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The terrestrialization of life has profoundly affected the biosphere, geosphere and atmosphere, and the Geological Magazine has published key works charting the development of our understanding of this process. Integral to this understanding – and featuring in one of the Geological Magazine publications – is the Devonian Rhynie chert Konservat-Lagerstätte located in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Here we provide a review of the work on this important early terrestrial deposit to date. We begin by highlighting contributions of note in the Geological Magazine improving understanding of terrestrialization and Palaeozoic terrestrial ecosystems. We then introduce the Rhynie chert. The review highlights its geological setting: the Caledonian context of the Rhynie Basin and its nature at the time of deposition of the cherts which host its famous fossils. There follows an introduction to the development of the half-graben in which the cherts and host sediments were deposited, the palaeoenvironment this represented and the taphonomy of the fossils themselves. We subsequently provide an overview of the mineralization and geochemistry of the deposit, and then the fossils found within the Rhynie chert. These include: six plant genera, which continue to provide significant insights into the evolution of life on land; a range of different fungi, with recent work starting to probe plant–fungus interactions; lichens, amoebae and a range of unicellular eukaryotes and prokaryotes (algae and cyanobacteria); and finally a range of both aquatic and terrestrial arthropods. Through continued study coupled with methodological advances, Rhynie fossils will continue to provide unique insights into early life on land.
Resistance to atrazine (a photosystem II [PSII] inhibitor) is prevalent in waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J. D. Sauer] across the U.S. Midwest. Previous research suggests that target-site mutation or rapid metabolism of atrazine mediated by glutathione S-transferase (GST) conjugation confers resistance in A. tuberculatus from Illinois. The distribution and mechanism of resistance to atrazine in A. tuberculatus populations from Nebraska (NE) are unknown. In this research we (1) evaluated the response and frequency of resistance in NE A. tuberculatus to soil-applied PSII (metribuzin and atrazine) and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (sulfentrazone) inhibitors, as well as POST-applied atrazine; and (2) determined the mechanism of atrazine resistance in NE A. tuberculatus. The chloroplastic psbA gene, coding for a D1 protein (the target site of atrazine) was sequenced in 85 plants representing 27 populations of A. tuberculatus. Furthermore, 24 plants selected randomly from four atrazine-resistant (AR) populations were used to determine the metabolism of atrazine via GST conjugation. Results from the soil-applied herbicide evaluation suggest that metribuzin (0.56 kg ai ha−1) and sulfentrazone (0.28 kg ai ha−1) were effective on A. tuberculatus management. PRE and POST screenings against atrazine in the greenhouse indicate that atrazine (1.345 kg ai ha−1) was not effective on 39% and 73% of the A. tuberculatus populations evaluated (total of 109 and 85 populations, respectively), suggesting the prevalence of atrazine resistance in A. tuberculatus in NE. Sequence analysis of the psbA gene found no known point mutations conferring atrazine resistance. However, the AR plants conjugated atrazine via GST activity faster than the known atrazine-susceptible A. tuberculatus. Overall, the outcome of this study demonstrates the predominance of metabolism-based resistance to atrazine in A. tuberculatus from NE, which may predispose this species to evolve resistance to other herbicides. The use of integrated management strategies for A. tuberculatus is crucial for the control of this troublesome species.
We report major new insights from recent research at the Powars II Paleoindian red ocher quarry (48PL330). We salvaged more than 7,000 artifacts from Powars II between 2014 and 2016 by screening redeposited sediment from the talus slope below the intact portion of the site. Clovis artifacts dominate the diagnostic artifact assemblage, including 53 Clovis points, 33 preforms, and artifacts associated with a previously unrecognized blade core industry. We report the first radiocarbon dates from the site, determined from dating bone tools, which indicate Cody-aged use (ca. >10,000 cal BP). Further, salvage efforts discovered a previously unknown toolstone source from which many of the Clovis artifacts were produced. The Powars II Clovis points most resemble early Paleoindian points from the far Northern Plains and were likely both produced and discarded in the red ocher quarry after hunting, as evidenced by preform production and the presence of impact fractures on many used points. Given these production and discard patterns, Powars II holds some of the best evidence archaeologists currently have for Paleoindian ritualism related to hunting.
