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The ammonia molecule is known to be useful as a probe for studying conditions inside interstellar clouds and planetary atmospheres. Correct interpretation of interstellar and planetary spectra need to be supported by adequate laboratory measurements. in the present studies we report the high resolution Fourier transform spectra of ammonia recorded with a pathlength of 192m at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Transitions with intensities that are two orders of magnitude weaker than those that have been reported earlier, have been observed and assigned. These include high J transitions, hot bands and forbidden transitions. These transitions are not saturated under long paths such as those available in planetary atmospheres and are therefore useful in the estimation of temperatures. The forbidden transitions have been processed with other relevant data to provide complete information on the energy levels. Such information is required for the calculation of equilibrium population of energy levels and partition functions, which go into the estimation of spectral intensities and abundances in terrestrial, interstellar and planetary atmospheres.
Between 2008 and 2010, 27 acoustic tags were applied to various age and reproductive classes of grey whales in Laguna San Ignacio, Mexico, a part of the Biosphere Reserve ‘El Vizcaino’. Besides previously described S1 and S3 calls, two additional calls were identified: the impulsive S8 call and the slightly frequency-modulated S9 call. These two additional S8 and S9 calls are by far the most common grey whale sounds detected on tags, even though contemporary bottom-mounted acoustic recordings also collected from the lagoon in 2008 yielded no S8 or S9 calls. The new S8 and old S3 calls display similar spectral maxima, even though the S3 is a frequency-modulated harmonic call and the S8 is a broadband impulsive call. This spectral analysis provides evidence that these new call types are not artefacts arising from mechanical vibration or flow noise.
The GALLEX collaboration aims at the detection of solar neutrinos in a radiochemical experiment employing 30 tons of Gallium in form of concentrated aqueous Gallium-chloride solution. The detector is primarily sensitive to the otherwise inaccessible pp-neutrinos. Details of the experiment have been repeatedly described before [1-7]. Here we report the present status of implementation in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy). So far, 12.2 tons of Gallium are at hand. The present status of development allows to start the first full scale run at the time when 30 tons of Gallium become available. This date is expected to be January, 1990.
We report static and time-resolved terahertz (THz) conductivity measurements of a highperformance thermoelectric material containing tellurium nanowires in a PEDOT:PSS matrix. Composites were made with and without sulfur passivation of the nanowires surfaces. The material with sulfur linkers (TeNW/PD-S) is less conductive but has a longer carrier lifetime than the formulation without (TeNW/PD). We find real conductivities at f = 1THz of σTeNW/PD = 160 S/cm and σTeNW/PD-S = 5.1 S/cm. These values are much larger than the corresponding DC conductivities, suggesting DC conductivity is limited by structural defects. The free-carrier lifetime in the nanowires is controlled by recombination and trapping at the nanowire surfaces. We find surface recombination velocities in bare tellurium nanowires (22m/s) and TeNW/PD-S (40m/s) that are comparable to evaporated tellurium thin films. The surface recombination velocity in TeNW/PD (509m/s) is much larger, indicating a higher interface trap density.
This study evaluated the measurement invariance of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) self-report among adolescents from seven different nations.
Data for 2367 adolescents, aged 13–18 years, from India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Serbia, Turkey, Bulgaria and Croatia were available for a series of factor analyses.
The five-factor model including original SDQ scales emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity–inattention problems, peer problems and prosocial behaviour generated inadequate fit degree in all countries. A bifactor model with three factors (i.e., externalising, internalising and prosocial) and one general problem factor yielded adequate degree of fit in India, Nigeria, Turkey and Croatia. The prosocial behaviour, emotional symptoms and conduct problems factor were found to be common for all nations. However, originally proposed items loaded saliently on other factors besides the proposed ones or only some of them corresponded to proposed factors in all seven countries.
Due to the lack of a common acceptable model across all countries, namely the same numbers of factors (i.e., dimensional invariance), it was not possible to perform the metric and scalar invariance test, what indicates that the SDQ self-report models tested lack appropriate measurement invariance across adolescents from these seven nations and it needs to be revised for cross-country comparisons.
