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The present study sought to identify both the ingredients for success and the potential impediments to social marketing effectiveness for healthy eating behaviour, focusing on studies conducted over the last 10 years.
A comprehensive literature review was undertaken examining seventeen databases to identify studies reporting the use of social marketing to address healthy eating. Thirty-four empirical studies were analysed to examine the effectiveness of social marketing interventions to improve healthy eating behaviour using Andreasen's (2002) social marketing benchmark criteria. Statistical analysis was undertaken to quantitatively evaluate whether effectiveness varied between study categories (subsets).
Healthy eating empirical studies published from 2000 onwards.
Empirical studies that self-identified as social marketing.
Sixteen social marketing studies (subset 1) were identified in the review. These were systematic studies which sought to change behaviour through tailored solutions (e.g. use of marketing tools beyond communication was clearly evident) that delivered value to the target audience. For these sixteen studies, the mean number of criteria identified was five. Six studies met all six criteria. Positive change to healthy eating behaviour was found in fourteen of sixteen studies. The sixteen studies that met the definition of social marketing used significantly more of Andreasen's (2002) criteria and were more effective in achieving behavioural change than the eighteen studies in subset 2.
Social marketing is an involved process and it is important that studies identifying as social marketing adopt social marketing benchmark criteria. Social marketing when employed to its full extent offers the potential to change healthy eating.
We designed and produced pure cubic zirconia (ZrO2) ceramic1
coatings by an ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) with nanostructures
comparable to the size of proteins. Our ceramic coatings exhibit high
hardness and a zero contact angle with serum. In contrast to hydroxyapatite
(HA), nano-engineered zirconia films possess excellent adhesion to all
orthopaedic materials. Cell adhesion and proliferation experiments were
performed with a bona fide mesenchymal stromal cell line (OMA-AD). Our
experimental results indicate that the nano-engineered cubic zirconia is
superior in supporting growth, adhesion, and proliferation. Since cell
attachment is mediated by adhesive proteins such as fibronectin (FN), to
elucidate why cells attach more effectively to our nanostructures, we
performed a comparative analysis of adsorption energies of FN fragment using
quantum mechanical calculations and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation both on
smooth and nanostructured surfaces. We have found that a FN fragment adsorbs
significantly stronger on the nanostructured surface than on the smooth
Several robotic exploration missions will travel to Mars during this decade to investigate habitability and the possible presence of life. Field research at Mars analogue sites such as desert environments can provide important constraints for instrument calibration, landing site strategies and expected life detection targets. We have characterized the mineralogy, organic chemistry and microbiology of ten selected sample sites from the Utah desert in close vicinity to the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) during the EuroGeoMars 2009 campaign (organized by International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG), NASA Ames and ESA ESTEC). Compared with extremely arid deserts (such as the Atacama), organic and biological materials can be identified in a larger number of samples and subsequently be used to perform correlation studies. Among the important findings of this field research campaign are the diversity in the mineralogical composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles, mainly Bacteria and also Archaea and Eukarya was observed. The dominant factor in measurable bacterial abundance seems to be soil porosity and lower small (clay-sized) particle content. However, correlations between many measured parameters are difficult to establish. Field research conducted during the EuroGeoMars 2009 campaign shows that the geological history and depositional environment of the region, as well as the mineralogy influence the ability to detect compounds such as amino acids and DNA. Clays are known to strongly absorb and bind organic molecules often preventing extraction by even sophisticated laboratory methods. Our results indicate the need for further development and optimization of extraction procedures that release biological compounds from host matrices to enable the effective detection of biomarkers during future sampling campaigns on Earth and Mars.
Growth experiments have been carried out to characterize the occurrence and development of porosity in Bridgman and flux grown Al-Pd-Mn icosahedral quasicrystals. The porosity level has been observed to fluctuate between values of 0.0 and 3.75 percent along the length of Bridgman single crystals implying that the development of porosity is affected by the local growth conditions. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of the rate of solidification on the occurrence of porosity. Alloys were solidified with different growth rates, 1mm/hr and >10 mm/hr, using the Bridgman configuration and at different cooling rates, ranging from 0.29°C/hr to 10°C/hr, using the flux growth method. Porosity levels were analyzed via optical image analysis. These experiments indicate that porosity percentages are greatly influenced by cooling rates and crystal size.