With the widespread shift from models of welfare to business-led development, capacity development offers a useful lens from which to consider the emergence of Indigenous social enterprise as a business-led development approach. We explore capacity development from the international development literature and identify capacity development principles in the context of an Indigenous social enterprise in remote northeast Arnhem Land. Here, Aboriginal Australians continue to experience poverty and marginalisation. This paper provides an ethnographic example of the relationship between Indigenous social enterprise and capacity development. Identifying principles of capacity development in this rich context reveals the remit of the Indigenous social enterprise privileges environmental stewardship and cultural maintenance.
In 1997 the idea of a European Public Prosecutor was floated in the Corpus Juris Project as one of a series of measures designed to ensure that fraud on the Community budget would be detected and punished. This chapter describes how in the UK the proposal was misrepresented by the eurosceptic press, and how Parliament reacted to the distorted version by changing the law to render any future participation by the UK in a project to create a European Public Prosecutor practically impossible.
My paper on the Corpus Juris project in the first volume of this Yearbook closed by saying, in effect, “Watch this space!” At the end it told how, at the time of writing, the European Parliament and Commission had re-engaged the original team that drafted the proposals, plus some others, and constituted them as a Comité du suivi with instructions to find out how hard or easy it would be to integrate the Corpus scheme into the existing legal systems of the Member States. And it also told how the House of Lords Select Committee on the European Communities had begun to carry out a study of the Corpus project.
This chapter examines the efforts in Europe and and the UK to deal with the problem of people-trafficking. As readers will see, it is in five Sections. The first sets the scene by explaining what ‘people-trafficking’ is, and outlining the history of international attempts to repress it and to relieve its human consequences. The second describes the recent legislative attempts to deal with it in Europe, and in particular, the EU Framework Decision of 2002. The third examines the UK legislation enacted with the aim—not entirely accurate, as we shall see—of implementing it. The fourth looks at the way the UK legislation is working. And the final section concludes with two general reflections. It is based on a study carried out in 2007 for ECLAN, the European Criminal Law Academic Network. Any reader who reaches the end with a thirst for further knowledge will find further refreshment in the book that resulted from the ECLAN study, which was published earlier this year.
When a criminal case with trans-border ramifications is to be prosecuted within a given state, the following three problems typically arise:
—bringing the defendant, currently abroad, to that state, to enable the case against him to be tried;
—obtaining relevant evidence from other jurisdictions;
—persuading the courts of the state where the defendant is to be tried that they can use it.
The first of these problems is in principle the most important. Unless a legal system is prepared (as some were in the past) to try defendants in absentia and then punish them in effigy, the defendant’s physical presence within the jurisdiction of the court is usually required in order to bring the mechanism of the criminal law to bear upon him.
In broad terms, there are two approaches to returning suspects and convicted persons to the other countries where they are wanted, and would prefer for obvious reasons not to go.
One is what is called in the common law world ‘the backing of warrants’. Here, the authorities of the jurisdiction where the person is wanted issue their normal warrant of arrest, which is sent directly to the authorities of the jurisdiction where he is, who endorse it if it appears to be in order, and give it to their policemen to execute it as if it were their own. The suspect is then ‘lifted’, and handed over to the authorities of the country where he is wanted with the minimum of fuss—the unspoken premise being that the authorities of the requesting jurisdiction normally act lawfully and reasonably, and their arrest warrants can be taken at face value and acted upon unless a strong reason to the contrary can be given.
Firn-densification modeling based on hot isostatic pressing with power-law creep is investigated using depth–density data from 38 sites that collectively have mean annual temperatures ranging from 216 to 256 K and accumulation rates ranging from 0.022 to 1.2 m w.e. a−1. We use an inverse technique to obtain free parameters in a simple physical model for different stages of time-dependent firn densification. Our model works as well as or slightly better than previous models interpolating within the data range, but extrapolating would require additional physics.