It is shown how the history of the growth of an icosahedral Zn-Mg-Y single grain can be determined by measuring the yttrium distribution. The growth mechanism and the stabilization of the icosahedral Zn-Mg-Y, RE (RE = rare earth: Ho, Er, Dy, Gd, Tb) quasicrystals are discussed with respect to structural investigations on related crystalline phases. We also show results of optical and ultrasonic investigations on icosahedral Zn-Mg-Y single crystals. They fit well to the discussed growth and stabilization mechanism.
An experimental comparison has been made between the properties of the surfaces of an Al70Pd21Mn9 quasicrystal and its Al48Pd42Mn10 approximant. The Al70Pd21Mn9 sample was a single grain icosahedral quasicrystal cut to expose its five-fold symmetric (000001) surface. The approximant was polycrystalline β-phase Al48Pd42Mn10, which has a CsCl-type cubic structure. Surfaces of both were prepared under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions and then used for comparative measurements of their frictional properties and oxidation rates. Both materials are oxidized by reaction with O2 to form a thin film of aluminum oxide that ultimately passivates their surfaces. The interesting difference between the two is that the rate of oxidation of the approximant is significantly higher than that of the quasicrystal in spite of the fact that the bulk Al concentration of the approximant is lower than that of the quasicrystal. Friction measurements were made under UHV conditions between pairs of quasicrystals and pairs of approximants whose surfaces were either clean or oxidized to varying degrees. The friction between pairs of the approximant surfaces is significantly higher than that measured between the quasicrystal surfaces under all conditions of surface oxidation.
The glide resistance of edge dislocations gliding along a two-dimensional quasiperiodic lattice (Burkov II model of the decagonal quasicrystal) has been calculated. The glide resistance consists of τphason and τPeierls components and the τPeierls component depends strongly on the orientation of the dislocation. For the orientation of large τPeierls component, the τphason component is about half of the τPeierls component for individual dislocation glide but becomes negligibly small for glide of a pair of dislocations. The largest τPeierls component is about 0.1G (G: the shear modulus).
We report room temperature thermopower values and the temperature dependence for several AlPdMn based quasicrystals. In an effort to further understand the complexities of electrical transport in quasicrystalline systems, thermopower data for icosahedral Al71Pd21Mn8-XReX will be presented and discussed. A relation of room temperature thermopower to the curvature of the thermopower is demonstrated. We propose an empirical fit to the thermopower data, utilizing three free variables. The physical significance of the fit parameters is discussed. These results are discussed in brief concerning the relation to the application of quasicrystals for use as thermoelectric materials.
Composite coatings containing quasicrystalline (QC) phases in Al-Cu-Fe alloys were prepared by laser cladding using a mixture of the elemental powders. Two substrates, namely pure aluminum and an Al-Si alloy were used. The clad layers were remelted at different scanning velocities to alter the growth conditions of different phases. The process parameters were optimized to produce quasicrystalline phases. The evolution of the microstructure in the coating layer was characterized by detailed microstructural investigation. The results indicate presence of quasicrystals in the aluminum substrate. However, only approximant phase could be observed in the substrate of Al-Si alloys. It is shown that there is a significant transport of Si atoms from the substrate to the clad layer during the cladding and remelting process. The hardness profiles of coatings on aluminum substrate indicate a very high hardness. The coating on Al-Si alloy, on the other hand, is ductile and soft. The fracture toughness of the hard coating on aluminum was obtained by nano-indentation technique. The K1C value was found to be 1.33 MPa m1/2 which is typical of brittle materials.
We have used thermal desorption spectroscopy to carry out a comparative study of potassium adsorption on Al(111) and on the fivefold Al-Pd-Mn surface. Potassium adsorption on the quasicrystal was found to be different than on Al(111). The potassium monolayer desorbed from fivefold Al-Pd-Mn at lower temperatures than from Al(111). Potassium is known to form a dense monolayer on Al(111), with an ideal coverage of 0.33, but for the monolayer on fivefold Al Pd Mn we find that the saturation coverage is only one twelfth.
