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It is the purpose of these notes to set out briefly the most prominent features of Pension Funds. No attempt will be made to go into the many intricate questions involved when formulae have to be deduced.
The primary purpose of a Pension Fund is to make provision for the declining years of life, and therefore some form of benefit accruing at superannuation is always included. It is found, however, that allowance has usually to be made for other causes of cessation of activity, and so benefits upon retirement through ill-health, upon voluntary withdrawal, and upon death before the attainment of the age which normally qualifies a member for a pension, are introduced. Thus, in a full scheme, after certain initial periods have passed, practically the only case in which no tangible benefit is derived is that in which a man is dismissed for misconduct.
It will be recognised at once that with four main types of benefit as a basis and an illimitable fund of human ingenuity upon which to draw, the number of different allowances found in practice is very great. Only a few can be indicated here.
HPA is updating and consolidating its advice on radiation emergencies and recovery.
Current advice was published in 1997. Since 2007, the ICRP has issued a set of
recommendations to elaborate its guidance for emergency exposure and existing exposure
situations. It is expected that the European Basic Safety Standards, when published, will
also reflect the ICRP recommendations. The new ICRP guidance represents a marked change in
approach, with emphasis placed on optimisation of whole protection strategies using
reference levels of residual dose. These new concepts as well as the relevant lessons
identified following the Fukushima accident will be included in the new UK advice
document. The scope of the UK advice includes reactor and transport accidents as well as
releases from waste stores, reprocessing and defence activities. The revised advice will
consider the initiation of emergency countermeasures based on averted dose criteria and
optimisation of the subsequent protection strategy based on reference levels of residual
dose. The advice will illustrate that the type of protection strategy selected depends on
the contribution of different exposure pathways over time to projected dose, and this will
vary according to the scenarios considered as reasonably foreseeable. Due to the potential
impact of the advice, a wide range of stakeholders are being consulted. In particular,
feedback will be required on the potential for adapting current practices for sheltering
and stable iodine prophylaxis to situations involving longer duration releases or those
with a prolonged threat phase. The advice document will contain guidance for emergency
planning and response, criteria for the withdrawal of emergency countermeasures, factors
to consider during the transition to an existing exposure situation and the management of
long term contaminated areas. It is the first time that the whole spectrum of advice will
be presented in a single publication, which is expected to be published in 2013, following
a public consultation process.
Reactive MBE growth was used to synthesize ferromagnetic Cr-doped GaN and AlN thin films with Curie temperatures above 900K. 2% Cr-doped GaN and 7% Cr-doped AlN were found to have a saturation magnetization moment of 0.42 and 0.6 μB/Cr atom, indicating that ∼14% and ∼20% of the Cr, respectively, are magnetically active. Structural characterization using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) did not find evidence of a ferromagnetic secondary phase. Electrical characterization indicate that the resistivity of the Cr-doped GaN films depends exponentially on temperature as R=Roexp[(To/T)1/2], characteristic of variable range hopping. In contrast, Cr-doped AlN films are highly resistive. Local spin density functional calculations predict that Cr forms a deep level defect in both systems and the t2 level falls approximately at midgap. Our theoretical and experimental results indicate that ferromagnetism in Cr-doped GaN and AlN arises as a result of the double exchange mechanism within the partially filled Cr t2 band.
Increasing prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been reported in Canada. We report the results of a prospective surveillance of MRSA infections in Alberta over a consecutive 3-year period. A total of 8910 unique clinical MRSA isolates was analysed from July 2005 to June 2008. The incidence of MRSA infection increased over the study period and was highest in males, age group ⩾85 years, and the Calgary Area. CMRSA10 (USA300) and CMRSA2 (USA100/800) were the most common PFGE strain types, representing 53·0% and 27·9% of all isolates, respectively. Significant differences were noted between MRSA strains in the source of infection and antimicrobial susceptibility. The incidence of MRSA infection in Alberta has nearly doubled in the last 3 years; this is attributed to the emergence of CMRSA10 as the predominant strain.