The use of spanwise waviness in wings has been proposed in the literature as a possible mechanism for obtaining improved aerodynamic characteristics, motivated by the tubercles that cover the leading edge of the pectoral flippers of the humpback whale. We investigate the effect of this type of waviness on the incompressible flow around infinite wings with a NACA0012 profile, using direct numerical simulations employing the spectral/hp method. Simulations were performed for Reynolds numbers of
, considering different angles of attack in both the pre-stall and post-stall regimes. The results show that the waviness can either increase or decrease the lift coefficient, depending on the particular
and flow regime. We observe that the flow around the wavy wing exhibits a tendency to remain attached behind the waviness peak, with separation restricted to the troughs, which is consistent with results from the literature. Then, we identify three important physical mechanisms in this flow. The first mechanism is the weakening of the suction peak on the sections corresponding to the waviness peaks. This characteristic had been observed in a previous investigation for a very low Reynolds number of
, and we show that this is still important even at
. As a second mechanism, the waviness has a significant effect on the stability of the separated shear layers, with transition occurring earlier for the wavy wing. In the pre-stall regime, for
, the flow around the baseline wing is completely laminar, and the earlier transition leads to a large increase in the lift coefficient, while for
, the earlier transition leads to a shortening of the separation bubble which does not lead to an increased lift coefficient. The last mechanism corresponds to a sub-harmonic behaviour, with the flow being notably different between subsequent wavelengths. This allows the wing to maintain higher lift coefficients in some portions of the span.
Cyg X-3 underwent a series of giant radio outbursts beginning on September 28, 1982 (Geldzahler et al. 1983). The flux densities at 2.7 and 8.1 GHz (11.1, 3.71 cm respectively, see Figure 1) were measured with the 2.4 km baseline of the Green Bank interferometer once every three days before October 5, 1982 (= JD 244 5248) and three times daily thereafter.
The remains of the progenitor stars of supernovae are likely to have compact radio structure and steep radio spectra, as in the cases of pulsars and SS433. An instrument which is sensitive to compact structure at low frequencies is therefore suitable for a search for new objects. The radio-linked interferometer comprising the MK IA 76m telescope and the Defford 25m telescope situated 127 km to the south has a resolution of ∼1 arcsec at 408 MHz and is ideal for such a task.
The size, and therefore the importance, of the population of compact, steep-spectrum, radio sources has only recently been recognised. While it is now clear that the extended steep-spectrum sources are powered by a pair of, originally anti-parallel, beams which transport energy to the outer lobes some 105–106 parcsec away, our understanding of the compact steep-spectrum sources is almost nil. This is largely because our radio maps have not had high enough resolution to show their structures in any detail. However 1.67 and 5 GHz MERLIN observations (resolutions 0″.25 and 0″.1) of the ~20 steep-spectrum 3CR sources whose LAS is ≲2″ have now allowed us to classify their structures, at least in broad terms. These MERLIN maps, and recent VLBI maps, show that while there is a wide range of structures - from colinear doubles to amorphous “blobs” - the “peculiar” structures are strongly concentrated in the objects whose optical counterparts are called QSO's.
SS433 has been under intensive study for the past five years in almost all wavelength bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. This peculiar object is generally regarded (Beer 1981) as being a binary system composed of a main sequence star losing mass via Roche lobe overflow to a massive accretion disk associated with a compact object, probably a neutron star. The binary period is 13.1 days. Supercritical accretion onto the disk causes about 10−6 M⊙/year of ionised matter to be ejected in the form of jets with a relatively constant velocity of 0.26 c along the disk axis. The disk (or the inner part of it) precesses with a period of about 164 days, although there is evidence that this may not be constant. The half angle of the precession cone is ~20° and its axis lies at an angle of ~80° to the line of sight. The main sequence star loses mass at a rate of 10−4 to 10−6 M⊙/yr into a stellar wind with the result that a relatively dense environment surrounds the binary system.
A series of MERLIN observations at λ6 cm of the peculiar object SS433 were made during the spring/summer of 1982. The maps obtained by hybrid mapping show that an elongated structure was formed, extending to ~1 arcsec in length before evolving into two symmetrically placed knots of radio emission straddling a central unresolved core. The structures can be compared with the loci of radio emission expected on the twin jet model for SS433. The knots C and D clearly visible on the map of 820514 (= JD2445104, Figure 1) fit the locus well and were ejected on JD2445085 ±2 at the same time as a strong outburst in the X band total power (Johnston et al. 1983). Knots A and B were ejected earlier but do not lie on the expected locus, even if allowance for the nodding motions proposed by Katz et al. 1982 is made.