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This paper addresses a methodology to parametrically size thermal control subsystems for high-speed transportation systems during the conceptual design phase. This methodology should be sufficiently general to be exploited for the derivation of Estimation Relationships (ERs) for geometrically sizing characteristics as well as mass, volume and power budgets both for active (turbopumps, turbines and compressors) and passive components (heat exchangers, tanks and pipes). Following this approach, ad-hoc semi-empirical models relating the geometrical sizing, mass, volume and power features of each component to the operating conditions have been derived. As a specific case, a semi-empirical parametric model for turbopumps sizing is derived. In addition, the Thermal and Energy Management Subsystem (TEMS) for the LAPCAT MR2 vehicle is used as an example of a highly integrated multifunctional subsystem. The TEMS is based on the exploitation of liquid hydrogen boil-off in the cryogenic tanks generated by the heat load penetrating the aeroshell throughout the point-to-point hypersonic mission. Eventually, specific comments about the results will be provided together with suggestions for future improvements.
To assess the association between food insecurity and depression symptom severity stratified by sex, and test for evidence of effect modification by social network characteristics.
A population-based cross-sectional study. The nine-item Household Food Insecurity Access Scale captured food insecurity. Five name generator questions elicited network ties. A sixteen-item version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Depression captured depression symptom severity. Linear regression was used to estimate the association between food insecurity and depression symptom severity while adjusting for potential confounders and to test for potential network moderators.
In-home survey interviews in south-western Uganda.
All adult residents across eight rural villages; 96 % response rate (n 1669).
Severe food insecurity was associated with greater depression symptom severity (b=0·4, 95 % CI 0·3, 0·5, P<0·001 for women; b=0·3, 95 % CI 0·2, 0·4, P<0·001 for men). There was no evidence of effect modification by social network factors for women. However, for men who are highly embedded within in their village social network, and (separately) for men who have few poor contacts in their personal network, the relationship between severe food insecurity and depression symptoms was stronger than for men on the periphery of their village social network, and for men with many poor personal network contacts, respectively.
In this population-based study from rural Uganda, food insecurity was associated with mental health for both men and women. Future research is needed on networks and food insecurity-related shame in relation to depression symptoms among food-insecure men.
Fluid balance and renal function can be difficult to manage in the postoperative infant with tetralogy of Fallot. High fluid volumes are often needed to maintain cardiac output.
To stratify patients at risk for advanced renal support following tetralogy of Fallot repair.
Retrospective analysis of all consecutive tetralogy of Fallot cases operated at a single centre in a 3-year period.
A total of 41 children were identified. All cases had loop diuretics administered. Of the cases, 17% required support with a peritoneal dialysis catheter, with only one complication of peritoneal dialysis catheter blockage. The mean length of paediatric intensive care unit stay in those receiving peritoneal dialysis catheter insertion was prolonged by an additional mean of 6 days (p<0.001). No statistical significance was found between those children requiring peritoneal dialysis and those who did not when considering patient age and weight at time of repair, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamp times, the presence of a transannular patch, or junctional ectopic tachycardia. However, volume requirement of more than 35 ml/kg in the first 12 hours following repair did increase the likelihood to need peritoneal dialysis (p<0.0001). Furthermore, the higher the peak creatinine, the longer the stay on intensive care (p<0.01).
Peritoneal dialysis is an effective method of dealing with fluid balance in children after tetralogy of Fallot repair, with minimal complications. Early consideration should be given to peritoneal dialysis when it is clear that high fluid volumes are required postoperatively.
Euclid is the next ESA mission devoted to cosmology. It aims at observing most of the extragalactic sky, studying both gravitational lensing and clustering over ~15,000 square degrees. The mission is expected to be launched in year 2020 and to last six years. The sheer amount of data of different kinds, the variety of (un)known systematic effects and the complexity of measures require efforts both in sophisticated simulations and techniques of data analysis. We review the mission main characteristics, some aspects of the the survey and highlight some of the areas of interest to this meeting.
