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XRF and Ion mfcroprobe analyses of fossils of known and uncertain provenance from the Lower-Middle Pleistocene locality of Kanjera. Kenya, are reported. The goal of this study was to develop a nondestructive technique of provenancixig fossils, which could be applied to the Kanjera sample. The fossils of known provenance were collected in the excavations of the 1987 Smithsonian Expedition. Three fossils of uncertain provenance, two specimens of Theropithecus oswaldi and a hominid fossil, were analyzed as test cases.
Both qualitative and quantitative XRF analyses of Kanjera fossils were carried out. In the qualitative analysis, the elemental peak areas from each fossil's XRF spectrum were calculated and normalized to the peak area of the incoherently scattered radiation. Results of the analysis showed that fossils from the Lower-Middle Pleistocene Kanjera Beds, for the most part, had higher levels of yttrium (Y) and zirconium (Zr) than those of the younger Apoko (Ap) Bed. black cotton soil (BCS) and modem bones (MD). The relative concentrations of uranium (U) v strontium (Sri and thorium (Th) were diagnostic of the Kanjera Bed of origin. These findings were confirmed by quantitative XRF and ion microprobe analyses of a subsample of Kanjera fossils. The T. oswaldi and hominid fossils had trace element concentrations suggestive of K2 and BCS provenances, respectively. These findings provide a framework for the qualitative XRF provenancing of other surface collected fossils from the locality.
Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) has been applied to the detection and quantification of metal contamination on the surface and near-surface regions of silicon wafers in the semiconductor industry The need for improving the sensitivity and detection limit of the TXRF technique is driven by the progress in producing thinner films and finer features in the development of larger Mbit DRAMS.
This manuscript provides a global perspective on physician and nursing education and training in paediatric cardiac critical care, including available resources and delivery of care models with representatives from several regions of the world including Africa, Israel, Asia, Australasia, Europe, South America, and the United States of America.
Time series of SXT (Soft X-ray Telescope) images have revealed many jet-like features in the solar corona. Typical size of the “jet” is 5 × 103 – 4 × 105 km, the typical projected velocity is 30 – 300 km/s, and the kinetic energy estimated to be 1025 – 1028 erg. Many of the jets are associated with flare-like bright points or sub-flares. Three typical examples are discussed, including an X-ray jet identified with an Hα surge. It is suggested that magnetic reconnection is one of the possible mechanisms to produce these X-ray jets.
The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR BSI) reduction programme and healthcare workers' compliance with recommendations. A 3-year surveillance programme of CR BSIs in all hospital settings was implemented. As part of the programme, there was a direct observation of insertion and maintenance of central venous catheters (CVCs) to determine performance. A total of 38 education courses were held over the study period and feedback reports with the results of surveillance and recommendations were delivered to healthcare workers every 6 months. A total of 6722 short-term CVCs were inserted in 4982 patients for 58 763 catheter-days. Improvements of compliance with hand hygiene was verified at the insertion (87·1–100%, P < 0·001) and maintenance (51·1–72·1%, P = 0·029) of CVCs; and the use of chlorhexidine for skin disinfection was implemented at insertion (35·7–65·4%, P < 0·001) and maintenance (33·3–45·9%, P < 0·197) of CVCs. There were 266 CR BSI incidents recorded with an annual incidence density of 5·75/1000 catheter-days in the first year, 4·38 in the second year [rate ratio (RR) 0·76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·57–1·01] and 3·46 in the third year (RR 0·60, 95% CI 0·44–0·81). The education programme clearly improved compliance with recommendations for CVC handling, and was effective in reducing the burden of CR BSIs.
We succeeded in photovoltaic power generation of p-i-n solar cells utilizing epitaxial ZnInON film with a wide band gap of 3.1 eV as the intrinsic layer, suitable for a top cell of tandem solar cells. The solar cell shows a high open circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.68 V under solar simulator light irradiation of 3.2 mW/cm2. The solar cell performance becomes worse under 100 mW/cm2, which is mainly attributed to the leakage current caused by crystal defects and grain boundaries. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the ZnInON film has rather large tilt and twist angles and a high dislocation density of 7.62×1010 cm-2. Such low crystallinity is a bottleneck for high performance of the solar cells. Our results demonstrate a potential of epitaxial ZnInON films as an intrinsic layer of wide band gap p-i-n solar cells with a high Voc.
