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In the present study, the development in vitro and in vivo of nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstructed with embryonic cells (blastomeres) at the 32- to 63-cell (sixth cell cycle) and 64- to 127-cell (seventh cell cycle) stages was investigated to determine the optimum range of embryonic cell cycles for yielding the highest number of identical calves in Japanese black cattle. Rates of development to the blastocyst stage (overall efficiency) were higher in the sixth cell-cycle stage (45%) than in the seventh cell-cycle stage (12%). After the transfer of the blastocysts reconstructed with blastomeres of the sixth and seventh cell cycle-stage embryos to recipient heifers, there were no differences in the pregnancy (14/35: 40% versus 3/13: 23%, respectively) or calving rates (11/39: 28% versus 3/13: 23%, respectively). These results indicate that the highest number of identical calves would be obtained by using sixth cell cycle (32- to 63-cell)-stage embryos as nuclear donors.
Electrical properties of the shallow thermal donors (TDs) in n-type
CZ-Si diodes by the electron irradiation were investigated. After
the electron irradiation, carrier concentration was decreased. From
deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements, some peaks
related to TDs and vacancy-oxygen complexes were observed for the
irradiated samples. The peak related to V-O and/or A-center at
EC-0.18 eV increased with the electron fluence. To compare that,
the level of EC-0.09 eV related to TDs was independent of
electron fluence. In addition to that, reverse current of the diodes
was increased with increasing irradiated electron fluence.
Complementary bursts (C.B's) have been observed in the decametric range during noise storms and/or type IV activity. These bursts essentially consist of two components, each component having a duration ~ 1 second. The first component shows weak emission or emission gap over a certain frequency range. The second component is observed after a certain delay. If the bursts are assumed to be generated at the fundamental, and if the radiation corresponding to the gap propagates through an electron density irregularity located close to the source along the line of sight, whose cross-section is less than the linear extent of the source, then almost all properties of the C.B.'s can be explained. High sensitivity, and high frequency and time resolution spectra of type IV bursts at 137 MHz revealed new microscopic spectral features displaying “wave-like” and “fork-like” shapes.
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