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Introduction. In §1 of this paper we consider the complex differential equation
1, |z| < 1,
where q(z) is a regular function in the open unit circle. We shall give a lower bound for the non-Euclidean distance of any pair of zeros of any non-trivial (i.e., not identically zero) solution u(z) of (1).
Risk populations for HIV infections tend to neglect condom use, making alternative preventive approaches necessary. Accordingly, we modelled the risk of sexual HIV transmission for condom use vs. use of rapid diagnostic test (RDT) systems with subsequent exclusion of potential sexual partners with a correctly or falsely positive test from unprotected sex with and without the use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in a bio-statistical approach. We combined a previously described model of transmission risk for HIV-exposed individuals with a newly suggested model of risk of HIV exposure for sexually active HIV-negative individuals. The model was adapted for several stages of infection and different strategies of HIV infection prevention.
HIV prevention with RDTs can reduce the transmission risk by up to 97% compared with having sex without any prevention and up to 80% compared with condom use. Nevertheless, RDT-based prevention strategies demonstrate a lack of protection in several stages of infection; in particular, RNA-based RDT systems may fail under treatment. RDT-based pre-screening of potential sex partners prior to unprotected sexual contacts substantially reduces HIV transmission risk. Combination of different prevention strategies is advisable for high-risk groups.
The eclipsing supersoft X-ray binary CAL 87 has been observed with Chandra on August 13/14, 2001 for nearly 100 ksec, covering two full orbital cycles and three eclipses. The shape of the eclipse light curve derived from the zeroth-order photons indicates that the size of the X-ray emission region is about 1.5 R⊙. The ACIS/LETG spectrum is completely dominated by emission lines without any noticeable continuum. The brightest emission lines are significantly redshifted and double-peaked, suggestive of emanating in a 2000 km/s wind. We model the X-ray spectrum by a mixture of recombination and resonant scattering. This allows us to deduce the temperature and luminosity of the ionizing source to be kT ~ 50 — 100 eV and Lx ~ 5 x 1037 erg/s.
Azaperone can reduce stress caused by weaning and relocation of breeding sows, but its effects on reproductive processes are still poorly understood. The primary aim of this study was to describe and compare the endocrine and ovarian activity in ultrasonographically monitored second parity sows, with or without azaperone treatment at weaning (2 mg/kg BW i.m.). The intervals from weaning to the onset of estrus and ovulation were both greater (P<0.05) in azaperone-treated (n=12) than in control sows (n=12) by ~12 h. Mean daily growth rates of identified antral follicles were less (P<0.05) in azaperone-treated than in control sows (1.08±0.17 v.1.23±0.18 mm/day; mean±SD) and treated animals exceeded (P<0.05) controls in the mean ovulation rate (13.7±1.3 v. 12.6±1.2). A transient suppression of cortisol release was observed in the treatment group (at 10 and 30 min after azaperone injections) but circulating cortisol concentrations were variable in both groups of sows for the remainder of the study. The preovulatory rise in LH and estradiol secretion was delayed (P<0.05), and the duration of the LH surge was greater (P<0.001) in azaperone-treated sows compared with their control counterparts. The amplitude of episodic fluctuations in serum cortisol concentrations was correlated with the number of stillborn piglets in control sows (r=0.63, P=0.04). The amplitude and concentration of the preovulatory rise in estradiol secretion were negatively correlated with ovulatory response and litter size (r=−0.63 to −0.82, P<0.05), whereas the time at which the LH surge ended was directly related to the number of live-born piglets (r=0.82, P=0.002) in azaperone-treated animals. The present results indicate that administration of azaperone at weaning had a profound effect on preovulatory LH secretion as well as growth kinetics and estrogenicity of ovarian antral follicles. However, the causative associations among various characteristics of the preovulatory LH discharge, ovarian and adrenal steroid secretion post-weaning, and reproductive variables in sows remain equivocal.