Effects of surface morphology of buffer layers on ZnO/sapphire heteroepitaxial growth have been investigated by means of “nitrogen mediated crystallization (NMC) method”, where the crystal nucleation and growth are controlled by absorbed nitrogen atoms. We found a strong correlation between the height distribution profile of NMC-ZnO buffer layers and the crystal quality of ZnO films. On the buffer layer with a sharp peak in height distribution, a single-crystalline ZnO film with atomically-flat surface was grown. Our results indicate that homogeneous and high-density nucleation at the initial growth stages is critical in heteroepitaxy of ZnO on lattice mismatched substrates.
To examine the prevalence of human pathogens carried by rats in urban areas in Hanoi and Hai Phong, Vietnam, we live-trapped 100 rats in January 2011 and screened them for a panel of bacteria and viruses. Antibodies against Leptospira interrogans (22·0%), Seoul virus (14·0%) and rat hepatitis E virus (23·0%) were detected in rats, but antibodies against Yersinia pestis were not detected. Antibodies against L. interrogans and Seoul virus were found only in adult rats. In contrast, antibodies to rat hepatitis E virus were also found in juvenile and sub-adult rats, indicating that the transmission mode of rat hepatitis E virus is different from that of L. interrogans and Seoul virus. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of the S and M segments of Seoul viruses found in Rattus norvegicus showed that Seoul viruses from Hai Phong and Hanoi formed different clades. Human exposure to these pathogens has become a significant public health concern.
Snacks, stress and parties all contribute to the weight gain – the elusive ‘Freshman 15’ – that some college-goers unfortunately experience. The present study examines how à la carte snack choice changes on a university campus during each progressing week of the academic calendar.
How à la carte snack choices change on a university campus with each progressing week of the academic calendar was examined.
The data were collected from three large cafeterias (or dining halls) on Cornell University's campus during four semesters (Fall 2006, Spring 2007, Fall 2007 and Spring 2008), for 18 weeks in each semester.
After the à la carte snack items were divided into healthy snacks and unhealthy snacks, the percentage share for each food category was calculated.
Within each semester, the unhealthy snack food choices increased consistently by 0·4 % per week (β = 0·00418, P < 0·01). Furthermore, a sharp (8 %) increase occurred in the final two weeks of the semester. In contrast, healthy snack food choices decreased by almost 4 % (β = −0·0408, P < 0·01) in the final two weeks during the fall semester.
These results demonstrate an increased demand for hedonic, or unhealthy, snack foods as the college semester progresses and in particular at the very end of the semester. To counter this tendency towards unhealthy snacking, cafeterias and stores should make extra effort to promote healthy alternatives during the later weeks of the semester.
A nanoscale dynamic mechanical analysis (nano-DMA) measurement method has been successfully developed for use in evaluating nanoscale dynamic viscoelastic properties in small-scale polymer materials over a range of non-ambient temperatures from -120 oC to 500 oC. Measurements have been obtained with a nanoindentation measurement system, in which two key techniques are applied. One is a thermal protection system for control and prevention of thermal drift and noise. The other is an environmental control system for preventing corrosion at high temperatures and dew condensation at low temperatures. Measurement reliability was examined by using a combination of a thermal-mechanically stable fused silica and a homogeneous sample of isotropic polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Constant hardness and modulus values of the fused silica from -120 oC to 500 oC indicated that the measurements were not affected by thermal load drift and noise even at elevated temperatures. The PET sample exhibited no significant difference in temperature dispersions of storage elastic modulus, loss elastic modulus and loss tangent between the nanoindentation measurement data and bulk data measured with a conventional DMA method. A practical application involving surface-deteriorated polyethylene (PE) tubes was used to demonstrate the validity and usefulness of this nano-DMA method. Infrared spectroscopic imaging revealed that the surface layer of the PE tubes was oxidized to form a carbonylated (O=C<) layer. The storage elastic modulus and glass-transition temperature of the surface layer were much higher than the corresponding values of the interior. These data indicate a plausible reason for why the PE tube surface deteriorates to form brittle cracks.
In this paper, we report infrared absorption studies of HfO2, HfO2/Si interface and Hf(1−x)SixOy. Both HfO2 crystallization and SiO2 formation at the interface can be clearly detected in the absorption spectra in the far and middle infrared regions, respectively. By measuring the intensity change and the peak shift of infrared absorption spectra as functions of annealing temperature and time together with XRD patterns, we discuss a difference of the amorphous structure between HfO2 and SiO2, and also show an evolution of HfO2 crystallization in the monoclinic phase up to 1000 °C. On the other hand, it is shown that the interfacial SiO2 layer is qualitatively similar to the thermally grown SiO2. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a Si incorporation into HfO2 film significantly changes the IR absorption spectra, and that the Hf(1−x)SixOy film is phase-separated with an appearance of modified monoclinic phase by higher temperature annealing.
