To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Cervical nodal metastasis is a key prognostic factor in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. The role of lymph nodes in papillary thyroid carcinoma management and prognosis remains controversial.
Level IIb lymph nodes obtained from 44 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma were histopathologically examined retrospectively. Specimens were classified as ipsilateral or contralateral. The number of dissected nodes and prevalence of level IIb metastasis were compared according to pre-operative clinical nodal stage.
In the node-negative neck, the prevalence of contralateral and ipsilateral IIb nodes was 0 out of 20 and 0 out of 3, respectively. In the node-positive neck, the prevalence of contralateral and ipsilateral IIb nodes was 1 out of 13 (7.70 per cent) and 3 out of 41 (7.32 per cent), respectively. Clinically determined and pathologically confirmed level IIb node negativity were significantly associated. Thirty-four patients (77.3 per cent) developed accessory nerve complications from level IIb dissection.
Level IIb neck dissection for papillary thyroid carcinoma may be required if pre-operative examination reveals multilevel, level IIa or suspicious level IIb metastasis.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.
The Keio Twin Research Center (KoTReC) was established in 2009 at Keio University to combine two longitudinal cohort projects — the Keio Twin Study (KTS) for adolescence and adulthood and the Tokyo Twin Cohort Project (ToTCoP) for infancy and childhood. KoTReC also conducted a two-time panel study of self-control and psychopathology in twin adolescence in 2012 and 2013 and three independent anonymous cross-sectional twin surveys (ToTcross) before 2012 — the ToTCross, the Junior and Senior High School Survey and the High School Survey. This article introduces the recent research designs of KoTReC and its publications.
We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.
For livestock production systems to play a positive role in global food security, the balance between their benefits and disbenefits to society must be appropriately managed. Based on the evidence provided by field-scale randomised controlled trials around the world, this debate has traditionally centred on the concept of economic-environmental trade-offs, of which existence is theoretically assured when resource allocation is perfect on the farm. Recent research conducted on commercial farms indicates, however, that the economic-environmental nexus is not nearly as straightforward in the real world, with environmental performances of enterprises often positively correlated with their economic profitability. Using high-resolution primary data from the North Wyke Farm Platform, an intensively instrumented farm-scale ruminant research facility located in southwest United Kingdom, this paper proposes a novel, information-driven approach to carry out comprehensive assessments of economic-environmental trade-offs inherent within pasture-based cattle and sheep production systems. The results of a data-mining exercise suggest that a potentially systematic interaction exists between ‘soil health’, ecological surroundings and livestock grazing, whereby a higher level of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock is associated with a better animal performance and less nutrient losses into watercourses, and a higher stocking density with greater botanical diversity and elevated SOC. We contend that a combination of farming system-wide trials and environmental instrumentation provides an ideal setting for enrolling scientifically sound and biologically informative metrics for agricultural sustainability, through which agricultural producers could obtain guidance to manage soils, water, pasture and livestock in an economically and environmentally acceptable manner. Priority areas for future farm-scale research to ensure long-term sustainability are also discussed.
We aimed to examine the clinical usefulness of a new World Health Organization classification scheme for salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and to identify the factors most strongly associated with prognosis and outcome.
The clinicopathological features of 45 patients who received treatment for mucoepidermoid carcinoma between 1986 and 2010 were retrospectively investigated.
The overall disease-specific 5-year survival rate was 81.8 per cent. The rate for patients with low-grade tumours (92.5 per cent) was significantly higher than that for patients with intermediate or high-grade tumours (52.2 per cent). Univariate analysis revealed that five factors were significantly associated with five-year survival: age, tumour stage classification, lymph node status, histological grade and treatment method. Four factors were significant in multivariate analysis: age, sex, tumour stage classification and lymph node status.
The new World Health Organization classification was useful in predicting disease progression in patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Patients with high-grade tumours or other prognostic factors positively associated with disease progression should be carefully evaluated and monitored.
Low birth weight was associated with cardiometabolic diseases in adult age. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has a crucial role in fetal growth and also associates with cardiometabolic risks in adults. Therefore, we elucidated the association between IGF-1 level and serum lipids in cord blood of preterm infants. The subjects were 41 consecutive, healthy preterm neonates (27 male, 14 female) born at <37-week gestational age, including 10 small for gestational age (SGA) infants (<10th percentile). IGF-1 levels and serum lipids were measured in cord blood, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) and very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDLTG) levels were determined by HPLC method. SGA infants had lower IGF-1 (13.1 ± 5.3 ng/ml), total cholesterol (TC) (55.0 ± 14.8), LDLC (21.6 ± 8.3) and HDLC (26.3 ± 11.3) levels, and higher VLDLTG levels (19.0 ± 12.7 mg/dl) than in appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants (53.6 ± 25.6, 83.4 ± 18.9, 36.6 ± 11.1, 38.5 ± 11.6, 8.1 ± 7.0, respectively). In simple regression analyses, log IGF-1 correlated positively with birth weight (r = 0.721, P < 0.001), TC (r = 0.636, P < 0.001), LDLC (r = 0.453, P = 0.006), and HDLC levels (r = 0.648, P < 0.001), and negatively with log TG (r = −0.484, P = 0.002) and log VLDL-TG (r = −0.393, P = 0.018). Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that IGF-1 was an independent predictor of TC, HDLC and TG levels after the gestational age and birth weight were taken into account. In preterm SGA infants, cord blood lipids profile altered with the concomitant decrease in IGF-1 level.
