In this paper we give two examples of devices that show improved thermal stability when boride, nitride or Ir diffusion barriers are employed in Ohmic contact stacks. AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) were fabricated with Ti/Al/X /Ti/Au source/
drain Ohmic (where X is TiB2, ZrN, TiN, TaN or Ir) contacts and subjected to long-term annealing at 350°C. For GaN layers with an electron concentration of ∼3×1017 cm-3, the minimum specific contact resistance achieved is 6×10-5 Ω cm2 for Ti/Al/TiN/Ti/Au after annealing at 800°C. The specific contact resistance was found to strongly depend on the doping level, suggesting that tunneling is the dominant mechanism of current flow. By comparison with companion devices with conventional Ti/Al/Ni/Au Ohmic contacts, the HEMTs with boride-based Ohmic metal showed superior stability of both source-drain current and transconductance after 25 days aging at 350°C. The gate current for standard HEMTs increases during aging and the standard Ohmic contacts eventually fail by shorting to the gate contact. Similarly, InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes (MQW-LEDs) were fabricated with either Ni/Au/TiB2/Ti/Au or Ni/Au/Ir/Au p-Ohmic contacts. Both of these contacts showed superior long-term thermal stability compared to LEDs with conventional Ni/Au contacts.
The development of new etching and contact metallurgies for the ZnO/ZnMgO/ZnCdO materials system and various approaches for realizing ZnO LEDs are reviewed. ZnO nanorod MOSFETs and pH sensors have been demonstrated. In addition, selective detection of hydrogen with Pt-coated single ZnO nanorods is discussed discussed. The Pt-coated single nanorods show a current response approximately a factor of three larger at room temperature upon exposure to 500ppm H2 in N2 than thin films of ZnO. The power consumption of these sensors can be very small (in the nW range) when using discontinuous coatings of Pt. Once the Pt coating becomes continuous, the current required to operate the sensors increases to the μW range. The ZnO nanorods are insensitive to oxygen in the measurement ambient.