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An investigation of unsteady MHD double diffusive natural convection flow of a viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting, heat absorbing, radiating and chemically-reactive fluid past an exponentially accelerated moving inclined plate in a fluid-saturated porous medium, when the temperature of the plate and the concentration at the surface of the plate have ramped profiles, is carried out. Exact solutions for the fluid velocity, fluid temperature and the species concentration, under Boussinesq approximation, are obtained in closed form by the Laplace transform technique. The expressions for the shear stress, rate of heat transfer and the rate of mass transfer at the plate are also derived. Numerical evaluations of the fluid velocity, fluid temperature and the species concentration are performed and displayed graphically whereas those of the shear stress, rate of heat transfer and the rate of mass transfer at the plate are presented in tabular form for various values of the pertinent flow parameters.
Large areas of rainfed lowlands of Asia annually experienced flash flooding during the rice-growing season, which is an important abiotic stress that adversely affect grain yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) crop. Submergence stress is a common environmental challenge for agriculture sustainability in these areas because lack of high-yielding, flood-tolerant cultivars. In this study, IR64-Sub1 and IR64 were compared for their tolerance to submergence at active tillering (AT), panicle initiation (PI) and heading (H) stages with nitrogen and phosphorus application time. We evaluated the role of cultivars, stage of submergence and N and P application on phenology, leaf senescence (LS), photosynthetic (Pn) rate, yield attributes and yield. Under non-submerged conditions, no difference was observed in phenology, Pn rate and yield of both cultivars. Submergence substantially reduced biomass, Pn rate, yields attributes and yield across cultivars with more drastic reduction in IR64. Submergence at H stage proves to be most detrimental. Nitrogen application after desubmergence with basal P improved the Pn rate resulting in significantly higher yield and yield components. Nitrogen application before submergence resulted in increased LS and ethylene accumulation in shoots leading to drastic reduction in growth, Pn rate and yield. Crop establishment and productivity could therefore be enhanced in areas where untimely flooding is anticipated by avoiding N application before submergence and applying N after desubmergence with basal P (phosphorus).
Multidetector computed tomography virtual bronchoscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic tool which provides a three-dimensional view of the tracheobronchial airway. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of virtual bronchoscopy in cases of vegetable foreign body aspiration in children.
The medical records of patients with a history of foreign body aspiration from August 2006 to August 2010 were reviewed. Data were collected regarding their clinical presentation and chest X-ray, virtual bronchoscopy and rigid bronchoscopy findings. Cases of metallic and other non-vegetable foreign bodies were excluded from the analysis. Patients with multidetector computed tomography virtual bronchoscopy showing features of vegetable foreign body were included in the analysis. For each patient, virtual bronchoscopy findings were reviewed and compared with those of rigid bronchoscopy.
A total of 60 patients; all children ranging from 1 month to 8 years of age, were included. The mean age at presentation was 2.01 years. Rigid bronchoscopy confirmed the results of multidetector computed tomography virtual bronchoscopy (i.e. presence of foreign body, site of lodgement, and size and shape) in 59 patients. In the remaining case, a vegetable foreign body identified by virtual bronchoscopy was revealed by rigid bronchoscopy to be a thick mucus plug. Thus, the positive predictive value of virtual bronchoscopy was 98.3 per cent.
Multidetector computed tomography virtual bronchoscopy is a sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for identifying radiolucent vegetable foreign bodies in the tracheobronchial tree. It can also provide a useful pre-operative road map for rigid bronchoscopy. Patients suspected of having an airway foreign body or chronic unexplained respiratory symptoms should undergo multidetector computed tomography virtual bronchoscopy to rule out a vegetable foreign body in the tracheobronchial tree and avoid general anaesthesia and invasive rigid bronchoscopy.