Ten ice-sheet models are used to study sensitivity of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to prescribed changes of surface mass balance, sub-ice-shelf melting and basal sliding. Results exhibit a large range in projected contributions to sea-level change. In most cases, the ice volume above flotation lost is linearly dependent on the strength of the forcing. Combinations of forcings can be closely approximated by linearly summing the contributions from single forcing experiments, suggesting that nonlinear feedbacks are modest. Our models indicate that Greenland is more sensitive than Antarctica to likely atmospheric changes in temperature and precipitation, while Antarctica is more sensitive to increased ice-shelf basal melting. An experiment approximating the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s RCP8.5 scenario produces additional first-century contributions to sea level of 22.3 and 8.1 cm from Greenland and Antarctica, respectively, with a range among models of 62 and 14 cm, respectively. By 200 years, projections increase to 53.2 and 26.7 cm, respectively, with ranges of 79 and 43 cm. Linear interpolation of the sensitivity results closely approximates these projections, revealing the relative contributions of the individual forcings on the combined volume change and suggesting that total ice-sheet response to complicated forcings over 200 years can be linearized.
We describe the current, 9-spacecraft Interplanetary Network (IPN). The IPN detects about
325 gamma-ray bursts per year, of which about 100 are not localized by any other missions.
We give some examples of how the data, which are public, can be utilized.
By incorporating a localized heating system within a scanning ion-conductance microscopy (SICM) system, we have performed stable ‘hopping-mode’ (HPICM) imaging for live cells maintained at temperatures ranging up to human body temperature. This allows the accurate study of cell volume and morphology variation versus temperature over extended periods of time. The integration of SICM with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) provides the simultaneous mapping of electrochemical and topographic information for soft samples, such as live cells. This combined technique overcomes the limitations of resolution and topographical artifacts typically associated with SECM. However, previously reported SECM-SICM probe production required expensive and time-consuming focused ion beam (FIB) methods and produced pipettes that are typically hundreds of nanometers in diameter. We report a simple and rapid production method for SECM-SICM double-barrel probes with apertures down to 20 nm in diameter. The characterization of these SECM-SICM probes using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Raman spectroscopy is also detailed. These SECM-SICM probes were subsequently used to study the morphology and electrochemical activity of several samples, ranging from hard metallic/insulating samples to live cells.
Japanese weather data for areas that produced Campylobacter spp.-positive chicken products were compared with those for areas producing negative samples. Regarding samples produced during the period of rising temperature (spring and summer), the mean weekly air temperatures for Campylobacter-positive samples were higher than those for negative samples for the period of the week in which the samples were purchased (18·7°C vs. 13·1°C, P=0·006) to a 12-week lag (12 weeks before purchasing samples; 7·9°C vs. 3·4°C, P=0·009). Significant differences in weekly mean minimum humidity and sunshine duration per day were also observed for 1- and 2-week lag periods. We postulated that the high air temperature, high humidity and short duration of sunshine for the chicken-rearing period increased Campylobacter colonization in chickens during the period of rising temperature. Consequently, the number of Campylobacter-contaminated chicken products on the market in Japan may fluctuate because of the climatic conditions to which reared chickens are exposed.
The efficiency of the energy conversion rate in the relativistic magnetic reconnection is investigated by means of Relativistic Resistive Magnetohydrodynamic (R2MHD) simulations. We confirmed that the simple Sweet-Parker type magnetic reconnection is a slow process for the energy conversion as theoretically predicted by Lyubarsky (2005). After the Sweet-Parker regime, we found a growth of the secondary tearing instability in the elongated current sheet. Then the energy conversion rate and the outflow velocity of reconnection jet increase rapidly. Such a rapid energy conversion would explain the time variations observed in many astrophysical flaring events.
To construct a more realistic model of relativistic reconnection, we extend our R2MHD code to R3MHD code by including the radiation effects (Relativistic Resistive Radiation Magnetohydrodynamics R3MHD). The radiation field is described by the 0th and 1st moments of the radiation intensity (Farris et al. 2008, Shibata et al. 2011). The code has already passed some one-dimensional and multi-dimensional numerical problems. We demonstrate the first results of magnetic reconnection in the radiation dominated current sheet.
We demonstrated high-resolution element-specific diffraction microscopy using a hard X-ray beam focused by Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors. Coherent diffraction patterns of an Au/Ag nanoparticle were measured at incident X-ray energies around the Au LIII absorption edge. By calculating the difference between the intensities of reconstructed images obtained at different energies, an image of the Au element could be derived. From the difference image, it was suggested that the replacement reaction progresses from the corners of Ag cubic particle.
Morphological abnormalities of the superior temporal gyrus have been
consistently reported in schizophrenia, but the timing of their
occurrence remains unclear.
To determine whether individuals exhibit superior temporal gyral changes
before the onset of psychosis.
We used magnetic resonance imaging to examine grey matter volumes of the
superior temporal gyrus and its subregions (planum polare, Heschl's
gyrus, planum temporale, and rostral and caudal regions) in 97
antipsychotic-naive individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis, of whom
31 subsequently developed psychosis and 66 did not, and 42 controls.
Those at risk of psychosis had significantly smaller superior temporal
gyri at baseline compared with controls bilaterally, without any
prominent subregional effect; however, there was no difference between
those who did and did not subsequently develop psychosis.
Our findings indicate that grey matter reductions of the superior
temporal gyrus are present before psychosis onset, and are not due to
medication, but these baseline changes are not predictive of transition