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The electrical reliability of multilayer high density interconnection printed circuit boards (HDI-PCBs) is mainly affected by the thermo-mechanical stability of stacked micro via interconnections. Here, a critical failure mode is the stress related crack between the electrolytically filled via and the target pad, commonly known as target pad separation. The junction includes two Cu-Cu-interfaces, one between the target Cu pad and the thin electroless Cu layer and the second between electroless Cu and electrolytic Cu. In this paper we will show that state-of-the-art electroless Cu plating processes are able to provide solid, completely recrystallized and highly reliable stacked via junctions. Defect free interfaces were achieved by using ionic Pd-activators and electroless Cu baths with a cyanide based stabilizer system. Cyanide free electroless Cu baths tend more to the formation of nanometer sized defects, discovered via Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In this case a precise adjustment of single stabilizer components is mandatory to achieve defect free layers. The defects are hollow and were identified as “nano voids”. A critical density of these nano voids weakens the interface, predefines the crack path and reduces the overall reliability of the junction. A precise localization of the nano voids within the junction was enabled by detecting the Ni-containing electroless Cu layer via TEM-Ni mapping. Slower volume exchange of the electroless Cu solution within the blind micro via (BMV) substantially increases the nano void density. The ability of nano voids to migrate and coalesce at elevated temperatures was investigated as well.
The argument of this article starts with three key theoretical postulates: First, regional-scale explanation differs in important respects from either aggregate macroeconomic studies of development at the national level or microeconomic and business historical studies of individual firms. Second, neoclassical economic theory is unsuitable as a basis for the analysis of regional economic dynamics, and a different framework, called adjustment theory, should be used in its place. Third, utilization of adjustment theory in the historical geographical domain leads directly to the deployment of both the concepts and methods of geographical information science as the foundation for empirical inquiry.
We present a calculation of spin waves in coupled multilayered structures which is based on exact evaluation of both exchange and dipolar fields. The ground state spin configuration in antiferromagnetically coupled multilayers can differ significantly from the uniformly canted ground state usually assumed. This non-uniform ground state is found to radically alter the character of the spin wave modes and sometimes lead to a strong localization of the wave to the outermost magnetic films of the Multilayer.
The ground state spin configuration of antiferromagnetically coupled ferromagnetic thin films is determined by competition between anisotropies, interlayer exchange and the applied magnetic field. It is shown that many details of a ground state spin configuration can be obtained by studying the behavior of the spin wave frequencies as functions of propagation direction and applied field strength. A sensitive dependence on the relative film thicknesses is found for small applied field strengths.
Consistent observation of raised rates of psychoses among Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups may possibly be explained by their lower socio-economic status
To test whether risk for psychoses remained elevated in BME populations compared with the White British, after adjustment for age, gender and current socio-economic status
Population-based study of first-episode DSM–IV psychotic disorders, in individuals aged 18–64 years, in East London over 2 years
All BME groups had elevated rates of a psychotic disorder after adjustment for age, gender and socio-economic status. For schizophrenia, risk was elevated for people of Black Caribbean (incidence rate ratios (IRR)=3.1, 95% CI 2.1–4.5) and Black African (IRR=2.6, 95% CI 1.8–3.8) origin, and for Pakistani (IRR=3.1, 95% CI 1.2–8.1) and Bangladeshi (IRR=2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.7) women. Mixed White and Black Caribbean (IRR=7.7, 95% CI 3.2–18.8) and White Other (IRR=2.1, 95% CI 1.2–3.8) groups had elevated rates of affective psychoses (and other non-affective psychoses)
Elevated rates of psychoses in BME groups could not be explained by socio-economic status, even though current socio-economic status may have overestimated the effect of this confounder given potential misclassification as a result of downward social drift in the prodromal phase of psychosis. Our findings extended to all BME groups and psychotic disorders, though heterogeneity remains
A number of scales are used to estimate the severity of depression. However, differences between self-report and clinician rating, multi-dimensionality and different weighting of individual symptoms in summed scores may affect the validity of measurement. In this study we examined and integrated the psychometric properties of three commonly used rating scales.
The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered to 660 adult patients with unipolar depression in a multi-centre pharmacogenetic study. Item response theory (IRT) and factor analysis were used to evaluate their psychometric properties and estimate true depression severity, as well as to group items and derive factor scores.
The MADRS and the BDI provide internally consistent but mutually distinct estimates of depression severity. The HAMD-17 is not internally consistent and contains several items less suitable for out-patients. Factor analyses indicated a dominant depression factor. A model comprising three dimensions, namely ‘observed mood and anxiety’, ‘cognitive’ and ‘neurovegetative’, provided a more detailed description of depression severity.
The MADRS and the BDI can be recommended as complementary measures of depression severity. The three factor scores are proposed for external validation.
Good control of steel flow through the submerged entry nozzle (SEN)
during the continuous casting process is essential for improving surface quality
and reducing cleanliness defects. Argon bubbles, biased flow and alumina deposits
may all contribute to actual flow differing from the ideal case. The steel flow
visualization project aims to penetrate the “black box”, which is the SEN, using
electromagnetic techniques. A sensor array consisting of transmitter and receiver
coils is positioned around an SEN and the resultant signals are compared to those
from pilot plant measurements designed to simulate known continuous casting conditions.
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