The mm-wave as well as avalanche noise properties of IMPATT diode at D-band are efficiently estimated, with different poly-types of silicon carbide (SiC) and GaN as base materials, using advanced computer simulation techniques developed by the authors. The breakdown voltage of 4H-SiC (180 V) is more than the same for 6H-SiC, ZB- and Wz-GaN-based diode of 170,158, and 160 V, respectively. Similarly, the efficiency (14.7%) is also high in the case of 4H-SiC as compared with 6H-SiC and GaN-based diode. The study indicates that 4H-SiC IMPATT diode is capable of generating high RF power of about 8.38 W as compared with GaN IMPATT diode due to high breakdown voltage and negative resistance for the same frequency of operation. It is also observed that Wz-GaN exhibits better noise behavior 7.4 × 10−16 V2 s than SiC (5.16 × 10−15 V2 s) for IMPATT operation at 140 GHz. A comparison between the power output and noise from both the device reveals that Wz-GaN would be a suitable base material for high-power application of IMPATT diode with moderate noise.
Chickpea is the third most important pulse crop worldwide. Changes in cropping system that necessitate late planting, scope for expansion in rice fallows and the global warming are pushing chickpeas to relatively warmer growing environment. Such changes demand identification of varieties resilient to warmer temperature. Therefore, the reference collection of chickpea germplasm, defined based on molecular characterization of global composite collection, was screened for high temperature tolerance at two locations in India (Patancheru and Kanpur) by delayed sowing and synchronizing the reproductive phase of the crop with the occurrence of higher temperatures ( ≥ 35°C). A heat tolerance index (HTI) was calculated using a multiple regression approach where grain yield under heat stress is considered as a function of yield potential and time to 50% flowering. There were large and significant variations for HTI, phenology, yield and yield components at both the locations. There were highly significant genotypic effects and equally significant G × E interactions for all the traits studied. A cluster analysis of the HTI of the two locations yielded five cluster groups as stable tolerant (n = 18), tolerant only at Patancheru (n = 34), tolerant only at Kanpur (n = 23), moderately tolerant (n = 120) and stable sensitive (n = 82). The pod number per plant and the harvest index explained ≥ 60% of the variation in seed yield and ≥ 49% of HTI at Kanpur and ≥ 80% of the seed yield and ≥ 35% of HTI at Patancheru, indicating that partitioning as a consequence of poor pod set is the most affected trait under heat stress. A large number of heat-tolerant genotypes also happened to be drought tolerant.
Fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein (FABP) was evaluated for evoking an immune response in mice, by delivering the gene coding for this protein with mannosylated-polyethylenimine (PEI) to peritoneal cells. Mice were immunized with 50 μg recombinant plasmid DNA (Group I) or DNA-PEI-mannose (a 22 kDa linear cationic polymer with mannose ligand) (Group II) via the intraperitoneal route. Antibody studies showed no significant humoral immune response evoked to this DNA immunization with either PEI-mannose-delivered or naked DNA. However, on protein boosting of these DNA-primed mice there was a significant enhancement of antibody titre. Flow cytometric bead array was used to measure quantitites of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) cytokines. Overexpression of T-helper 1 (Th1) cytokines such as IFN-γ and TNF, with a lower but significant expression of the T-helper 2 (Th2) cytokine IL-5 was detected. Gene delivery using polyethylenimine-mannose ligand showed significant expression of IFN-γ and TNF (P < 0.05), but no significant difference in IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5 (P>0.05) cytokine expression was observed between naked-DNA- and mannosylated PEI-DNA-delivered mice. Naked- or PEI-delivered-DNA immunization produced insignificant levels of IL-2 and IL-4 (P>0.05) cytokines in both groups of mice.
Fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein (FABP) was evaluated for evoking an effective immune response in mice and rabbits, when delivered as a DNA vaccine in muscle cells. Polyethylenimine (PEI), 25 kDa, branched cationic polymer was used as a delivery vehicle for this DNA in the muscle cells of mice and rabbits. Naked DNA evoked mixed Th1 and Th2 responses in mice. PEI condensed DNA, at amine nitrogen over DNA phosphate (N/P) ratios of 4, 6 and 8 and with various DNA concentrations, failed to evoke a significantly higher antibody response compared to naked DNA in mice. Similarly, the humoral immune response to naked DNA administration in rabbit thigh muscles was poor and no boosting of this antibody response on administration of DNA complexed to PEI was observed. On metacercarial challenge, rabbits failed to show any significant protective immune response in both the naked DNA and PEI–DNA immunized groups. Administration of PEI alone (12.5 μg) in mouse thigh muscles caused significant muscle cytotoxicity but condensation of DNA with PEI had less of a toxic effect on muscle cells, which was inversely related to the N/P ratio. Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding F. gigantica FABP by high molecular weight polyethylenimine (branched, 25 kDa) did not boost the effective immune response in both the animal species, which could either be attributed to cytotoxicity associated with this cationic polymer or muscle cells being unsuitable target cells for PEI condensed DNA delivery.
