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Here we provide an update of the 2013 report on the Nigerian Twin and Sibling Registry (NTSR). The major aim of the NTSR is to understand genetic and environmental influences and their interplay in psychological and mental health development in Nigerian children and adolescents. Africans have the highest twin birth rates among all human populations, and Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. Due to its combination of large population and high twin birth rates, Nigeria has one of the largest twin populations in the world. In this article, we provide current updates on the NTSR samples recruited, recruitment procedures, zygosity assessment and findings emerging from the NTSR.
Mental disorder is common among individuals with neurological illness. We aimed to characterise the patient population referred for psychiatry assessment at a tertiary neurology service in terms of neurological and psychiatric diagnoses and interventions provided.
We studied all individuals referred for psychiatry assessment at a tertiary neurology service over a 2-year period (n= 82).
The most common neurological diagnoses among those referred were epilepsy (16%), Parkinson’s disease (15%) and multiple sclerosis (8%). The most common reasons for psychiatric assessment were low mood or anxiety (48%) and medically unexplained symptoms or apparent functional or psychogenic disease (21%). The most common diagnoses among those with mental disorder were mood disorders (62%), and neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, including dissociative (conversion) disorders (28%). Psychiatric diagnosis was not related to gender, neurological diagnosis or psychiatric history.
Individuals with neurological illness demonstrate significant symptoms of a range of mental disorders. There is a need for further research into the characteristics and distribution of mental disorder in individuals with neurological illness, and for the enhancement of integrated psychiatric and neurological services to address the comorbidities demonstrated in this population.
The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) will give us an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the transient sky at radio wavelengths. In this paper we present VAST, an ASKAP survey for Variables and Slow Transients. VAST will exploit the wide-field survey capabilities of ASKAP to enable the discovery and investigation of variable and transient phenomena from the local to the cosmological, including flare stars, intermittent pulsars, X-ray binaries, magnetars, extreme scattering events, interstellar scintillation, radio supernovae, and orphan afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. In addition, it will allow us to probe unexplored regions of parameter space where new classes of transient sources may be detected. In this paper we review the known radio transient and variable populations and the current results from blind radio surveys. We outline a comprehensive program based on a multi-tiered survey strategy to characterise the radio transient sky through detection and monitoring of transient and variable sources on the ASKAP imaging timescales of 5 s and greater. We also present an analysis of the expected source populations that we will be able to detect with VAST.
Deriving glacier outlines from satellite data has become increasingly popular in the past decade. In particular when glacier outlines are used as a base for change assessment, it is important to know how accurate they are. Calculating the accuracy correctly is challenging, as appropriate reference data (e.g. from higher-resolution sensors) are seldom available. Moreover, after the required manual correction of the raw outlines (e.g. for debris cover), such a comparison would only reveal the accuracy of the analyst rather than of the algorithm applied. Here we compare outlines for clean and debris-covered glaciers, as derived from single and multiple digitizing by different or the same analysts on very high- (1 m) and medium-resolution (30 m) remote-sensing data, against each other and to glacier outlines derived from automated classification of Landsat Thematic Mapper data. Results show a high variability in the interpretation of debris-covered glacier parts, largely independent of the spatial resolution (area differences were up to 30%), and an overall good agreement for clean ice with sufficient contrast to the surrounding terrain (differences ∼5%). The differences of the automatically derived outlines from a reference value are as small as the standard deviation of the manual digitizations from several analysts. Based on these results, we conclude that automated mapping of clean ice is preferable to manual digitization and recommend using the latter method only for required corrections of incorrectly mapped glacier parts (e.g. debris cover, shadow).
High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) results show a strong crystal-chemical and defect dependence on the mode of dissolution of synthetic heterogenite (CoOOH) particles. As-synthesized heterogenite particles are micron-size plates (aspect ratio ∼ 1/30) constructed of crystallographically oriented ∼ 3-nm primary particles or are single ∼ 21-nm unattached heterogenite platelets (aspect ratio ∼1/7). Reductive dissolution, using hydroquinone, was examined in order to evaluate morphology evolution as a function of reductant concentration. Two end-member modes of dissolution were observed: 1) non-specific dissolution of macroparticles and 2) preferential dissolution along misoriented boundaries. In the case of non-specific dissolution, average macrocrystal size and morphology are not altered as building block crystals are consumed. The result is web-like particles with similar breadth and shape as undissolved particles. Preferential dissolution involves the formation of channels or holes along boundaries of angular misorientation. Such boundaries involve only a few degrees of tilt, but dissolution occurs almost exclusively at such sites. Energy-Filtered TEM thickness maps show that the thickness of surrounding material is not significantly different from that of undissolved particles. Finally, natural heterogenite from Goodsprings, Nevada, shows morphology and microstructure similar to those of this synthetic heterogenite.
We report 36 to 50 μm observations of Arp 220 by the Goddard Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory in May 1994. In this measurement, we find the galaxy to be four times brighter than in the measurements of Joy et al. (1986). If both of the observations are correct, this large far infrared luminosity increasing in a short time scale between the two observations suggests that the infrared emission in Arp 220 consists mostly of nonthermal synchrotron radiation which originates from the active nucleus.
An experimental and computational investigation of hypervelocity, hypersonic combustion of hydrogen with air is described which was intended to confirm the presence of combustion at these conditions and then to gauge the pressure rise associated with the heat release of combustion. Experiments were conducted in a square cross section duct and wall pressure was measured. It was found that combustion did occur and that the maximum pressure increase was approximately 72% over the intake pressure.
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