Few reports exist on the use of Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometry coupled with Mass Spectrometry (DRIFTS-MS) in situ to monitor the dehydroxylation of kaolinitic clays. The use of DRIFTS-MS in situ allows study of the effect of heat treatment on the dehydroxylation, identifying intensities and temperatures at which the hydroxyl groups are released, forming metakaolinite and meta-alunite. The effluent gases from the infrared cell were analysed by mass spectrometry. The decrease in intensity of the bands at 3694, 3669, 3650 and 3621 cm−1 associated with the −OH stretching vibration modes of AlVI−OH−AlVI of kaolinite began at 450°C. Two additional bands at 3513 and 3485 cm−1 are associated with the vibration of AlVI−OH of alunite that also began to disappear during thermal treatment. Monitoring of the fractions m/e 17 and 18 using a mass spectrometer revealed that the intensity of these fractions increased starting at 450°C. Therefore, it is possible to study the dehydroxylation process of clays during thermal treatment.Chemical and mineralogical characterization of a kaolinitic clay (KN) fromMexico showed that the clay consists of 64.8% kaolinite, 11.0% alunite and 24.4% quartz based on PXRD, EDS, TG/DTA, TEM and FTIR results, and suggested that the material might have potential for use in the manufacture of ceramics, refractory bricks or geopolymers.