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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Improve infrastructure, resources, partnerships, and metrics to enhance the research environment for Hispanic researchers as a Minority Serving Institution. To support the research infrastructure in our Campus to encourage a research culture of sustainability and productivity. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Development of four research capacity-building models to enhance the pathway of junior researchers as independent researchers:1. MSc Phase I-Scholar Award 2 years in a Post Doctoral Master in CTR ; 2. Advanced CTR Award 1 year to support research infrastructure development in submitting a grant to NIH with the mentoring of a Visiting Endowed Chair; 3. Mini Infrastructure Research Award 1 year provides funds to increase research productivity; 4. Award on Excellence in CTR recognizes a faculty member with a distinguished research portfolio that support HiREC Career Coach and Mentoring approach. HiREC targets junior faculty, early and mid-career researchers from our two partners Schools. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: HiREC has been recognize as support for research infrastructure development. Since 2011, 10 MSc Phase I-Scholar Awards have been granted increasing the pool of trained Hispanics researchers in P. R., the Advanced CTR Award of $50,000 each, from March, 2019, was granted to 2 women researchers from the SoM and 2 Visiting Endowed Chair were accepted as candidates. The Mini Infrastructure Research Award, since 2017, supported the development of 2 Science labs, data analysis, 3 peer review publications and other research capacity building. Two researchers from the SoM were honored with the HiREC 2018 Award on Excellence in CTR heighten the institutional recognition of top researchers’ endeavors. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: It’s imperative to pursue specific strategies that lead to successful research capacity-building models. By acknowledging institutional research infrastructure needs, trendy scientific and technological knowledges and researchers’ needs, HiREC have been able to successfully accomplish its mission. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: Authors have no conflict of interest in this research.
Induced delusional disorder (also known as shared paranoid disorder or folie à deux) is an uncommon disturbance characterized by the presence of similar psychotic symptoms in two or more individuals. Most commonly a primary case can be distinguished from other one or more cases, in whom the symptoms are induced. the patients implied in the shared delusional symptoms are frequently linked by close relationship bonds, mostly family ties. Its epidemiology remains unclear, because very few data is available. There are some requirements concerning the persons involved for the development of this disorder:
1. Close coexistence and intimate emotional links between the two people are observed;
2. The delusional content is plausible and can be based on past events or expectations;
3. Typically, the induced individual has an easily influenciable personality.
We describe and comment one case of shared paranoid disorder between a 29 year old schizophrenic patient and her 43 years old sister. both share a persecution and prejudice delusion involving the Chinese community of their hometown. after a few days of inward treatment at separated psychiatric wards, the delusional symptoms in the older sister started to improve.
Our intention is making a review on a diagnosis that remains controversial nowadays. Treatment should begin with the separation of the induced and the inducer. Anyhow, a psychopharmacological treatment is required in both individuals. It seems clear, however, that the prognosis of the induced and the inducer is different, according to a variety of factors.
The start of Child and Adolescent attention to gender dysphoria is very recent. In our Unit, it has objectified a growing increase in such demand over recent years.
As a typical example would be a patient of 13 years following gender dysphoria begins to present school failure and behavior problems at home with emotional instability.
According to the recommendations of the Group Identity and Sexual Differentiation (GIDSEEN) after early detection is to guide parents towards a comprehensive treatment at a specialized interdisciplinary teams and a psychosocial approach to improve the quality of life, decrease mental comorbidity and gender dysphoria own. Having no such care in our community has been necessary to make a referral to another community to attend this demand.
Currently it is giving adequate attention to these cases, but except for referral to another community. However, as we are seeing progression care in our area in the future could be feasible. Therefore, we consider as a first step dysphoria quantify each case in our area.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Depression is a disease with high prevalence all over the world. Selective serotonine reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and dual antidepressants (DA) are worldwide used to treat the different types of depressive episodes. Between the adverse events of these compounds, an unusual but potentially severe side effect is the syndrome of inapropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH).
Results and discussion
Several cases published, and an amount of cases series have documented the association of SIADH to the use of SSRIs and DA. All SSRIs and DA are at risk of producing SIADH (fluoxetine, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, sertraline, citalopram, escitalopram, venlafaxine and duloxetine). Old age has been found as a risk factor for developing SIADH. There are not enough data to conclude that other risk factors can play a role in the development of this adverse event. Treatment should include the immediate withdrawal of the antidepressant. The introduction of other antidepressants is controversial, as SIADH has been related with all antidepressive treatments; but the risk of relapse into a depressive episode must be considered also. Between symptomatic treatments, the control of water intake and the use of low doses of loop diuretics can be recommended. Severe cases can be treated with higher doses of loop diuretics and saline hypertonic solution.