The presence of an axial magnetic field in a laser beat wave accelerator enhances the oscillatory velocity of electrons due to cyclotron resonance effect leading to higher amplitude of the ponderomotive force driven plasma wave, and higher energy of accelerating electrons. The axial magnetic field inhibits the transverse escape of electrons and thus causes a growth of the interaction length. The surfatron acceleration of electrons also shows a similar enhancement. A surfatron transverse magnetic field deflects the electrons parallel to the phase fronts of the accelerating wave keeping them in phase with it. However, the electron continues to move away radially.
In the present study rubella HI antibodies were determined in cases of congenital malformation and bad obstetric history to determine the role of rubella in such cases in India, as it has been reported to be rare in Japan in contrast to Western countries. The incidence of antibodies was statistically significant in cases of congenital eye, c.n.s., visceral and miscellaneous malformations and cases of spontaneous abortion and still-birth compared with controls of matching age groups. This is further supported by the demonstration of IgM antibodies in seven cases of congenital malformations and ten cases of spontaneous abortion. Our findings show that congenital rubella is not rare in India.
Following the fluid model for the response of electrons, it is shown that a high-power whistler wave decays efficiently into a lower hybrid or a Bernstein mode and a scattered whistler wave in a homogeneous plasma. The thresholds for these channels of stimulated scattering are generally low. However, the channel of scattering involving lower hybrid waves is possible only for scattering angles exceeding ¼π. The other channel involving Bernstein modes is possible at shorter scattering angles but the growth rate is relatively small and the threshold is high.
The composite rare earth chloride produced from monazite contain low levels of natural radionuclides and is being used as the input material for the production of individual rare earth compounds which have wide applications. Gross alpha, beta and 228Ra activity concentrations in composite rare earth chloride and individual rare earth compounds such as oxides of Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Gd etc are presented. The significant radionuclide of environmental concern is identified as 228Ra and the activity level varied between 0.1 and 7.8 Bq.g-1 in different compounds. Sporadic 228Ra levels up to 16 Bq.g-1 was observed in Lanthanum oxide. The external gamma exposure rates and airborne activity due to thorium and thoron progeny in the process locations are studied. The activity levels in liquid effluent and potential exposure scenarios are indicated.
Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMS) and fallout 137Cs were estimated in surface soils from the highly mineralized Singhbhum region of Eastern India. The activity concentrations varied from 50.67-109.14 Bq/kg (238U), 48.12-142.55 Bq/kg (226Ra), 28.73-89.78 Bq/kg (232Th), 494.84-1121.36 Bq/kg (40K) and 1.8-7.48 Bq/kg (137Cs). Correlation between radionuclides was studied. 232Th/238U concentration (Clark value) was also calculated. Radiation hazard for the samples was assessed by radium equivalent activity (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex), internal hazard index (Hin) and absorbed gamma dose rate (D). Raeq values ranged from 216-263 Bq/kg, Hex values from 0.58-0.71 Bq/kg, Hin values from 0.73-1 Bq/kg and D values from 100-121 nGy/h. Calculated and observed dose rates in air were compared with the help of parametric and non-parametric tests. The tests showed significant difference between the calculated and observed dose rates.