Energy-angle distributions of low-energy inert-gas ions scattered from surfaces provide information about surface composition and structure. We have measured energy spectra of He+ scattered from an Al71Pd20Mn9 quasicrystal, which was oriented perpendicular to the 5-fold axis, along various azimuthal directions. Strong scattering signals are seen from Al and Pd, but only a weak Mn signal is observed. From measurements made of He+ at an oblique angle of incidence scattered in the forward direction, we observe a 72° periodicity in the azimuthal dependence of the scattering signal intensity from Al surface atoms. The effect arises from shadowing effects involving neighboring surface atoms and provides direct evidence that Al surface atoms exist in a local environment with 5-fold symmetry. In addition, measuring the variation of the signal intensity with incidence angle provides information about neighboring atom distances, which compare favorably with a model of the quasicrystal surface derived from the bulk structure.
Growth experiments have been carried out to characterize the occurrence and development of porosity in Bridgman and flux grown Al-Pd-Mn icosahedral quasicrystals. The porosity level has been observed to fluctuate between values of 0.0 and 3.75 percent along the length of Bridgman single crystals implying that the development of porosity is affected by the local growth conditions. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of the rate of solidification on the occurrence of porosity. Alloys were solidified with different growth rates, 1mm/hr and >10 mm/hr, using the Bridgman configuration and at different cooling rates, ranging from 0.29°C/hr to 10°C/hr, using the flux growth method. Porosity levels were analyzed via optical image analysis. These experiments indicate that porosity percentages are greatly influenced by cooling rates and crystal size.
Icosahedral quasicrystals Al71.5Pd20.3Mn8.2, Al70.7Pd21.34Re7.96, Al62.5Cu25.5Fe12.5, and α-Al68.31Mn21.21Si10.48 1/1- approximant were investigated by using a monoenergetic slow positron beam. The structural vacancy densities in the first three samples were determined to be 5.0×1020, 7.7×1020, and 4.7×1020 cm−3, respectively, by analyzing the measured S-parameter.
Single crystals of Al were irradiated up to 480 ppm of Frenkel defects using a specially developed irradiation facility for high dose electron irradiation of large samples below 20 K. Diffuse inelastic neutron scattering measurements have been performed at these samples to study the dynamics of single self interstitial atoms. The measurements were made at 6 K on the sample before annealing and after annealing at 46 K (above stage I) and at 300 K (after complete recovery). The irradiated samples showed a significant increase of the inelastic scattering intensity at transferred energies between 0.7 and 2 THz. By comparison with the results of computer calculations the different frequencies of the energy loss spectrum could be attributed to the different vibration modes of interstitial atoms. The frequencies of the most significant modes of the self interstitial atom are determined to be υ = 0.75 THz and υ = 1.35 THz for the translation-(A2u) and libration-(Eg) mode, respectively.
We show that CSD processing can be optimized in order to achieve columnar structured BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 thin films at elevated temperatures. In addition to these, columnar grain growth was also obtained for films of the solid solution (Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 By controlling the film formation process, polycrystalline and columnar grained thin films were grown on Pt coated Si substrates at temperatures between 750° and 800°. The films were analyzed by glancing incidence X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Detailed analysis on the thin films’ microstructure was performed by means of transmission electron microscopy. Based on these data, the film formation process is discussed with respect to process control and precursor chemistry. Differences in the crystallization process of BaTiO3 thin films compared to SrTiO3 films are pointed out.
A new cementitious calcium phosphate biomaterial, SuperBone®, was implanted in both a rabbit femoral canal model and a canine humeral plug model. New Zealand White rabbits were implanted with cement through a novel surgical approach where cement was introduced by injection. In the canine model, a uniform gap of 3 mm around a fiber metal porous implant was filled by the cement. Undecalcified light and backscattered electron histological evaluations indicate the cement is highly biocompatible and is replaced by new bone in concert with cell-mediated resorption. Unlike the acrylic bone cement positive controls, no evidence of fibrous tissue was found around the cement.