SIADH has been related with SSRIs and DA antidepressants and it is an infrequent but severe adverse event. Its risk must be considered when prescribing treatment with them. If this adverse event is produced, the substitution of the antidepressant should be done.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Maintaining antipsychotic therapy in mental disorder is important in preventing relapse, rehospitalization, and suicide. Lack of awareness of illness may be a leading cause for non-adherence. Long-acting depot can prevent non- adherence and thus potentially contribute to better patient outcomes.
The aim of this prospective, observational, non interventional 2-year-long study is to assess severity and post-intervention changes and attitudes toward medication of a group of patients treated paliperidone palmitate (PP).
Thirty-three outpatients stabilised with PP during the last 24 months. Inclusion criteria were: patients’ age (> 18 years), a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder stabilised during the last 12 months with PP, without a diagnostics from axis I or II (except for nicotine of caffeine) and able to sign the inform consent. Data collected: general sociodemographic and clinical data (age, sex, level of education, socioeconomic situation, family support, psychiatric diagnosis, years of evolution, use/abuse of substances, treatment, previous and later number of hospitalisations. Evaluations included disease severity (Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) and Drug Attitude Inventory, (DAI)).
Thirty-threeoutpatients were followed during 24 months [mean dose 132,58 (44,4) mg], 75,8% were men, age 45,05 years old, 87,8% with a diagnoses of paranoid schizophrenia. Antipsychotic monotherapy increased over the time with PP. Significant improvements were observed on both Clinical Global Impression and Drug Attitude Inventory. The number of rehospitalizations and mean stays decreased from the beginning until the end of these 24 months.
Our results suggest an improvement in the patient's clinical vision and attitude towards medication with long-acting depot.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The Altamira Yellowthroat Geothlypis flavovelata is endemic to north-eastern Mexico, with a restricted distribution due to the spatial arrangement of its major habitat: wetlands. Given the lack of information regarding this vulnerable and endemic landbird, here we describe and analyse the sites where we recorded it in Northern Veracruz, as well as its population density, and natural history information. Our results show that the average density of this endemic yellowthroat is 1.006 ind/ha, with more individuals recorded in Tecolutla when compared to Tuxpan. We found a strong association between the Altamira Yellowthroat and southern cat-tail Typha domingensis, although we found scenarios under which the presence of the cat-tail was not a determinant of Altamira Yellowthroat presence. In light of the strong anthropogenic pressures on wetlands in the region, the Altamira Yellowthroat has become highly vulnerable. Thus, if we aim to preserve this endemic species, together with other wetland-dependent species, it is crucial to moderate –and even stop– human pressures on these ecosystems and mitigate past damages.
We investigate the growth of gas bubbles in a water solution at rest with a supersaturation level that is generally associated with diffusive mass transfer. For
bubbles, it has been previously observed that, after some time of growing in a diffusive regime, a density-driven convective flow enhances the mass transfer rate into the bubble. This is due to the lower density of the gas-depleted liquid which surrounds the bubble. In this work, we report on experiments with different supersaturation values, measuring the time
it takes for convection to dominate over the diffusion-driven growth. We demonstrate that by considering buoyancy and drag forces on the depleted liquid around the bubble, we can satisfactorily predict the transition time. In fact, our analysis shows that this onset does not only depend on the supersaturation, but also on the absolute pressure, which we corroborate in experiments. Subsequently, we study how the depletion caused by the growth of successive single bubbles influences the onset of convection. Finally, we study the convection onset around diffusively growing nitrogen
is much less soluble in water, the growth takes much longer. However, after waiting long enough and consistent with our theory, convection still occurs as for any gas–liquid combination, provided that the density of the solution sufficiently changes with the gas concentration.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The Title V Cooperative Project of the UPR-MSC and UCC has demonstrated that educational interventions in CTR are very effective in fulfilling the objective of promoting awareness, stimulate interest and increase the knowledge, skills and opportunities, to US, GS and F (participants) in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The training sessions (TS) offered through the Title V initiative have become an engine for the involvement in CTR for participants from higher education institutions island-wide. TS consisted of cycles –level 1 and 2–: Research Education Towards Opportunities (RETO,I,II) and Mentorship Offering Training Opportunities for Research (MOTOR,I,II), ending in the formation of the Clinical and Translational Mentoring Teams (CTMT)s, in which participants, paired by their research interests, were mentored by a well-established CT researchers in their research project, to be developed in the Intensive Development and Experiences in Advancement of Research and Increased Opportunities (IDEARIO). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Up to date, 4 TS-level 1 and 2 TS-level 2 were offered. Eighty (80) participants completed level 1, distributed: 42 (52.5%) US in RETO, 21 (26.25%) GS and 17 (21.25%) F in MOTOR and 17 participants completed level 2, distributed: 4 (23.52%) US in RETO, 6 (25.29%) GS and 7 (41.17%) F in MOTOR. From which, 15, with 8 CT researchers, formed 5 CTMTs in different research areas – cardio, neuro, liver, renal, Zika–. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: US, GS and F were integrated in the active process throughout educational levels for their development in CTR.
