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The objective of this study was to determine whether hatha yoga is an efficacious adjunctive intervention for individuals with continued depressive symptoms despite antidepressant treatment.
We conducted a randomized controlled trial of weekly yoga classes (n = 63) v. health education classes (Healthy Living Workshop; HLW; n = 59) in individuals with elevated depression symptoms and antidepressant medication use. HLW served as an attention-control group. The intervention period was 10 weeks, with follow-up assessments 3 and 6 months afterwards. The primary outcome was depression symptom severity assessed by blind rater at 10 weeks. Secondary outcomes included depression symptoms over the entire intervention and follow-up periods, social and role functioning, general health perceptions, pain, and physical functioning.
At 10 weeks, we did not find a statistically significant difference between groups in depression symptoms (b = −0.82, s.e. = 0.88, p = 0.36). However, over the entire intervention and follow-up period, when controlling for baseline, yoga participants showed lower levels of depression than HLW participants (b = −1.38, s.e. = 0.57, p = 0.02). At 6-month follow-up, 51% of yoga participants demonstrated a response (⩾50% reduction in depression symptoms) compared with 31% of HLW participants (odds ratio = 2.31; p = 0.04). Yoga participants showed significantly better social and role functioning and general health perceptions over time.
Although we did not see a difference in depression symptoms at the end of the intervention period, yoga participants showed fewer depression symptoms over the entire follow-up period. Benefits of yoga may accumulate over time.
Of the 13 US vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) cases, 8 were identified in southeastern Michigan, primarily in patients with chronic lower-extremity wounds. VRSA infections develop when the vanA gene from vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) transfers to S. aureus. Incl8-like plasmids in VRE and pSK41-like plasmids in S. aureus appear to be important precursors to this transfer.
Identify the prevalence of VRSA precursor organisms.
Prospective cohort with embedded case-control study.
Southeastern Michigan adults with chronic lower-extremity wounds.
Adults presenting to 3 southeastern Michigan medical centers during the period February 15 through March 4, 2011, with chronic lower-extremity wounds had wound, nares, and perirectal swab specimens cultured for S. aureus and VRE, which were tested for pSK41-like and Incl8-like plasmids by polymerase chain reaction. We interviewed participants and reviewed clinical records. Risk factors for pSK41-positive S. aureus were assessed among all study participants (cohort analysis) and among only S. aureus-colonized participants (case-control analysis).
Of 179 participants with wound cultures, 26% were colonized with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, 27% were colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and 4% were colonized with VRE, although only 17% consented to perirectal culture. Six participants (3%) had pSK41-positive S. aureus, and none had Incl8-positive VRE. Having chronic wounds for over 2 years was associated with pSK41-positive S. aureus colonization in both analyses.
Colonization with VRSA precursor organisms was rare. Having long-standing chronic wounds was a risk factor for pSK41-positive S. aureus colonization. Additional investigation into the prevalence of VRSA precursors among a larger cohort of patients is warranted.
Inpatient smokers with major depressive disorder (MDD) have high rates of relapse to smoking after hospital discharge. The risk of health consequences that may contribute to increased morbidity and mortality among this population underscores the need to develop a program for psychiatric inpatient cigarette smokers with MDD. Using a motivational interviewing (MI) intervention, we sought to facilitate engagement of smokers with elevated depression symptoms in an outpatient treatment with demonstrated efficacy for nicotine dependence. In Phase 1 of this program, we recruited 15 smokers with MDD who were receiving inpatient psychiatric services. This preliminary report focuses on the development of the intervention, and explores perceived barriers to quitting, methods of quitting, and interest in smoking cessation treatment following discharge from an inpatient stay. Understanding inpatient cigarette smokers’ interests in making changes in smoking, and in willingness to attempt cessation and engage in cessation treatment can inform efforts to curb smoking in this high-risk population.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate Canadian amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) centres with respect to: 1) the prevalence of Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) and invasive mechanical ventilation via tracheostomy (TV) utilization, 2) the approach to NIPPV use, focusing upon the currently employed initiation criteria and 3) the barriers influencing NIPPV administration.
A descriptive survey research design aimed to obtain quantitative data and open-ended responses from an active physician at each of the 15 multidisciplinary Canadian ALS centres.
The principal findings of this study were: 1) NIPPV and TV are used in 18.3% and 1.5% of patients at Canadian ALS centres, respectively, 2) symptoms of respiratory insufficiency, namely orthopnea (clinical significance rated at 9.00/10 ± 1.48), dyspnea (8.27 ± 1.95) and morning headache (7.55 ± 1.21) are the most significant indicators for NIPPV initiation, 3) the primary barriers to NIPPV utilization are patient intolerance (70% of centres) and inaccessibility of respirologists and ventilation technologists (50% of centres).
