About 70 insects and five mites regularly or occasionally infest the cotton crop in subtropical Africa. The economic importance of these pests varies according to the climate and cropping pattern in the region. Cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover and yellow tea mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) as foliage feeders and three bollworms, Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders, Diparopsis watersi Roths, and Heliothis armigera Hbn., during boll formation and development, are major pests. Pesticides have been used extensively to suppress the pest populations and infestation levels in the crop. Natural enemies of certain pests occur in the region, nevertheless, their effectiveness in pest control is not well-known or fully exploited. Research on yield loss evaluation, pest ecology, varietal resistance and cultural practices is underway in several countries. Therefore, a global pest management in cotton is discussed in the context of local conditions and perspectives are highlighted.