The present study investigated the effect of hydrothermic maize processing and supplementation of amino acids (AA) in two experiments. In total, 60 barrows and 384 broilers were fed four diets including either unprocessed (T1), or hydrothermically processed maize, that is short- (T2), or long-term conditioned (LC) (T3), and subsequently expanded maize of the same batch. Assuming a higher metabolizable energy (ME) content after processing, the fourth diet (T4) contains maize processed as treatment T3, but AA were supplemented to maintain the ideal protein value. Performance, digestibility and product quality in both species were assessed. Results show that in pigs receiving T4 the average daily feed intake was lower compared with the other treatments, whereas no difference was observed in broilers. The T3 improved the feed conversion rate compared with T1 (P<0.10) for both species. In contrast, average daily gain (ADG) (1277 g/day for T2 and 1267 g/day for T3 v. 971 g/day for T1) was only altered in pigs. The hydrothermic maize processing increased the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, starch and ether extract after acid hydrolysis. This may be a consequence of higher ATTD of gross energy in the finishing phase for both animal species, suggesting a higher ME content in diets with processed maize. The higher ME content of diets with processed maize is supported also by measurements of product quality. Supplementation of AA in T4 enhanced the loin depth in pigs as well as the amount of breast meat in broilers. Further effects of processing maize on meat quality were the reduced yellowness and antioxidative capacity (P<0.10) for broilers, likely due to the heat damage of xanthophylls and tocopherols. Processing also increased springiness and chewiness (P<0.10) of the broilers breast meat, whereas the loin meat of pigs showed a decreased lightness and yellowness (P<0.10) in meat when hydrothermic processed maize was used (for T2, T3 and T4). LC processed maize (T3) showed the lowest springiness in pork, however the supplementation of AA in T4 did not show differences between the treatments. Shown results demonstrated positive effects of hydrothermic processing of maize on animal performance and digestibility in both species. However, effects on carcass characteristics and product quality differed. The negative effects on product quality could be partly compensated with the AA supplementation, whereas a change in meat colour and reduced antioxidative capacity was observed in all groups fed hydrothermic maize processing.
A large set of narrow-band images of planetary nebulae (PNe) have been studied together with the location of their nuclei (PNNi) on the logTeff – logL/L⊙ plane, in order to disclose possible correlations between the morphological class of the PNe and the evolutionary stage of their PNNi.
The radio source Sgr A has been mapped with the Very Large Array (VLA) at 6 and 20 cm with an angular resolution of 5″ x 8″ arc. In agreement with the earlier “WORST” map, the non-thermal source Sgr A East shows a shell structure, while the thermal source Sgr A West shows a spiral-like morphology. We suggest that Sgr A East is a supernova remnant (SNR) near the galactic centre. Its surface brightness is the third largest in our galaxy after Cas A and the Crab Nebula. The diameter is 9 pc and the source fits the surface-brightness diameter relationship of Clark and Caswell (1976) if a distance of 10 kpc is assumed.
In order to synthesize the eclipse light curve of V444 Cygni, we adopt the following model. The O star revolves round the WR star still within the outer regions of its extended atmosphere. The O star shadows a distinct volume of the WR atmosphere which thus cannot contribute to the total flux seen by the observer. On the other hand, additional radiation emerges from the surface of the O star. Its contribution to the total flux is more or less diminished by absorption when the rays pass through those parts of the WR atmosphere which lie between the O star and the observer. The WR atmosphere is given by our usual models (cf. Hamann and Schmutz, 1987; Wessolowski et al, 1988).
Twenty - two Wolf-Rayet stars (12 of type WN and 10 of type UC) were observed in the years 1986-1990 with the VBLUW photometer of Walraven. Eight (WC and WN) objects appeared to be constant. Five of the in total 14 variable objects will be discussed in the present paper: UR46 (WN3 pec), WR50 (WC6+a), WR55 (WN8), WR86 (WC7) and WR123 (WN8).
Simultaneous spectroscopy is made for WR46 and WR50. These results will be also discussed in short.