Variability in NIPPV use has an impact upon the management of Canadian ALS patients. The establishment of more definitive NIPPV initiation criteria, emphasizing respiratory symptoms, and the attenuation of barriers to NIPPV use should be targeted so as to ensure optimal care for all ALS patients.
For families with multiple cases of bipolar disorder this study explored: attitudes towards childbearing; causal attributions for bipolar disorder, in particular the degree to which a genetic model is endorsed and its impact on the perceived stigma of bipolar disorder; and predictors of psychological distress.
Two hundred individuals (95 unaffected and 105 affected with either bipolar disorder, schizo-affective disorder – manic type, or recurrent major disorder) were surveyed, using mailed, self-administered questionnaires.
Thirty-five (35%) participants reported being ‘not at all willing to have children’ or ‘less willing to have children’ as a result of having a strong family history of bipolar disorder. Being not at all or less willing to have children was associated with perceived stigma of bipolar disorder [odds ratio (OR) 2·42, p=0·002], endorsement of a genetic model (OR 1·76, p=0·046), and being affected (OR 2·16, p=0·01). Among unaffected participants only, endorsement of a genetic model was strongly correlated with perceived stigma (rs=0·30, p=0·004). Perceiving the family environment as an important factor in causing bipolar disorder was significantly associated with psychological distress (OR 1·58, p=0·043) among unaffected participants. Among affected participants, perceived stigma was significantly correlated with psychological distress (OR 2·44, p=0·02), controlling for severity of symptoms (p<0·001).
Having a genetic explanation for bipolar disorder may exacerbate associative stigma among unaffected members from families with multiple cases of bipolar disorder, while it does not impact on perceived stigma among affected family members. Affected family members may benefit from interventions to ameliorate the adverse effects of perceived stigma.
We present results from the first successful open call e-VLBI science run, observing the X-ray binary GRS 1915+105. e-VLBI science allows the rapid production of VLBI radio maps, within hours of an observation rather than weeks. A total of 6 telescopes observing at 5 GHz across the European VLBI Network (EVN) were correlated in real time at the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE). Throughout this, GRS 1915+105 was observed for a total of 5.5 hours, producing 2.8 GB of visibilities of correlated data. The peak brightness was 10.2 mJy per beam, with a total integrated radio flux of 11.1 mJy.
Polarimetry in gamma-rays has the capability to enhance our understanding of compact object emission in our galaxy. In particular this diagnostic method could provide useful insight into the geometrical arrangement of these emitting objects and the roles that magnetic fields play in their emisson mechanisms. Gamma Ray Bursts have been studied in this way but the results, perhaps indicating a high degree of polarisation, remain unverified [Coburn & Boggs (2003), Wigger et al. (2004), Willis et al. (2005)]. The nature of GRBs solve many instrumental problems in polarimetry, however their true nature is less well defined and so a study of a better understood object such as the Crab Pulsar, for now, may reveal more as to the physics of the system.
A silicified fauna from the early Permian Coyote Butte Limestone within the Grindstone terrane of central Oregon contains a diverse fauna including five polyplacophorans, one rostroconch, and one problematic taxa. New taxa include Gryphochiton planoplata new species, Arcochiton soccus new species, Homeochiton triangularis new genus and species, Arceodomus sphairikos new species, and Diadeloplax apiculatus new species.
Heterojunction p++ GeSi / Si internal photoemission (HIP) detectors deposited by ultra high vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV/CVD) were investigated as alternatives to silicide Schottky-barrier type detectors for infrared focal plane arrays. HIP structures were grown using SiH4, GeH4, and B2H6 source gases on (100) p- Si substrates patterned with thermal oxide windows. Selective epitaxy was maintained over a range of boron concentrations (6×1019 – 6.5×1020 cm-3) and Ge fractions (0.38–0.50), and a maximum selective thickness of ~300Å was determined for silicon growth at 550°C. These structures were fabricated into IR detectors using techniques compatible with standard Si focal plane array processing technology. Photoresponse data were analyzed according to the modified Fowler equation, indicating cut-off wavelengths of 5–12 (μm) and Cl values of 8–21 (%/eV) depending on sample parameters. I(V) characteristics were also measured at various temperatures, yielding electrical barrier heights consistent with optical measurements.