An experimental comparison has been made between the properties of the surfaces of an Al70Pd21Mn9 quasicrystal and its Al48Pd42Mn10 approximant. The Al70Pd21Mn9 sample was a single grain icosahedral quasicrystal cut to expose its five-fold symmetric (000001) surface. The approximant was polycrystalline β-phase Al48Pd42Mn10, which has a CsCl-type cubic structure. Surfaces of both were prepared under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions and then used for comparative measurements of their frictional properties and oxidation rates. Both materials are oxidized by reaction with O2 to form a thin film of aluminum oxide that ultimately passivates their surfaces. The interesting difference between the two is that the rate of oxidation of the approximant is significantly higher than that of the quasicrystal in spite of the fact that the bulk Al concentration of the approximant is lower than that of the quasicrystal. Friction measurements were made under UHV conditions between pairs of quasicrystals and pairs of approximants whose surfaces were either clean or oxidized to varying degrees. The friction between pairs of the approximant surfaces is significantly higher than that measured between the quasicrystal surfaces under all conditions of surface oxidation.
We have used thermal desorption spectroscopy to carry out a comparative study of potassium adsorption on Al(111) and on the fivefold Al-Pd-Mn surface. Potassium adsorption on the quasicrystal was found to be different than on Al(111). The potassium monolayer desorbed from fivefold Al-Pd-Mn at lower temperatures than from Al(111). Potassium is known to form a dense monolayer on Al(111), with an ideal coverage of 0.33, but for the monolayer on fivefold Al Pd Mn we find that the saturation coverage is only one twelfth.
It is shown how the history of the growth of an icosahedral Zn-Mg-Y single grain can be determined by measuring the yttrium distribution. The growth mechanism and the stabilization of the icosahedral Zn-Mg-Y, RE (RE = rare earth: Ho, Er, Dy, Gd, Tb) quasicrystals are discussed with respect to structural investigations on related crystalline phases. We also show results of optical and ultrasonic investigations on icosahedral Zn-Mg-Y single crystals. They fit well to the discussed growth and stabilization mechanism.
Icosahedral quasicrystals Al71.5Pd20.3Mn8.2, Al70.7Pd21.34Re7.96, Al62.5Cu25.5Fe12.5, and α-Al68.31Mn21.21Si10.48 1/1- approximant were investigated by using a monoenergetic slow positron beam. The structural vacancy densities in the first three samples were determined to be 5.0×1020, 7.7×1020, and 4.7×1020 cm−3, respectively, by analyzing the measured S-parameter.
The glide resistance of edge dislocations gliding along a two-dimensional quasiperiodic lattice (Burkov II model of the decagonal quasicrystal) has been calculated. The glide resistance consists of τphason and τPeierls components and the τPeierls component depends strongly on the orientation of the dislocation. For the orientation of large τPeierls component, the τphason component is about half of the τPeierls component for individual dislocation glide but becomes negligibly small for glide of a pair of dislocations. The largest τPeierls component is about 0.1G (G: the shear modulus).
We report room temperature thermopower values and the temperature dependence for several AlPdMn based quasicrystals. In an effort to further understand the complexities of electrical transport in quasicrystalline systems, thermopower data for icosahedral Al71Pd21Mn8-XReX will be presented and discussed. A relation of room temperature thermopower to the curvature of the thermopower is demonstrated. We propose an empirical fit to the thermopower data, utilizing three free variables. The physical significance of the fit parameters is discussed. These results are discussed in brief concerning the relation to the application of quasicrystals for use as thermoelectric materials.
Energy-angle distributions of low-energy inert-gas ions scattered from surfaces provide information about surface composition and structure. We have measured energy spectra of He+ scattered from an Al71Pd20Mn9 quasicrystal, which was oriented perpendicular to the 5-fold axis, along various azimuthal directions. Strong scattering signals are seen from Al and Pd, but only a weak Mn signal is observed. From measurements made of He+ at an oblique angle of incidence scattered in the forward direction, we observe a 72° periodicity in the azimuthal dependence of the scattering signal intensity from Al surface atoms. The effect arises from shadowing effects involving neighboring surface atoms and provides direct evidence that Al surface atoms exist in a local environment with 5-fold symmetry. In addition, measuring the variation of the signal intensity with incidence angle provides information about neighboring atom distances, which compare favorably with a model of the quasicrystal surface derived from the bulk structure.