This study aimed to molecularly survey Bartonella in dogs from Chile. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for Bartonella spp. based on nuoG gene was performed in 139 blood samples taken from dogs belonging to rural localities of the Valdivia Province, Los Ríos region, southern Chile. nuoG qPCR-positive samples were submitted to conventional PCR assays for ftsZ, gltA, rpoB and nuoG genes and sequencing for speciation and phylogenetic analysis. Based upon qPCR results, Bartonella spp. occurrence in dogs was 4.3% (6/139). Out of six nuoG qPCR-positive samples, six, three, two and none showed positive results in cPCR assays based on gltA, ftsZ, rpoB and nuoG genes, respectively. Consistent sequencing results were obtained only for the ftsZ gene from sample #1532 (GeneBank accession number: MG252491), and gltA gene from samples #1535 (MG252490) and #1532 (148 bp fragment that was not deposited in GenBank). Phylogenetic analysis of ftsZ and gltA genes allowed speciation of two nuoG-positive samples, one as Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and the other as B. henselae. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. henselae are detected for the first time in dogs from Chile, highlighting the importance of the canine population as a source of zoonotic agents and potential infection risk to humans.
Remote sensing (RS) offers an efficient and reliable means to map features on Earth. Crop type mapping using RS at various temporal and spatial resolutions plays an important role spanning from environmental to economical. The main objective of the current study was to evaluate the significance of optical data in a multi-temporal crop type classification-based on very high spatial resolution and high spatial resolution imagery. With this aim, three images from WorldView-3 and Sentinel-2 were acquired over Coalville (UK) between April and July 2016. Three vegetation indices (VIs); the normalized difference vegetation index, the green normalized difference vegetation index and soil adjusted vegetation index were generated using red, green and near-infrared spectral bands; then a supervised classification was performed using ground reference data collected from field surveys, Random forest (RF) and decision tree (DT) classification algorithms. Accuracy assessment was undertaken by comparing the classified output with the reference data. An overall accuracy of 91% and κ coefficient of 0·90 were estimated using the combination of RF and DT classification algorithms. Therefore, it can be concluded that integrating very high- and high-resolution imagery with different VIs can be implemented effectively to produce large-scale crop maps even with a limited temporal-dataset.
The number of dengue epidemics in Brazil has increased dramatically in the last 15 years. In this study, we analysed the seasonal patterns in the incidence of hospitalisations due to dengue across the different states of Brazil and compared these with the corresponding climatic patterns. We discovered that the seasonality of dengue hospitalisations in Brazil has a clear zonal gradient, characterised by the progression of primary peaks from West to East during the first half of the year, which may be associated with the increased vapour pressure and rainfall during this period, leading to increased mosquito abundance and activity. We also found that the proportion of children among hospitalised individuals was especially high during the peak outbreaks in 2007/2008 and 2010. This may be due to the emergence and spread of the new DENV-2 Southeast Asian genotype lineage II from 2007, which has probably arrived from the Caribbean and may have caused an increase in incidence and severity of the disease, particularly among children. Our findings may allow health systems to improve control interventions and contribute to reducing dengue morbidity and mortality by using integrated vector control in conjunction with early diagnosis and prompt supportive care.