In this study, using a combined data set of SSU rDNA and gGAPDH gene sequences, we provide phylogenetic evidence that supports clustering of crocodilian trypanosomes from the Brazilian Caiman yacare (Alligatoridae) and Trypanosoma grayi, a species that circulates between African crocodiles (Crocodilydae) and tsetse flies. In a survey of trypanosomes in Caiman yacare from the Brazilian Pantanal, the prevalence of trypanosome infection was 35% as determined by microhaematocrit and haemoculture, and 9 cultures were obtained. The morphology of trypomastigotes from caiman blood and tissue imprints was compared with those described for other crocodilian trypanosomes. Differences in morphology and growth behaviour of caiman trypanosomes were corroborated by molecular polymorphism that revealed 2 genotypes. Eight isolates were ascribed to genotype Cay01 and 1 to genotype Cay02. Phylogenetic inferences based on concatenated SSU rDNA and gGAPDH sequences showed that caiman isolates are closely related to T. grayi, constituting a well-supported monophyletic assemblage (clade T. grayi). Divergence time estimates based on clade composition, and biogeographical and geological events were used to discuss the relationships between the evolutionary histories of crocodilian trypanosomes and their hosts.
Blood examination by microhaematocrit and haemoculture of 459 snakes belonging to 37 species revealed 2·4% trypanosome prevalence in species of Viperidae (Crotalus durissus and Bothrops jararaca) and Colubridae (Pseudoboa nigra). Trypanosome cultures from C. durissus and P. nigra were behaviourally and morphologically indistinguishable. In addition, the growth and morphological features of a trypanosome from the sand fly Viannamyia tuberculata were similar to those of snake isolates. Cross-infection experiments revealed a lack of host restriction, as snakes of 3 species were infected with the trypanosome from C. durissus. Phylogeny based on ribosomal sequences revealed that snake trypanosomes clustered together with the sand fly trypanosome, forming a new phylogenetic lineage within Trypanosoma closest to a clade of lizard trypanosomes transmitted by sand flies†. The clade of trypanosomes from snakes and lizards suggests an association between the evolutionary histories of these trypanosomes and their squamate hosts. Moreover, data strongly indicated that these trypanosomes are transmitted by sand flies. The flaws of the current taxonomy of snake trypanosomes are discussed, and the need for molecular parameters to be adopted is emphasized. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular phylogenetic study of snake trypanosomes.
We examined for the presence of trypanosomes in blood samples from 259 anurans (47 species from 8 families), the majority of which were from the Brazilian Amazonia, Atlantic Forest and Pantanal biomes. Trypanosomes were detected by a combination of microhaematocrit and haemoculture methods in 45% of the anurans, and 87 cultures were obtained: 44 from Hylidae, 22 from Leptodactylidae, 15 from Bufonidae, 5 from Leiuperidae and 1 from an unidentified anuran. High morphological diversity (11 morphotypes) was observed among blood trypanosomes from anurans of different species and of the same species as well as among trypanosomes from the same individual. Conversely, morphologically similar trypanosomes were found in anurans from distinct species and biomes. ITS and SSU rDNA polymorphisms revealed high diversity among the 82 isolates examined.† Twenty-nine genotypes could be distinguished, the majority distributed in 11 groups. Phylogenetic relationships based on rDNA sequences indicated that isolates from more phylogenetically related anurans are more closely related. Comparison of anuran trypanosomes from Brazil and other countries revealed several new species among the isolates examined in this study. Phylogenetic relationships suggest that host restriction, host switching and overall ecogeographical structure may have played a role in the evolution of the anuran trypanosomes.
Angular-resolved ESCA was used to study single cadmium arachidate monolayers transferred to Si (100) wafers by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. We find the monolayers to be of high integrity with respect to those defects which enhance the escape probability of substrate photoelectrons through the overlayer. The inelastic mean-free pathlengths of Si (2p) and C (1s) electrons were calculated to be 49±6 Å and 45±6 Å for the kinetic energies of 1388 eV and 1202 eV, respectively. The overall ordering of the hydrocarbon chains is less than for alkane thiols assembled on noble metals. We find that the precision of the Tyler algorithm to deconvolute angular-resolved ESCA data into depth profiles is accurate within 10% for predicting the thickness of the hydrocarbon overlayer but less precise for intermediate layers.