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We study the asymptotic behavior in Sobolev norm of the local time of the d-dimensional fractional Brownian motion with N-parameters when the space variable tends to zero, both for the fixed time case and when simultaneously time tends to infinity and space variable to zero.
Few randomised clinical trials have examined the efficacy of an
intervention aimed at improving psychosocial functioning in bipolar
To examine changes in psychosocial functioning in a group that has been
enrolled in a functional remediation programme 1 year after baseline.
This was a multicentre, randomised, rater-masked clinical trial comparing
three patient groups: functional remediation, psychoeducation and
treatment as usual over 1-year follow-up. The primary outcome was change
in psychosocial functioning measured by means of the Functioning
Assessment Short Test (FAST). Group×time effects for overall psychosocial
functioning were examined using repeated-measures ANOVA (trial
There was a significant group×time interaction for overall psychosocial
functioning, favouring patients in the functional remediation group
(F = 3.071, d.f. = 2, P =
Improvement in psychosocial functioning is maintained after 1-year
follow-up in patients with bipolar disorder receiving functional
Functional remediation is a novel intervention with demonstrated efficacy at improving functional outcome in euthymic bipolar patients. However, in a previous trial no significant changes in neurocognitive measures were detected. The objective of the present analysis was to test the efficacy of this therapy in the enhancement of neuropsychological functions in a subgroup of neurocognitively impaired bipolar patients.
A total of 188 out of 239 DSM-IV euthymic bipolar patients performing below two standard deviations from the mean of normative data in any neurocognitive test were included in this subanalysis. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were conducted to assess the impact of the treatment arms [functional remediation, psychoeducation, or treatment as usual (TAU)] on participants’ neurocognitive and functional outcomes in the subgroup of neurocognitively impaired patients.
Patients receiving functional remediation (n = 56) showed an improvement on delayed free recall when compared with the TAU (n = 63) and psychoeducation (n = 69) groups as shown by the group × time interaction at 6-month follow-up [F2,158 = 3.37, degrees of freedom (df) = 2, p = 0.037]. However, Tukey post-hoc analyses revealed that functional remediation was only superior when compared with TAU (p = 0.04), but not with psychoeducation (p = 0.10). Finally, the patients in the functional remediation group also benefited from the treatment in terms of functional outcome (F2,158 = 4.26, df = 2, p = 0.016).
Functional remediation is effective at improving verbal memory and psychosocial functioning in a sample of neurocognitively impaired bipolar patients at 6-month follow-up. Neurocognitive enhancement may be one of the active ingredients of this novel intervention, and, specifically, verbal memory appears to be the most sensitive function that improves with functional remediation.
Defect structures in Rubidium Titanyl Phosphate (RTP) crystals (non-doped and doped) grown by the Top Seeded Solution Growth (TSSG) method were characterized using Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography. Main defects observed in non-doped crystals are growth sector boundaries while both growth sector boundaries and growth striations are observed in the Nb single doped and (Nb,Yb)-codoped crystals with relatively few linear defects such as dislocations. Results show that the overall crystalline quality is lowered as more doping elements are incorporated. Details of defect distributions are correlated with the growth process to facilitate high quality growth of doped RTP.
The possibility of using quantitative kinematic traits as indirect selection criteria for sport performance could be beneficial to perform an early genetic evaluation of the animals. The genetic parameters for objectively measured kinematic traits under field conditions have been estimated for the first time, in order to potentially use these traits as indicators of gait quality in future selection of the Lusitano breed. The repeatability within three different types of training (dressage, bullfighting and untrained) was also discussed. A total of 176 males (4 to 14 years old) were recorded at trot in hand using a 3D videographic system. The speed and 10 kinematic traits were studied (one temporal, two linear and seven angular variables). The genetic parameters of the kinematic variables were estimated using VCE software. The heritability estimates were moderate to high (0.18 to 0.53). The stride length and the forelimb angular variables presented the highest heritabilities (0.49 to 0.53), whereas the hindlimb angular variables revealed the lowest values (0.18 to 0.40). More than half of the genetic correlations were moderately to highly positive (mostly 0.20 to 0.70; up to 0.88 between hindlimb traits). The dressage and bullfighting groups presented the highest repeatabilities (over 0.6) in the majority of the traits, maybe because of the acquired gait regularity expected in animals subjected to specific training, and suggesting a greater influence of the individuals over the kinematic traits studied in these two subpopulations than in the untrained subpopulation. The longer swing phase duration and the larger range of motion of the elbow, hock and pelvis joints observed in the dressage group may indicate a better gait quality of this group, according to FEI (International Equestrian Federation) standards. The bullfighting and untrained groups were more similar to each other in terms of kinematic traits. Selection of young horses for characteristics such as stride length and the hindlimbs traits can apparently contribute to further genetic improvement of the performance of Lusitano breed.