Azaperone treatment can control aggression and decrease stress due to weaning, re-grouping and hierarchical fighting of gilts and sows. However, the effects of this butyrophenone neuroleptic and sedative administered at weaning on pig reproductive function are poorly characterized. In this year-long study, a total of 619 cross-bred sows (Polish Large White×Polish Landrace) kept on a commercial farm received an i.m. injection of azaperone (Stresnil®; 2 mg/kg BW) just before weaning and were artificially inseminated during the ensuing estrus with 3×109 spermatozoa per dose of an inseminate; 1180 sows served as untreated controls. Immediately after weaning, the sows were moved to four pens of seven to nine animals each. A teaser boar was used twice daily to check for estrus and sows were bred at heat detection. Subsequently, all sows stayed in individual stalls until pregnancy testing on day 30 post-artificial insemination and were then re-grouped until farrowing. The proportion of pigs that were in estrus within 6 days post-weaning was significantly lower in azaperone-treated groups of animals than in controls (71.4% v. 84.2%). Overall, the azaperone-treated sows had a significantly longer weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI; 8.7±10.1 v. 6.3±8.1 days; mean±SD) and a significantly larger litter size (LS: 11.8±3.0 v.11.3±3.2; azaperone-treated v. control sows). Treatment of the winter-farrowing sows was associated with increased LS (12.8±2.6 and 11.3±3.1 piglets/sow, respectively; P<0.05) and longer (P<0.05) weaning-to-effective-service intervals (11.7±19.3 and 8.4±12.3 days, respectively) as well as farrowing intervals (155.7±19.7 and 152.2±16.1 days, respectively) compared with untreated controls. In the summer months, significantly longer WEIs (12.1±21.0 v. 8.4±16.9 days) were accompanied by a significant decline in LS only in azaperone-treated sows that were inseminated within 6 days post-weaning (10.8±2.9 v. 11.5±3.3 piglets/sow; azaperone-treated v. controls). Azaperone-treated second parity sows had greater LS (P<0.001) along with prolonged WEIs (P<0.05) in comparison to their respective controls, regardless of the timing of estrus. An application of azaperone at weaning increased the annual piglet productivity of winter-farrowing animals and of second parity sows but depressed it significantly in summer. The extra cost and labor due to delayed onset of estrus may cancel out any reproductive benefits of azaperone treatment.
Precise applying of PPP (Plant Protection Products) in orchards and vineyards requires new kinds of sprayer technologies and new methods of sensor data evaluation. In this paper a selective electrical driven sprayer, carried by the autonomous robotic platform elWObot, is introduced. A 3D-Simulation environment and the framework ROS (Robot Operating System) helps developing and testing the interaction between the sprayer and the robot. The calculated leaf wall area (LWA) and the distance from the sprayer to the leaves in the spray region, control the flow-rate and the air-assist of eight adjustable sprayers individually. First field trials showed that the adaption of the software from the simulation to the hardware worked as expected.
Core-accretion theory predicts that the formation of giant planets predominantly occurs at the dense mid-plane of the inner ∼50 AU of protoplanetary disks. However, due to observational limitation, this critical region remains to be the least charted area in protoplanetary disks. With its great sensitivity, ALMA recently started to image optically thin line emissions arisen from the mid-plane of the inner 50AU in nearby disks, which unlocks an exciting new path to directly constrain the physical properties of the giant planet formation zone through gas tracers. Here we present the first spatially resolved observations of the 13C18O J=3-2 line emission in the TW Hya disk. We show that this emission is optically thin even inside the CO mid-plane snowline. Combining it with the C18O J=3-2 images and the previously detected HD J=1-0 flux, we directly constrain the mid-plane temperature and optical depths of the CO gas and dust. We report a mid-plane CO snowline at 20.5 ± 1.3 AU, a mid-plane temperature distribution of 27+4−3×(R/20.5AU)-0.47+0.06−0.07 K, and a gas mass distribution of 13+8−5×(R/20.5AU)-0.9+0.4−0.3 g cm−2 between 5-20.5 AU in the TW Hya protoplanetary disk. We find a total gas/mm-sized dust mass ratio of 140 ± 40 in this region, suggesting that ∼2.4 earth mass of dust aggregates have grown to > cm sizes (and perhaps much larger).
Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection can cause serious diseases and complications in the HIV-positive population. Due to successful vaccination programmes measles, mumps and congenital rubella syndrome has become neglected in Germany. However, recent outbreaks of measles have occurred from import-associated cases. In this cross-sectional study the serostatus for MMR and VZV in 2013 HIV-positive adults from three different university outpatient clinics in Bonn (n = 544), Cologne (n = 995) and Munich (n = 474) was analysed. Sera were tested for MMR- and VZV-specific immunglobulin G antibodies using commercial immunoassays. Seronegativity was found in 3% for measles, 26% for mumps, 11% for rubella and 2% for VZV. Regarding MMR, 35% of patients lacked seropositivity against at least one infectious agent. In multivariable analysis younger age was strongly associated with seronegativity against all four viruses, measles, mumps, rubella (P < 0·001, P < 0·001 and P = 0·001, respectively) and VZV (P = 0·001). In conclusion, there is high need for MMR and VZV vaccination in people living with HIV in Germany born in 1970 or later. Thus, systematic MMR and VZV antibody screening and vaccination should be implemented in the HIV-positive population to prevent serious disease and complications of vaccine-preventable diseases.
We have observed SgrA at 332 MHz (92 cm) with a resolution of 12 arcsec (0.6 pc) using the four configurations of the VIA. These results illustrate the dramatic and almost unique variation of radio spectral index within the central 3–4 arcmin of the galactic center. SgrA East is a non-thermal shell source that could be a supernova remnant or a very low-luminosity example of a radio component associated with the active nucleus of a spiral galaxy. The most dramatic aspect of the new 332 MHz observations is the appearance of the the SgrA West spiral features in absorption against SgrA East. Based on these results, SgrA East is situated behind SgrA West, the center of the galaxy. The halo is in front of or surrounds the former sources. The HII regions to the east of SgrA East (1 = −0°.02, b = −0°.07) are probably associated with the 50 km/s molecular cloud. The 7 arcmin halo (20 pc) has a non-thermal spectrum with turn-over below 1 GHz.
The paper estimates the expected rates of changes in the coordinates of various observatory networks (IPMS, BIH, VLBI, etc.) due to the secular motion of the pole and/or continental drift according to the Le Pichon Model. Based on these estimates, suggestions are made as to what to observe and over what time span to separate the effect of continental drift and secular polar motion.
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
Over the past ten years, there has been considerable interest in the infrared continua of quasars, however few published colours exist in the literature. The only major compilation of infrared data out to 2.2 μ is that of Oke et al. (1970). The intrinsic faintness of the sources prevented the acquisition of significant high quality data. This situation is not expected to remain static for very long. The recent introduction of new high sensitivity InSb detectors has made it possible for a large number of sources to be measured, and published data is expected to increase significantly over the next few years.
We present optical high-resolution spectroscopy of AM Her and QQ Vul. Making use of indirect imaging techniques (Doppler and Roche tomography), we are able to make details visible, which a model of these systems has to be able to account for. Especially the emission line data cannot be explained by current models of polars.
Multiwavelength observations of polars are essential for developing the big picture of these systems, particularly to gain understanding of the relevant accretion-induced heating and cooling processes. Eclipsing polars are prime targets for such studies since different radiation processes can be disentangled by observations with high-time resolution. We present a preliminary combined analysis of space-based observations (XMM-Newton, ROSAT, HST) with ground-based high-speed photometry (MCCP, OPTIMA, ULTRACAM) of DP Leo, HU Aqr and UZ For. We determine the location and extent of different emission components and find secular and short-term changes in the accretion geometries. We find displaced optical and X-ray emission regions in DP Leo and HU Aqr as well as mini-bursts and accretion arcs of variable size in HU Aqr. We report marked changes in the X-ray eclipse length of UZ For between high and low states.
This work presents an adsorption model based on the Sips isotherm for sensing different concentrations of DNA with open gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility field effect transistors (HEMTs). Probe-DNA was immobilized on the transistor gate before the application of target-DNA. Concentrations of 10-15 to 10-6 mol/L were tested. The sensor has a detection limit of 10-12 mol/L and saturates after the addition of 10-8 mol/L target-DNA.