We have prepared poly-Si1-xGex thin films with different germanium contents (Ge=5%∼40%) by reactive thermal CVD. In this study, the Ge content was controlled by varying the source gases GeF4 flow rate at a fixed Si2H6 flow rate. The effects of GeF4 flow rate on growth rate, film crystallinity, and electrical properties were investigated. The films were always polycrystalline when GeF4 was introduced even in a small amount, while only amorphous film deposited without GeF4. With an increase in GeF4 flow rate, Ge content and conductivity of the films increased and its activation energy decreased. When GeF4 flow rate over a certain value, the growth rate decrease and finally no film could be deposited. These behaviors are discussed in relation with a role of GeF4 for the crystal growth at a low temperature.
We investigated the third-order nonlinear optical response of a Gay-Berne system at the isotropic, nematic, and smectic phases by molecular dynamics simulation. The components of the optical response were calculated for the three different axes with respect to the director of the system, separately. In the nematic phase, in particular, we observed that the response function does not vanish at long times. This means that the orientation of the director of the system is permanently changed by an instant irradiation of polarized light, as a result of third-order nonlinear optical response. In the smectic phase, however, all the components of the response function decay quickly. Our results give a theoretical background at molecular level on the interpretation of the reported experimental observations of peculiar dynamics of liquid crystalline systems at irradiation of laser lights.
PbTiO3-covered ZnO nanorods were grown on Al2O3
by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), and their crystalline orientation was investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Structural analysis by scanning electron microscopy and XRD revealed that the hexagonal ZnO nanorods had -side facets. XRD analysis of PbTiO3 thin films on ZnO/Al2O3
revealed that PbTiO3 was epitaxially grown on ZnO, showing 6 variants of crystallites with the c-axis tilted either 27o or 69o from the surface normal to the ZnO plane. Effective piezoelectric coefficients calculated for the 27o and 69o-crystallites using piezoresponse force microscopy confirm that deformation of nanorods and nanotubes contributed to the large electrically-induced strain along the radial direction.
The bonding of Si atoms in μc-Si:H thin films has been investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in conjunction with infra-red spectroscopy (IR), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and analytical electron microscopy (TEM/EDX/EELS) data. By using a-Si:H and single crystal silicon as reference samples, structural and hydrogen effects could be assessed, since both a-Si:H and μc-Si:H have a similar concentration of hydrogen based on the N15 hydrogen profiling data, but different structures. On the other hand, single crystal silicon and μc-Si:H both have a diamond cubic structure based on electron diffraction data, but single crystal silicon contains little or no hydrogen except adsorbed at the surface. Based on the XPS and IR data, charge transfer of the Si2p core level towards a deep lying level was observed in the μc-Si:H material. IR measurements snowed a large amount of hydrogen was located in the grain boundaries. The charge transfer is mainly due to a change in the hydrogen bonding configuration. A well bonded oxide is formed in the μc-Si:H material near the surface with an almost complete absence of the Si3+ intermediate oxide state. The presence of a large amount of hydrogen (25 at.%) even at a high volume fraction (70%) of μc-phase may limit the oxidation and promote better oxide formation. The variation of the quality of the oxide/μc interface could be a possible explanation for the different photoluminescence observed by various groups for porous μc-Si material.
Excimer laser crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has been investigated as a function of substrate temperature. At low substrate temperatures hydrogen out-diffusion strongly influences the film morphology, while at 420 °C homogeneous recrystallized films are obtained, as a result of the reduced solidification velocity. This process has been successfully tested by fabricating with the recrystalllized material thin-film transistors according to the bottom-gate configuration.
In this work, we report on the electronic properties of polysilicon thin films and devices realised via furnace crystallisation of undoped a-Si: H. The onset of crystallisation, degree of amorphisation and average grain size are determined by UV reflectivity and electron microscopy. Grain size is found to increase with decreasing a-Si:H substrate temperature, and a maximum areal grain size of 0.4μm2 is obtained. Optical absorption, DC conductivity and transient photoconductivity measurements are employed to examine carrier transport mechanisms. We observe a Meyer-Neldel relationship between the DC conductivity prefactor σ0 and activation energy Eσ. A plasma hydrogenation treatment of the as-crystallised films results in an order of magnitude increase in the DC conductivity and a similar increase in photoconductivity. This is consistent with a shift of the Fermi level position 0.06 eV towards the conduction band. Additionally, analysis of the transient photoconductivity infers a reduced density of states. We discuss the implications of our results for polysilicon TFT optimisation.