We have examined supported PtRus specimens by a variety of electron microscopy techniques, including high resolution, analytical and a novel mass-spectroscopic electron microscopy techniques. Analytical electron microscopy results showed that the relative atomic concentration of Pt to Ru for each PtRu5 cluster is 1 to 5. The average diameter of the clusters was a 15.6Å, and the average number of atoms was measured to be 24 atoms per cluster. The combination of these techniques demonstrate that the PtRu5 clusters are raft-like on the carbon black support.
In the current investigation we have used the hydrogenation of ethylene and crotonaldehyde as probe reactions in an attempt to follow any changes in catalytic behavior induced by supporting nickel on different types of graphite nanofiber support materials. The hydrogenation of the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde to the desired product, crotyl alcohol, is a particularly difficult task since there is a strong tendency to hydrogenate both the C=C and C=O in the reactant molecule. This study is designed to compare the catalytic behavior of the metal particles when dispersed on three types of nanofibers, where the orientation of the graphite platelets within the structures is significantly different in each case. The metal crystallites are located in such a manner that the majority of particles are in direct contact with graphite edge regions. For comparison purposes, the same set of hydrogenation reactions were carried out under similar conditions over γ-Al2O3 supported nickel particles.
Fullerenes were found to catalyze coupling and transalkylation reactions of mesitylene, engage in transfer hydrogenations with dihydroaromatics, and cleave strong bonds such as those in diarylmethanes. In all of these reactions, fullerenes show a marked ability to accept and to transfer hydrogen atoms. The key structural feature that endows fullerenes with many of its characteristics is the presence of a pentagon surrounded by hexagons. We suspected that fullerene soot, unlike graphitic carbon, contained pentagons in a hexagonal lattice, and that these sites imparted the soot with the desired chemical attributes of strong electrophilic nature and an ability to stabilize radicals. In subsequent studies, we have shown fullerene soot to be very effective in catalyzing various H-transfer reactions, including the conversion of methane into higher hydrocarbons. When compared with other carbons, such as activated carbons and acetylene black, the fullerene soot is much more reactive for oligomerization and hydrodealkylation of alkylbenzenes. Because this activity remains, even in chemically extracted and partially oxidized soot, the observed catalysis is not a result of residual soluble fullerenes.
The gels derived from mixtures of Pr(OiC3H7)3 and Zr(OiC3H7)4•iC3H7OH, upon hydrolysis and pyrolysis, furnish single-phase PrOy-ZrO2 materials crystallized in the fluorite structure. These materials can be coated onto high-surface-area γ-alumina powders or deposited onto dense α-alumina coupons in the form of thin films from a solution of parent alkoxides modified with 2,4-pentanedione in THF. The fluorite structure of the PrOy-ZrO2 in the films appears to be thermally stable in air up to 1200°C. Temperature-programmed-reduction (TPR) measurements show that the bulk PrOy-ZrO2 material with a Pr. Zr molar ratio of 1:1 can store and release oxygen while that with a molar ratio of 1:3 cannot.
The precursors play an important role in determining phase composition of the resulting PrOy-ZrO2 material. A mixture of monoclinic and cubic or tetragonal phases was found in PrOy-ZrO2 prepared from a new single-source heterometallic alkoxide, Pr2Zr6(μ4-O)2(μ-OAc)6(μ-OiPr)10(OiPr)10, whereas a mixture of cubic and tetragonal phases was present in PrOy-ZrO2 made previously by coprecipitation from aqueous solutions of the metal nitrates.
Mixed Metal Phospho-Sulfates were prepared and evaluated for use as acid catalysts via 2-methyl-2-pentene isomerization and o-xylene isomerization. Particular members of this class of materials exhibit greater levels of activity than sulfated zirconia as well as lower rates and magnitudes of deactivation. 31P MAS NMR has been used to examine the role of phosphorous in contributing to the activity and deactivation behavior of these materials, while powder X-ray diffraction, BET surface area, IR, and elemental analysis were used to characterize the bulk catalysts.