Composite coatings containing quasicrystalline (QC) phases in Al-Cu-Fe alloys were prepared by laser cladding using a mixture of the elemental powders. Two substrates, namely pure aluminum and an Al-Si alloy were used. The clad layers were remelted at different scanning velocities to alter the growth conditions of different phases. The process parameters were optimized to produce quasicrystalline phases. The evolution of the microstructure in the coating layer was characterized by detailed microstructural investigation. The results indicate presence of quasicrystals in the aluminum substrate. However, only approximant phase could be observed in the substrate of Al-Si alloys. It is shown that there is a significant transport of Si atoms from the substrate to the clad layer during the cladding and remelting process. The hardness profiles of coatings on aluminum substrate indicate a very high hardness. The coating on Al-Si alloy, on the other hand, is ductile and soft. The fracture toughness of the hard coating on aluminum was obtained by nano-indentation technique. The K1C value was found to be 1.33 MPa m1/2 which is typical of brittle materials.
Immovable cultural properties, whether buildings, archeological sites, museums or libraries, are at substantial risk in the event of armed conflict. In many ways, natural disasters pose many of the same threats to such structures as does war. Earthquakes impose horizontal loads on structures, their weak direction, tornadoes and hurricanes impose large substantial over pressures on walls and roves, just as ground shock and air blast from explosions do. Fire spreads when there is both fuel and ignition, regardless of whether the ignition is purposeful or accidental. A clear message from the natural hazards literature is that you cannot do anything during the emergency period that you have not carefully thought through before the emergency. This paper reviews approaches to protection of cultural properties and the existing Hague Convention. It is proposed that a concerted effort be mounted by the professional conservation community to: 1) prepare guides on how to identify and document cultural properties important to the community; 2) descriptive manuals on how to protect cultural properties using easily available materials and techniques; 3) distributed them to the local communities likely to be impacted; and 4) provide limited technical resource teams to stabilize or repair after hostilities.
We have employed molecular beam epitaxy in the growth of InSb on GaAs and InP. The transport, optical and structural properties of the films were investigated by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction, Hall effect and temperature dependent Hall effect, photoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry techniques. We report mobilities of up to 32,000 cm2/volt-sec and free electron concentrations of 3x1016/cm3 at room temperature. We have discovered a new defect state in InSb with an energy position of Ec - 0.05 ± 0.006eV. Optical and structural measurements reveal that the differences in thermal expansion and lattice mismatch between the substrates and films results in the broadening of the X-ray diffraction peaks and the near gap photoluminescence linewidths. Furthermore, we observe band gap shifts to higher energies of 10meV and 20meV for growth on GaAs and InP, respectively.
Expanding interest in large-scale fabrication of electronic and photonic devices and in the scale-up of epitoxial growth reactors is creating the need for high quality large diameter InP substrate material. This paper will discuss the evaluating of three-inch diameter semi-insulating Fe-doped InP substrate material purchased from two commercial suppliers. The results of Photon Back Scatter, Infrared Transmission Microscopy, Hall Effect, and Spatially Resolved Photoluminescence measurements will be presented and evaluated.
Changes in the electronic properties of bulk GaAs crystals, grown from melts of varied As:Ga ratios, and Si-donor concentrations, were investigated by annealing in the temperature range 850°C to 1050°C. We found a gradual reduction of the free carrier concentration, a corresponding decrease in the luminescence spectral intensity, and a suppression of the near band-edge peaks with annealing time at any temperature. Deep level and impurity concentrations remained essentially constant. The magnitude of these changes was found to be determined predominantly by the annealing time and temperature, and the starting composition of the material We argue for a non-radiative native acceptor defect, or defect complex, forming during the annealing cycle. We present here the thermodynamic interpretation for this behavioi in terms of point defect equilibria.
In the present study, we comparatively investigate the distribution of electronic interface states of three different perovskite oxide interfaces, formed by epitaxial thin films of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO), La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCMO), and La0.7Ce0.3MnO3 (LCeMO) on SrTiO3(100) substrates, in the as-prepared state as well as after an annealing procedure. We find that annealing significantly reduces the number and density of interface trap states. Two different experimental realizations of the surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) technique were employed: an approach based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), as well as a capacitive method. The advantages and limitations of both methods are critically discussed.
We report attaining (3x2) surface reconstruction with streaky reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns on Al0.4Ga0.6As after in-situ Cl2 chemical etch and ultra high vacuum (UHV) anneal. Secondary ion-mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis at the regrown/etched Al0.4Ga0.6 As interface reveals impurities of O and C in the level of (5±1) × 1012 cm-2 and (3±1) × 1012 cm-2, respectively. These impurity levels are 10 times less than those of Al0.4Ga0.6 As after in-situ electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma etch and UHV anneal without Cl2 chemical etch.