We study the aggradation and incision of the Alaknanda River Valley during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. The morphostratigraphy in the river valley at Deoprayag shows the active riverbed, a cut terrace, and a fill terrace. The sedimentary fabric of the fill terrace comprises four lithofacies representing 1) riverbed accretion, 2) locally derived debris fan, 3) the deposits of waning floods and 4) palaeoflood records. The sedimentation style, coupled with geochemical analysis and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating, indicate that this terrace formed in a drier climate and the river valley aggraded in two phases during 21–18 ka and 13–9 ka. During these periods, sediment supply was relatively higher. Incision began after 10 ka in response to a strengthened monsoon and aided by increase of the tectonic gradient. The cut terrace formed at ~ 5 ka during a phase of stable climate and tectonic quiescence. The palaeoflood records suggest wetter climate 200–300 yr ago when the floods originated in the upper catchment of the Higher Himalaya and in the relatively drier climate ~ 1.2 ka when locally derived sediments from the Lesser Himalaya dominated flood deposits. Maximum and minimum limits of bedrock incision rate at Deoprayag are 2.3 mm/a and 1.4 mm/a.
Effect of graded levels of high-glucosinolate mustard (Brassica juncea) meal as substitute of soya-bean meal (SBM) in broiler rabbit diets was studied. Forty weaning rabbits of Soviet Chinchilla and White Giant breed were randomly allocated to one of four experimental diets containing mustard meal (MM) 0, 80, 160 and 245 g/kg. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks. MM had 54.8 mg total glucosinolates (TGLSs) per g dry matter (DM). Diets had TGLS 3.8, 8.4 and 11.98 mg/g DM in 80, 160 and 245 g MM diets, respectively. MM-incorporated diets had higher digestible and linearly (P < 0.01) higher metabolisable energy (ME) content. However, the effect on total tract apparent digestibility of DM, and crude protein was quadratic. Average daily gain (ADG) reduced (P < 0.05) linearly with increasing MM levels in diet, still 80 and 160 g MM diets had similar ADG compared to that of SBM diet. Caecum weight reduced linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing MM levels in diet. The pH of caecal content ranged between 5.85 and 6.19, total N between 1.19 and 1.48 (g per 100 g) and total volatile fatty acids between 4.7 and 5.8 mmol per 100 g, and they were not statistically different. NH3-N ranged between 31.2 and 39.0 mg per 100 ml, and reduced linearly (P < 0.05) while trichloroacetic acid-precipitable nitrogen increased linearly (P < 0.01, ranged between 114 and 247 mg per 100 ml) with increasing MM levels in diet. Blood haemoglobin, packed cell volume and lymphocytes were higher (quadratic effects, P < 0.05) on 245 MM diet, whereas white blood cell count reduced linearly (P < 0.01). Serum aspartate aminotransferase increased linearly (P < 0.01) while alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity, protein, erythrocytes sedimentation rate and red blood cell counts were not affected by MM. Serum Cu, Na and K content increased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing MM levels. Liver Cu concentration showed quadratic (P < 0.05) increase. Rabbits tolerated 8.4 mg TGLS per g diet (160 g MM per kg) during active growth without any apparent effect on health and growth. It is concluded that MM can replace up to 66% SBM protein in rabbit feeding, whereas complete replacement of SBM with MM reduced feed intake and ADG by 23% and 13%, respectively. Further studies are required to confirm these inclusion levels and glucosinolate tolerance of rabbits.
The components of the dielectric tensor for the distribution function given by Leubner and Schupfer have been obtained. The effect of the loss-cone index appearing in the particle distribution function in a hot magnetized plasma has been studied. A case study has been performed to calculate temporal growth rates of Bernstein waves using the distribution function given by Summers and Thorne and Leubner and Schupfer. The effect of the loss-cone index on growth rates is found to be quite different for the two distribution functions.
We report on the selective area heteroepitaxy and facet evolution of AlGaN nanostructures on GaN/sapphire substrate using various mask materials. We also report on the challenges associated with selection of an appropriate mask material for selective area heteroepitaxy of AlGaN with varying Al composition. The shape and the growth rate of the nanostructures are observed to be greatly affected by the mask material. The evolution of the AlGaN nanostructures and Al incorporation were studied exhaustively as a function of growth parameters including temperature, pressure, NH3 flow, total alkyl flow, and TMAl/(TMAl+TMGa) ratio. The growth rate of nanostructures was reduced drastically when higher Al percentage AlGaN nanostructures were grown. The growth rates were increased for higher Al percentage AlGaN using a surfactant, which resulted in a high-quality pyramidal structure. As indicated by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, the composition of Al in the AlGaN nanostructure is significantly different from that of a thin film grown under the same growth conditions.