We examine the closure conditions of the probabilistic consequence relation of Hawthorne and Makinson, specifically the outstanding question of completeness in terms of Horn rules, of their proposed (finite) set of rules O. We show that on the contrary no such finite set of Horn rules exists, though we are able to specify an infinite set which is complete.
Maize (Zea mays L.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were each sown at four plant densities, including zero, in a bivariate factorial design at Kiboko Rangeland Research Station, Kenya during the long and short rains of 1990. The design gave nine intercrops with different proportions of maize and beans, and six sole crops, three of maize and three of beans. Seed yields in both the sole crops were not significantly affected by plant density, so the mean yield was used to calculate the Land Equivalent Ratio (LER), which averaged 1·09 in the long rains but only 0·87 in the short rains. These low values were apparently due to the fact that beans failed to nodulate and fix nitrogen in the study area. The difference in LER between seasons was probably caused by differences in the amount and distribution of rain in relation to crop growth. Maize was more competitive than bean, each maize plant being equivalent to between 0·7 and 3·4 bean plants depending upon the treatment and the season.
The effect of long-term (10 weeks) treatment with growth hormone (GH) was investigated in twin lambs, one sibling being a control and the other treated with GH (0.1 mg/kg live weight per d). The lambs were fed on a concentrate-grass cube (9: 1 w/w) diet at a daily rate of 40 g fresh weightlkg Live weight. The average daily live-weight gain of the GH-treated lambs was 36% greater than that of the controls (307 v. 225 g/d, P < 0.01). The carcass composition of the GH-treated lambs changed: fat content was decreased (P < 001) and protein content was increased (P< 0.05) when expressed relative to carcass dry matter. The absolute weights and the weights when expressed relative to fleece-free empty body of some muscles were significantly increased in GH-treated lambs. The mean retention times of both particulate- and liquid-phase components of the digesta were unchanged by GH treatment, when calculated for the rumen or for the entire gastrointestinal tract. The feed conversion ratio was significantly greater (P < 0.01) in GH-treated lambs compared with controls. Nitrogen retained per g N intake was also significantly increased (P < 0.05) by GH treatment. Plasma urea concentrations were decreased (P < 005) and glucose concentrations were increased (P< 001) in GH-treated lambs, whereas non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were unchanged. Plasma insulin and total insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations progressively increased in GH-treated lambs as treatment time continued. They were significantly correlated after week 4 of treatment. Two types of hepatic GH- binding site were detected, with high and low affinities for GH. The capacities of both binding sites were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in GH-treated lambs when expressed per unit microsomal protein but, when expressed per liver, only the capacity of the high-affinity site was increased.
At a field site in central India, four populations of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) were grown on stored water to investigate how the production of shoot and root dry matter is related to transpired water and intercepted radiation. Throughout the season, total dry matter was closely related to transpiration (slope = 3.0 mg dry matter g−1 water) and the amount of radiation intercepted by foliage (slope = 0.74 g dry matter MJ−1 radiation intercepted). Accumulated transpiration increased linearly with intercepted radiation at 0.37 kg water MJ−1 in the sparser stands. In the densest spacing, the initial slope of the relation at 0.28 kg MJ−1 decreased later in the season because water deficits curtailed growth without a concomitant reduction in the interception of radiation.
The growth of roots and shoots was measured in stands of groundnut grown at a number of populations on stored water in central India. Total weight and length of roots per unit land area increased with population density, but the proportional increases were much less than for shoot weight. Consequently the root:total weight ratio increased from 0.3 in the densest stand to almost 0.5 in the widely spaced crop. The denser stands produced a greater proportion of their roots at depth. In wide rows there was little change in rooting density across the inter-row space.
Total dry matter per unit land area increased with population, although the weight per plant was less in denser stands. Although the crops were harvested prematurely, pod yield per unit land area, unlike total dry matter, was no greater in dense stands than in more widely spaced crops. The greatest number of pods per unit land area was recorded at an intermediate population density.