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DSM 5 (2013) solicits more empirical data on Internet Addiction (IA) before its inclusion in the Manual.
The objective of the present study was to deepen the relation between internet use and abuse among adolescents and attachment variables. AIMS The aim of the study was to define a psychological profile of adolescents that may enable to discriminate the variables that mark the border between internet use and abuse.
435 adolescents (F=221; M=214) aged 13 to 18 years (mean=15,25; S.D.=1,75) completed the following measures: BFAS -The Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (Andreassen, et. Al. 2012); SPQ - Shorter Promis Questionnaire (Italian adaptaation Baiocco et.al. 2005); MPIQ - Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire (Walsh et.al., 2010); UCLA - Loniless Scale (Russel, 1996); Self Disclosure Online (Schouten et.al. 2007); IPPA – Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (Armsed e Greenberg, 1989; SCL-90 - Symptom Check List (Derogatis, 1980) Camir (Pierrehumbert 1996).
Data showed that ‘digital’ identity is common within the new multitasking generation of not-clinical adolescents, whereas internet abuse is linked to psychic vulnerability and to emotional neglect.
Attachment security, as manifested by secure perception of attachment to parents and friends, the capacity to express emotions, the ability to balance online and offline friendships and psychological wellbeing predict an adequate use of Facebook, preventing internet abuse.
Auditory hallucinations are core symptoms of the schizophrenic psychosis, but in some subjects thought process is associated to voice hearing, without the presence of other psychotic-like symptoms. These individuals have the perception of their-own thought as an inner voice.
In the last years, research has provided evidences about neurophysiological correlates of hallucinations, which include alterations in Mismatch negativity, just after the N100, and in P300 (especially the P3a component). However, no study explored subjects with sound thinking.
This paper reports a single-case neurophysiological study performed with a 29 year-old woman, reporting sound thinking and past drug abuse, who came to clinical attention for an anxiety disorder.
Patient's EEG data were compared with EEG data of two control subjects. Electrophysiological data were collected by means of an high-density EEG (Geodesic NetStation), during an active stimulation by Oddball and Go-NoGo Paradigm. EEG data were processed through the EEGLab package for Matlab. An Independent Component Analysis was performed followed by Clusters analysis.
One of the 5 Clusters extracted aggregated two ICs, produced in the scalp central areas, present both in control subjects and in the sound thinking subject: in the last one, the Intertrial Coherence, expecially at Theta frequency band, was much less evident and the P300 appears to be less wide relative to healthy controls.
These results are in line with those found in patients with hallucinations, suggesting the presence of a reduced ability to reorganize the cortical activity in response to external stimuli.
Adolescents with a problematic use of the Web reported less satisfaction also in interpersonal relationships and poorer onces with their parents (Liu & Kou, 2007). Other studies have shown that attachment plays a role in the way in which the person interacts with others in the network (Buote et.al. 2009).
Aim of the Study
This study was focused on the psychological profile of a sample of young Facebook users and on the relationships between the time spent on the Web, symptoms detected by the SLC-90, the state of attachment (Ca-Mir), and the self perception of attachment to parents and friends.
500 adolescents (F = 221, M = 214), aged between 13 and 18 years, were assessed by means of self rating questionnaires (BFAS Over-Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale, SPQ – Shorter Promis Questionnaire, MPIQ – Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire, UCLA – Loniless Scale, Self-Disclosure Online, IPPA – Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, SCL-90 – Syntom Check List, Ca-mir). On two subjects was performed EEG recording, during exposure to stimuli related to Facebook and to the Web.
A subgroup of young people were spending more time on the Web and were also reporting situations of mental and emotional vulnerability asociated with dysfunction in family relationships.
These results emerge from profiles of normality and risk, even multiples, which relate the quality of parent-child attachment relationship and the proper use of social networks and the Internet in general. Further investigations are needed to fully understand the brain dynamics behind these profiles.
Post-partum depression is the most common complication of pregnancy in developed countries, affecting 10–15% of new mothers (McDonald et al., 2012). PPD can negatively impact a woman's wellbeing, maternal–infant interactions and child developmental outcomes from infancy through school age (Avan et al., 2010). Such conditions may be exacerbated by co-occurring anxiety symptomatology and perinatal stress (Brand, Brennan, 2009; Tambelli, Odorisio, 2013).
Nevertheless, empirical data show incongruent effects of perinatal maternal mental health upon mother-child relationship and the child's health. We believe that maternal representations may contribute to understand such differences.
On such basis, the purpose of our research was to evaluate the influence of maternal representations on emotional availability during a free play interaction in the context of perinatal depression and anxiety comorbidity.
