Between February and May 2009, 347 laboratory-confirmed cases of acute Q fever were reported in a southern municipal health service region in The Netherlands. Commercial dairy-goat farms were implicated and control measures were initially targeted there. A preliminary investigation also implicated a non-dairy sheep farm, open to the public on ‘lamb-viewing days’. This study tested the association between visiting the non-dairy sheep farm and developing Q fever in residents of the region between February and May 2009. A case-control study of 146 cases and 431 address-matched controls was conducted. Multivariable logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between visiting to the sheep farm and Q fever disease (matched odds ratio 43, 95% confidence interval 9–200). Other risk factors were being a smoker, having a past medical history and being aged >40 years. Vaccination of sheep and goats on farms open to the public should help to reduce the number of future human cases.