A study to compare two feeding systems, stall feeding (SF) and grazing plus supplementation (GR) was carried out, based on intake, performance and rumen fermentation characteristics of lambs. While SF animals received ad libitum complete feed blocks (CFB), GR animals were allowed grazing for 8 h on a pasture and supplemented with concentrate mixture at 250 g per head per day. Intake in grazing animals was determined using chromium III oxide as internal marker. Intake of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and organic matter (OM) were higher ( P < 0.01) in SF than in GR animals. Similarly, digestibility of OM, CP and energy were higher ( P < 0.01) in SF animals. Average daily gain in SF animals (101 g) was significantly ( P < 0.01) higher than in GR animals (78 g) but total wool yield was similar for the two groups (856 g, SF; 782 g, GR). The pH of the rumen content, concentration of total volatile fatty acids and total activities of carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase and esterase in the rumen liquor were similar. The concentrations (mg/dl) of total nitrogen (125, SF; 63, GR) and NH3-nitrogen (42, SF; 31, GR) were higher in SF animals than that of GR animals. A significantly higher activity ( P < 0.05) of microcrystalline cellulase (24.5 v. 7.7 units) and lower activity ( P < 0.05) of protease (309 v. 525 units), was observed in the rumen of SF animals than in GR animals. SF animals could therefore harness more energy through degradation of plant cell walls thus reducing breakdown of plant proteins as gluconeogenic source. The SF system of feeding where CFB was offered to sheep appeared superior to GR in terms of intake, nutrient utilisation and animal performance. Therefore the SF feeding system where CFB are offered to animals can be advocated as an alternative to grazing and supplementation feeding strategy for sheep production, especially where the pastures are highly eroded and need resting for regeneration or curing. The CFB feeding can also be adopted under adverse conditions like drought and famine, a common phenomenon in arid and semiarid conditions.
Silicon (Si) source and drain (S/D) regions have been successfully integrated in thin-body silicon-germanium-on-insulator (SGOI) n-FETs. The selectively grown Si S/D induces uniaxial tensile strain in the SiGe channel. Devices with gate length LG down to 50 nm were fabricated. The Si S/D gives rise to 40% higher saturation drive current IDsat for transistors fabricated on Si0.60Ge0.40-on-insulator substrates. For n-FETs fabricated on Si0.75Ge0.25-on-insulator substrates, a 27% IDsat enhancement was observed. Lattice mismatch between the silicon S/D region and the SiGe channel was exploited to induce lateral tensile strain and vertical compressive strain in the channel, leading to enhancement in electron mobility. Analyses of contributions from the tensile strain to mobility enhancement and performance improvement are discussed
High quality homoepitaxial growth of m-plane GaN films on freestanding m-plane HVPE GaN substrates has been performed using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. For this a large growth space was studied. Large areas of no-nucleation along with presence of high density of defects were observed when layers were grown under growth conditions for c-plane GaN. It is believed that these structural defects were in large part due to the low lateral growth rates as well as unequal lateral growth rates in a- and c- crystallographic directions. To achieve high quality, fully coalesced epitaxial layers, growth conditions were optimized with respect to growth temperature, V/III ratios and reactor pressure. Higher growth temperatures led to smoother surfaces due to increased surface diffusion of adatoms. Overall, growth at higher temperature and lower V/III ratio decreased the surface roughness and resulted in better optical properties as observed by photoluminescence. Although optimization resulted in highly smooth layers, some macroscopic defects were still observed on the epi-surface as a result of contamination and subsurface damage remaining on bulk substrates possibly due to polishing. Addition of a step involving annealing of the bulk substrate under H2: N2 environment, prior to growth, drastically reduced such macroscopic defects.