Salmonella is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness. We report the collaborative investigative efforts of US and Canadian public health officials during the 2013–2014 international outbreak of multiple Salmonella serotype infections linked to sprouted chia seed powder. The investigation included open-ended interviews of ill persons, traceback, product testing, facility inspections, and trace forward. Ninety-four persons infected with outbreak strains from 16 states and four provinces were identified; 21% were hospitalized and none died. Fifty-four (96%) of 56 persons who consumed chia seed powder, reported 13 different brands that traced back to a single Canadian firm, distributed by four US and eight Canadian companies. Laboratory testing yielded outbreak strains from leftover and intact product. Contaminated product was recalled. Although chia seed powder is a novel outbreak vehicle, sprouted seeds are recognized as an important cause of foodborne illness; firms should follow available guidance to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination during sprouting.
Investigating whether high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) types tend to become grouped in a particular way and whether factors are associated with such grouping is important for measuring the real impact of vaccination. In total, 219 women proving positive for HPV as detected by real-time PCR were included in the study. Each sample was analysed for detecting and quantifying six viral types and the hydroxymethylbilane synthase gene. Multiple correspondence analysis led to determining grouping patterns for six HR-HPV types and simultaneous association with multiple variables and whether viral load was related to the coexistence of other viral types. Two grouping profiles were identified: the first included HPV-16 and HPV-45 and the second profile was represented by HPV-31, HPV-33 and HPV-58. Variables such as origin, contraceptive method, births and pregnancies, educational level, healthcare affiliation regime, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and viral load were associated with these grouping profiles. Different socio-demographic characteristics were found when coinfection occurred by phylogenetically related HPV types and when coinfection was due to non-related types. Biological characteristics, the number of viral copies, temporality regarding acquiring infection and competition between viral types could influence the configuration of grouping patterns. Characteristics related to women and HPV, influence such interactions between coexisting HPV types reflecting the importance of their evaluation.
Two-dimensional group IV layers beyond graphene, as silicene, germanene and the Sn-based stanene, have been recently synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy. Density Functional Theyory (DFT) calculations predict low-buckled structures for these 2D nanosheets, with a hexagonal honeycomb conformation, typical of the graphene-like surfaces. The buckling parameter δ increases from Si to Sn-based layers, with a maximum predicted of 0.92 Å for stanene. High-buckled structures for these materials resulted to be unstable. We have previously shown that for silicene and germanene, the origin of the buckled structure resides on the pseudo Jahn-Teller puckering distortion, resulting from non-adiabatic effects. It has been shown that hexagermabenzene, the single hexagonal unit of germanene, is subject to a strong vibronic coupling whose origin is the pseudo Jahn-Teller effect. This coupling resulted to be around ten times larger than the one obtained for hexasilabenzene. For stanene, an additional effect needs to be considered to understand the origin of buckling: the spin-orbit coupling (SOC). This SOC contributes to open an electronic band gap, enabling the use of these layers as nanoelectronic components. In this work, we present an analysis based on DFT in the Zeroth-Order Regular Approximation (ZORA) for both scalar relativistic and spin-orbit versions that quantify the influence of the spin-orbit coupling in the puckering of Sn6H6. Also, under the linear vibronic coupling model between the ground and the lowest excited states, we present the pseudo Jahn-Teller contribution. The scalar ZORA approximation is used to perform time-dependent DFT calculations to incorporate the low-energy excitations contributions. Our model leads to the determination of the coupling constants and predicts simultaneously the Adiabatic Potential Energy Surface behavior for the ground and excited states around the maximum symmetry point. These values allow us to compare the Jahn-Teller relevance in buckling with the other group IV layers.