We administered to 120 first time mothers (mean age= 33.57; s.d.=4.82) and their babies (mean age=6.55; s.d.=.63), the following measures: the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (Cox, et al., 1987); the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, 1983); the Parent Stress Index – Short Form (Abidin, 1993) and the Maternal Representation Interview at Child's Birth (Tambelli et al., 2006). Finally, all mothers were video recorded during a free-play interaction with their child, assessed according to Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2000).
Results showed significant different quality of maternal representations and mother-child interaction according to presence/absence of depression and/or anxiety.
The study shows the need to acknowledge the woman's emotion-regulation style that needs to be supported in the context of psychological malaise during the perinatal period.
Pregnancy represents a critical life stage for its physical and emotional changes. Maternal thoughts are often oriented to the worry to lose control on their body, and to their new physical shape. According to this, literature on eating disorder (ED) highlights how pregnancy is usually associated to a temporary interruption of the dysfunctional eating habits due to the move of concerns about the self and the body toward the caregiving of the baby.
The goal of the present study is to explore the impact of generalized difficulties in emotion regulation (as a stable trait) versus specific difficulties in emotion regulation (as pregnancy-related) in women with pre-pregnancy eating problems.
The sample is made by 15 women previously overweight and recruited during their 3<sup>rd</sup> trimester of pregnancy. The following measures were administered: Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), Emotional Difficulties Specific to Pregnancy Scale (EDS), and the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI).
Preliminary findings have shown how higher scores on the DERS Impulse scale as well as higher difficulties in handling emotional states related to pregnancy (e.g. fear of the delivery) are associated to the existence of dysfunctional eating behaviors during the 3rd trimester.
Emotion regulation has emerged as a transversal skill during the life cycle. Difficulties in this area seem to represent a stable trait in the individual functioning, with the risk to affect the eating behaviors, as well as the health of the mother and the baby during pregnancy.
Maternal depressive risk has been linked to several dysfunctional outcomes. Empirical data indicate that the lack of adequate maternal responses over feeding may affect the quality of the early eating habits of the baby. Such a conclusion, however, is mainly based on cross-sectional research, which does not allow to establish causality.
The aim of the study was to explore in a longitudinal way the link between pre-partum depression and subsequent mother-child feeding interactions.
Participants were 64 women who voluntarily agreed to take part in the study. During their 3rd trimester of pregnancy, all completed a number of self-report instruments, including the CES–Depression scale (CES-D) and Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Seven months after the delivery, mother-child dyads were videotaped during a meal session, and the Feeding Observational Scale (FS) was used so as to rate the quality of the feeding interactions.
During pregnancy, the CES-D negatively correlated with the MSPSS, r = -.32, p = .01. For three of the FS scales, the quality of the dyadic feeding interactions at seven months of age of the baby was significantly predicted by the CES-D, β ≥ .30, p < .05, but not by the MSPSS. In contrast, one of the FS scales was significantly predicted only by the MSPSS, β = -.29, p < .05, but not by the CES-D.
Clinical screening during pregnancy may help preventing the establishment of early dysfunctional eating behaviors, by identifying early risk factors for dysfunctional feeding interactions.
Cross-frequency modulation (CfM) supports the synchronization and the coordination of the high-frequency activity of large brain areas and it may represent a generalized mode of systems communication and integration (Canolty and Knight, 2010). CfM, therefore, it is likely to be a key element of the brain integration (He et al, 2010), featuring the learning process (Tort et al, 2009), the higher cognitive functions and the healthy thought process (Allen et al, 2011) as well as the emergence of consciousness (Melloni et al, 2007, Tononi, 2010).
Aim of the Study
The present study was focused on the relationship between CfM and cognitive performance compared withother classical neurophysiologic parameters.
A cognitive task, similar to the WCST, was developed. 71 Channels EEG was recorded by means of EGI Geodesic equipment set to a sample ratio of 250 Hz. Data are processed using the EEGLAB Matlab Package (Delorme and Makeig, 2004). Independent Component Analysis, Cluster Analysis with dipole projection were performed. Cross Frequency Modulation (CfM) indexes between EEG low frequency phase and high frequency amplitude have been computed also.
Present preliminary data are performed on a sample of healthy subjects, aged between 20 and 45 years old. Avarage response time was about 2 sec, and an anticipation of the P3 pick was observed the case of a persistent correct answers. A greater CfM was associated to best performances, in some clusters only.
This preliminary results support the hypothesis that CfM may have a role in brain network integration.
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