To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Glaciological ablation is computed from point-scale data at a few ablation stakes that are usually regressed as a function of elevation and averaged over the area-elevation distribution of a glacier. This method is contingent on a tight control of elevation on local ablation. However, in debris-covered glaciers, systematic and random spatial variations of debris thickness modify the ablation rates. We propose and test a method to compute sub-debris ablation where stake data are interpolated as a function of debris-thickness alone and averaged over the debris-thickness distribution at different parts of the glacier. We apply this method on Satopanth Glacier located in Central Himalaya utilising ~1000 ablation measurements obtained from a network of up to 56 stakes during 2015–2017. The estimated mean sub-debris ablation ranges between 1.5±0.2 to 1.7±0.3 cm d−1. We show that the debris-thickness-dependent regression describes the spatial variability of the sub-debris ablation better than the elevation dependent regression. The uncertainties in ablation estimates due to the corresponding uncertainties in the measurement of ablation and debris-thickness distribution, and those due to interpolation procedures are estimated using Monte Carlo methods. Possible biases due to a finite number of stakes used are also investigated.
Culture-based studies, which focus on individual organisms, have implicated stethoscopes as potential vectors of nosocomial bacterial transmission. However, the full bacterial communities that contaminate in-use stethoscopes have not been investigated.
We used bacterial 16S rRNA gene deep-sequencing, analysis, and quantification to profile entire bacterial populations on stethoscopes in use in an intensive care unit (ICU), including practitioner stethoscopes, individual-use patient-room stethoscopes, and clean unused individual-use stethoscopes. Two additional sets of practitioner stethoscopes were sampled before and after cleaning using standardized or practitioner-preferred methods.
Bacterial contamination levels were highest on practitioner stethoscopes, followed by patient-room stethoscopes, whereas clean stethoscopes were indistinguishable from background controls. Bacterial communities on stethoscopes were complex, and community analysis by weighted UniFrac showed that physician and patient-room stethoscopes were indistinguishable and significantly different from clean stethoscopes and background controls. Genera relevant to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) were common on practitioner stethoscopes, among which Staphylococcus was ubiquitous and had the highest relative abundance (6.8%–14% of contaminating bacterial sequences). Other HAI-related genera were also widespread although lower in abundance. Cleaning of practitioner stethoscopes resulted in a significant reduction in bacterial contamination levels, but these levels reached those of clean stethoscopes in only a few cases with either standardized or practitioner-preferred methods, and bacterial community composition did not significantly change.
Stethoscopes used in an ICU carry bacterial DNA reflecting complex microbial communities that include nosocomially important taxa. Commonly used cleaning practices reduce contamination but are only partially successful at modifying or eliminating these communities.
Language and Materiality integrates linguistic anthropological and sociolinguistic scholarship on a range of topics: semiotic approaches to language, language commodification, sound, embodiment, mediatization, and aesthetics. Empirically rigorous, the volume engages scholars and students interested in language, its use, and meanings. It consists of three sections - 'Texts, Objects, Mediality', 'Sound, Aesthetics, Embodiment', and 'Time, Place, Circulation' - containing chapters and short commentaries, framed by a curated conversation about semiotics and materiality in anthropology. Each section theorizes intersections, connections, and relationships between language and materiality across diverse topics and ethnographic contexts. The volume shows that materiality may be approached as a feature of political economy, sensual experience, aesthetics, and affective relationships in its relation to language as talk, register, genre, ideology, and acoustic object. It consists of new perspectives on materiality as a vital dimension of social life and signification in global capitalism, connecting inquiries on subjects as diverse as food, media, fonts, and music.
Modelling the response of Himalayan glaciers to rapid climate change is an important problem. The poorly understood effects of debris cover and the variable response of the glaciers have made it difficult to understand their dynamics. We propose a simple model for debris-covered glaciers and validate it against data from Dokriani Glacier, India. Numerical investigations of the model show that the response of debris-covered glaciers to a warming climate has two timescales. There is a period when the glacier loses ice by thinning but the front is almost stationary and it develops a long, slow-flowing tongue. This stationary period, which can be >100 years for glaciers with a large extent of debris cover, is negligible for bare glaciers. The quasi-stagnant tongue does not develop in response to cooling. An analysis of remote-sensing data in the light of these results indicates that the variable response of the glaciers in the Himalaya is consistent with a climate that is warming on average, but has considerable spatial variability in the warming rates. We estimate the average warming rate to be about the same as the global average.
The effects of fragmentation and overstorey tree diversity on tree regeneration were assessed in tropical rain forests of the Western Ghats, India. Ninety plots were sampled for saplings (1–5 cm diameter at breast height (dbh); 5×5-m plots) and overstorey trees (>9.55 cm dbh; 20×20-m plots) within two fragments (32 ha and 18 ha) and two continuous forests. We tested the hypotheses that fragmentation and expected seed-dispersal declines (1) reduce sapling densities and species richness of all species and old-growth species, and increase recruitment of early-successional species, (2) reduce the prevalence of dispersed recruits and (3) increase influence of local overstorey on sapling densities and richness. Continuous forests and fragments had similar sapling densities and species richness overall, but density and richness of old-growth species declined by 62% and 48%, respectively, in fragments. Fragments had 39% lower densities and 24% lower richness of immigrant saplings (presumed dispersed into sites as conspecific adults were absent nearby), and immigrant densities of old-growth bird-dispersed species declined by 79%. Sapling species richness (overall and old-growth) increased with overstorey species richness in fragments, but was unrelated to overstorey richness in continuous forests. Our results show that while forest fragments retain significant sapling diversity, losses of immigrant recruits and increased overstorey influence strengthen barriers to natural regeneration of old-growth tropical rain forests.
Avalanching is a prominent source of accumulation on glaciers that have high and steep valley-walls surrounding their accumulation zones. These glaciers are typically characterised by an extensive supraglacial debris cover and a low accumulation area ratio. Despite an abundance of such glaciers in the rugged landscapes of the High Himalaya, attempts to quantify the net avalanche contribution to mass balance and its long-term variation are almost missing. We first discuss diagnostic criteria to identify strongly avalanche-fed glaciers. Second, we develop an approximate method to quantify the magnitude of the avalanche accumulation exploiting its expected control on the dynamics of these glaciers. The procedure is based on a simplified flowline model description of the glacier concerned and utilises the known glaciological mass-balance, velocity and surface-elevation profiles of the glacier. We apply the method to three Himalayan glaciers and show that the data on the recent dynamics of these glaciers are consistent with a dominant contribution of avalanches to the total accumulation. As a control experiment, we also simulate another Himalayan glacier where no significant avalanche contribution is expected, and reproduce the recent changes in that glacier without any additional avalanche contribution.