Germanene, the 2D graphene-like Ge nanosheet, has been recently the subject of many theoretical studies and experimental attempts to synthesize it on Ag(111), Au(111) and Pt(111) surfaces. The experimental and theoretical evidences of germanene show a 2D continuous honeycomb layer with a buckled conformation. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have predicted a larger buckling for germanene than silicene whose origin is also associated with a pseudo Jahn–Teller (PJT) effect. In this work we show that despite the fact that both, silicene and germanene possess a buckled conformation with a PJT origin, their vibronic coupling have different origins. The analysis is based on the PJT puckering instability of the hexagermabenzene molecule, the single hexagonal unit of germanene. This is done through the linear vibronic coupling model between the ground and the lowest excited states, which leads to a puckering distortion of the more symmetric cluster. We study both, the multilevel superposition vibronic model and possible mixing of excited states of different irreducible representations, which have been used to show the origin of similar structural transitions in hexagonal silicon and gold ring systems respectively. We show that contrary to other cases with one six-member rings, for the hexagermabenzene molecule a mixture of both the multilevel PJT and a ground state coupling with two quasi-degenerate excited states is necessary for a satisfactory explanation of puckering. Our model allows a determination of the coupling constants and predicts simultaneously the Adiabatic Potential Energy Surface (APES) behavior for the ground and excited states around the maximum symmetry point. The analysis is based on a scalar relativistic DFT and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations in the Zero Order Regular Approximation (ZORA) using the B3LYP hybrid functional.
Endemic species and those with restricted distribution ranges are a priority and national responsibility for global conservation. Fuertes’s Oriole Icterus fuertesi is a Mexican endemic species and is perhaps one of the least known birds in the country. It has traditionally been regarded as conspecific with the Orchard Oriole I. spurius, but recently it has been suggested that it is a distinct species, causing concern about its risk status. There is a scarcity of information related to the geographic and seasonal distribution of Fuertes’s Oriole, as well as a lack of information regarding its abundance and habitat preferences. We gathered all the available records, and used ecological niche modelling to analyse the spatial and temporal patterns of the distribution of the species. We also carried out field surveys in the surroundings of known locations of the species in order to determine its abundance. We found that the species is narrowly and locally restricted to the surroundings of eight localities along the Gulf coast of Mexico that constitute small and discontinuous areas of presence. We also found no evidence of migration to the Pacific Coast in winter, as has been historically thought. Instead, our results suggest that the species exhibits a short-distance migration, with northern populations migrating to the southern range along the Gulf coast of Mexico. Analysis of abundance and field observations confirm that the species is restricted to highly modified wetland landscapes associated with urban and semi-urban habitats. Based on these results, we suggest the urgent reassignment of its risk category.
Two in vitro experiments were conducted to analyse the effects of replacing dietary barley grain with wastes of tomato and cucumber fruits and a 1 : 1 tomato : cucumber mixture on rumen fermentation characteristics and microbial abundance. The control (CON) substrate contained 250 g/kg of barley grain on a dry matter (DM) basis, and another 15 substrates were formulated by replacing 50, 100, 150, 200 or 250 g of barley grain/kg with the same amount (DM basis) of tomato or cucumber fruits or 1 : 1 tomato : cucumber mixture. In Expt 1, all substrates were incubated in batch cultures with rumen micro-organisms from goats for 24 h. Increasing amounts of tomato, cucumber and the mixture of both fruits in the substrate increased final pH and gas production, without changes in final ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) concentrations, substrate degradability and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, indicating that there were no detrimental effects of any waste fruits on rumen fermentation. Therefore, in Expt 2 the substrates including 250 g of waste fruits (T250, C250 and M250 for tomato, cucumber and the mixture of both fruits, respectively) and the CON substrate were incubated in single-flow continuous-culture fermenters for 8 days. Total VFA production did not differ among substrates, but there were differences in VFA profile. Molar proportions of propionate, isobutyrate and isovalerate were lower and acetate : propionate ratio was greater for T250 compared with CON substrate. Fermentation of substrates containing cucumber (C250 and M250) resulted in lower proportions of acetate, isobutyrate and isovalerate and acetate : propionate ratio, but greater butyrate proportions than the CON substrate. Carbohydrate degradability and microbial N synthesis tended to be lower for substrates containing cucumber than for the CON substrate, but there were no differences between CON and T250 substrates. Abundance of total bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens, fungi, methanogenic archaea and protozoa were similar in fermenters fed T250 and CON substrates, but fermenters fed C250 and M250 substrates had lower abundances of R. flavefaciens, fungi and protozoa than those fed the CON substrate. Results indicated that tomato fruits could replace dietary barley grain up to 250 g/kg of substrate DM without noticeable effects on rumen fermentation and microbial populations, but the inclusion of cucumber fruits at 250 g/kg of substrate DM negatively affected some microbial populations as it tended to reduce microbial N synthesis and changed the VFA profile. More studies are needed to identify the dietary inclusion level of cucumber which produces no detrimental effects on rumen fermentation and microbial growth.