Thin films of (001) and (100) oriented rutile phase TiO2, undoped or doped with Ga or Nb, have been grown using the MOCVD technique on sapphire substrates for use in studies of the effects of humidity on the electrical properties of rutile, lbe crystallographic and microstructural quality of the films decreases with increasing Ga and Nb concentrations. Heteroepitaxy is, however, maintained with Ga or Nb concentrations up to 4.5 at% for the (001) orientation and to 0.5 at% Ga for the (100) orientation. The electrical properties of the (001) oriented rutile films have been characterized from room temperature to 225 °C in dry and humid, N2 and air atmospheres. At constant temperature in dry atmospheres, the conductance of the Nb-doped rutile films is greater than that of the undoped, which is greater than the conductance of the Ga-doped films. The activation energies for conduction in die Nb-doped and undoped rutile films in dry atmospheres are similar (∼0.1 eV), whereas the activation energy in Ga-doped films is much greater (∼0.8 eV). The effects of humidity in reducing the resistance of rutile is greatest in the Ga-doped and very min (∼150 Å) undoped films. Humidity is observed to have similar effects on both the (001) and (100) oriented 0.5 at% Ga-doped films.
Hybrid catalysts with the external configuration for the cocatalyst showed enhanced product diffusion rates in the n-octane hydrocracking, only if the reaction was carried out at relatively high temperatures. In the n-heptane isomerization, direct incorporation of the Al species into the HY zeolite micropores produced sorption sites which positively affected the selectivity to liquid isomers. Such as internal hybrid configuration resulted in a more important increase in the liquid isomer selectivity than that given by the external hybrid configuration, both systems being designed for better product outward-diffusion.
An horizontal hot-wall MOCVD reactor was used to prepare palladium and platinum catalysts supported on alumina. A conventional impregnated Pt on alumina catalyst was prepared as comparison. The solids were characterized by XRD, Auger spectroscopy, HREM and H2 -TPR. The operation conditions of the MOCVD reactor were fixed preparing several Pd catalysts until to find the appropriate deposition zone. The particle size of Pt catalysts prepared by MOCVD was at about 7 nm compared with 6 ran obtained with the Pt impregnated catalyst, measured by XRD. The HREM image of the Pt MOCVD catalyst showed a narrower particle size ranging from 1 to 4 nm. After calcination three Pt compounds were detected by TPR, which were attributed to PtO, PtO2 and Pt-Al2O3 interaction in MOCVD preparation. Additionally, a clear reduction of surface oxygens of alumina was also observed.
The relationship between the chemical composition, bulk real structure, surface properties and catalytic activity of dispersed complex framework zirconium phosphates with a NASICON-type structure is considered. For both crystalline and amorphous samples, a model of their bulk structure is suggested. The Lewis and Bröensted acidity was shown to vary broadly and be dependent upon the composition and preparation procedure, which is important for catalysts of hydro-carbons activation. Selective catalytic reduction of NOx by methane in excess oxygen appears to be one of the application areas for these systems.
The advancement of imprint lithography as a method for fabricating nanostructures is impeded by a lack of effective tools for characterizing mechanical properties and geometry at the nanoscale. In this report, we describe the development of methods for determining elastic moduli and cross sectional dimensions of imprinted nanolines from Brillouin light scattering (BLS) measurements using finite-element (FE) and Farnell-Adler models for the vibrational modes. An array of parallel nanoimprinted lines of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with widths of ∼65 nm and heights of ∼140 nm served as a model specimen. Several acoustic modes were observed with BLS in the low-gigahertz frequency range, and the forms of the vibrational displacements were identified through correlation with calculations using measured bulk-PMMA moduli and density as input. The acoustic modes include several flexural, Rayleigh-like, and Sezawa-like modes. Fitting of Farnell-Adler calculations to the measured dispersion curves was explored as a means of extracting elastic moduli and nanoline dimensions from the data. Some values obtained from this inversion analysis were unrealistic, which suggests that geometric approximations in the model introduce significant systematic errors. In forward calculations, the frequencies determined with the FE method are found to more closely match measured frequencies. This suggests that the FE approach may be more accurate for inversion analysis. Initial estimates of uncertainties in the FE calculations support this conclusion.