GexSi1−x, heterojunction internal photoemission devices for detection of infrared radiation have been fabricated from films grown by ultra high vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV/CVD). Films and devices were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), photoresponse, and electrical measurements. Detector efficiencies were found to increase substantially (from ∼ 1.5 to ∼ 20% per eV) as the boron concentration in the absorbing layer was increased from 1×1020 to 2.5×1020 cm−3. Increases in boron concentration beyond 2.5×1020 cm−3 did not significantly improve device performance. This result is attributed to incomplete dopant activation at higher boron concentrations.
The numbers of insects colonizing the dung of cattle injected with the anthelmintics ivermectin or moxidectin were compared with the colonization of the dung from control animals given no treatment, in a blind field trial. Dung was collected 2, 7, 14, and 21 days after dosing and set out in a randomized grid of standard 2 kg pats. Pats were retrieved from each of the three groups group after 7, 14, 21 and 42 days in the field for analysis of insect fauna. There were no significant differences in the number of adult Aphodius spp. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) found in the dung from the three treatment groups with either time of exposure in the field or time after treatment, showing that adult beetles were attracted to all pats equally. However, dung from animals treated with ivermectin prevented the development of larval Aphodius spp. for at least 7 days after treatment. In contrast, the dung from animals treated with moxidectin supported the development of Aphodius spp. at all stages after dosing, as did dung from control animals. There were no significant differences in the number of cyclorrhaphous Diptera larvae in dung from control or moxidectin-treated animals. In contrast, such larvae were largely absent from the dung collected from ivermectin-treated cattle for up to 14 days after dosing. The results show that moxidectin is less toxic to dung-inhabiting insects than ivermectin following standard injection treatment. The results are discussed in relation to the effects of anthelmintics on non-target pastureland insects.
The issue of progressive cognitive decline in patients with schizophrenia has been debated. We performed a cross-sectional study of patients with chronic schizophrenia, aged from 18 to 69 years, in order to address this issue. The patients included in this study passed a rigorous screen for any comorbid condition with an adverse impact on central nervous system function. We assessed intellectual deterioration with a battery of neuropsychological tests known to be sensitive to cognitive impairment in progressive dementia. No evidence of accelerated intellectual decline was found. No significant differences were found between the five age-derived cohorts (18–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, and 60–69 years of age) on the Mini-Mental State Examination, Dementia Rating Scale, or other tests sensitive to dementia. While performance on the Boston Naming Test significantly declined with age, this was mainly due to age rather than duration of illness. However, it is important to note that mean performances on the majority of the tests were abnormal across all cohorts studied. These results suggest that intellectual function does not markedly decline during the adulthood of patients with schizophrenia. The course of schizophrenia is more consistent with a static encephalopathy than a dementing disorder.
The Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (C-GRO) has completed a full-sky survey during which the number of known γ-ray pulsars has more than doubled. COMPTEL has observed the classical pulsars Crab and Vela on several occasions and has derived detailed pulse patterns and spectral parameters in the 0.7-30 MeV energy interval. The new C-GROγ-ray pulsars have different properties in terms of energy spectra and light-curve shapes, and, in fact, only the Crab is seen by all four C-GRO instruments. This raises intriguing questions about the particle acceleration processes and beaming taking place in the neutron magnetosphere. We have examined the COMPTEL data to add information on these objects in the 0.7-30 MeV energy interval and present evidence for the detection of one of them, PSR B1509-58. We have also undertaken a search for candidate radio pulsars whose ephemerides are well defined. The results of these analyses are presented.
Subject headings: gamma rays: observations — pulsars: general
Doped GexSi1−x/Si multiple quantum well structures have been grown by UHV/CVD and characterized by various techniques. SIMS and X- ray confirm the intended modulation of germanium and boron concentrations, and photoluminescence has been used to assess material quality. Strong free- carrier absorption has been observed at normal incidence in some samples. The results suggest that doping intermediate between 4 × 1018 cm−3 and 4 × 1019 cm−3 is necessary for useful detectors.
Time series of SXT (Soft X-ray Telescope) images have revealed many jet-like features in the solar corona. Typical size of the “jet” is 5 × 103 – 4 × 105 km, the typical projected velocity is 30 – 300 km/s, and the kinetic energy estimated to be 1025 – 1028 erg. Many of the jets are associated with flare-like bright points or sub-flares. Three typical examples are discussed, including an X-ray jet identified with an Hα surge. It is suggested that magnetic reconnection is one of the possible mechanisms to produce these X-ray jets.
A description is given of a simple moveable platform which enables workers using stereoscopic microscopes to focus their work accurately without the need to remove their hands from the specimen or work area.