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The overall increase of female alcoholism is supposed to be associated with the change of the traditional female role, and it is especially seen as a consequence of role convergence or gender-role conflicts. The aim of the present pilot study is to explore whether the approach of gender-role orientation would be empirically useful in contributing to these hypotheses.
One hundred twelve patients with alcohol dependence meeting DSM-III-R criteria were explored after detoxification; gender-role orientation was measured by a German version of the ‘Extended Personal Attributes Questionnaire’, categorising gender-role orientation into four subgroups: masculine, feminine, androgynous, and undifferentiated.
In comparison with a population-based sample, there are significant differences in the distribution of the four subgroups of gender-role orientation, showing a predominance of the undifferentiated self-concept in the alcoholic sample (49%). Alcoholic females describe themselves as rather undifferentiated, and rather feminine than masculine. Low masculinity and low femininity, as well as high femininity, correlate positively with distress, depressiveness, social anxiety, insecurity and concomitant personality disorders.
Our data do not support the convergence hypothesis related to gender-role orientation, but support the traditional feminine self-concept as an unspecific risk factor for vulnerability. The question whether an undifferentiated self-concept could be a specific risk factor for alcoholism is discussed.
We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
Risk populations for HIV infections tend to neglect condom use, making alternative preventive approaches necessary. Accordingly, we modelled the risk of sexual HIV transmission for condom use vs. use of rapid diagnostic test (RDT) systems with subsequent exclusion of potential sexual partners with a correctly or falsely positive test from unprotected sex with and without the use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in a bio-statistical approach. We combined a previously described model of transmission risk for HIV-exposed individuals with a newly suggested model of risk of HIV exposure for sexually active HIV-negative individuals. The model was adapted for several stages of infection and different strategies of HIV infection prevention.
HIV prevention with RDTs can reduce the transmission risk by up to 97% compared with having sex without any prevention and up to 80% compared with condom use. Nevertheless, RDT-based prevention strategies demonstrate a lack of protection in several stages of infection; in particular, RNA-based RDT systems may fail under treatment. RDT-based pre-screening of potential sex partners prior to unprotected sexual contacts substantially reduces HIV transmission risk. Combination of different prevention strategies is advisable for high-risk groups.
Azaperone can reduce stress caused by weaning and relocation of breeding sows, but its effects on reproductive processes are still poorly understood. The primary aim of this study was to describe and compare the endocrine and ovarian activity in ultrasonographically monitored second parity sows, with or without azaperone treatment at weaning (2 mg/kg BW i.m.). The intervals from weaning to the onset of estrus and ovulation were both greater (P<0.05) in azaperone-treated (n=12) than in control sows (n=12) by ~12 h. Mean daily growth rates of identified antral follicles were less (P<0.05) in azaperone-treated than in control sows (1.08±0.17 v.1.23±0.18 mm/day; mean±SD) and treated animals exceeded (P<0.05) controls in the mean ovulation rate (13.7±1.3 v. 12.6±1.2). A transient suppression of cortisol release was observed in the treatment group (at 10 and 30 min after azaperone injections) but circulating cortisol concentrations were variable in both groups of sows for the remainder of the study. The preovulatory rise in LH and estradiol secretion was delayed (P<0.05), and the duration of the LH surge was greater (P<0.001) in azaperone-treated sows compared with their control counterparts. The amplitude of episodic fluctuations in serum cortisol concentrations was correlated with the number of stillborn piglets in control sows (r=0.63, P=0.04). The amplitude and concentration of the preovulatory rise in estradiol secretion were negatively correlated with ovulatory response and litter size (r=−0.63 to −0.82, P<0.05), whereas the time at which the LH surge ended was directly related to the number of live-born piglets (r=0.82, P=0.002) in azaperone-treated animals. The present results indicate that administration of azaperone at weaning had a profound effect on preovulatory LH secretion as well as growth kinetics and estrogenicity of ovarian antral follicles. However, the causative associations among various characteristics of the preovulatory LH discharge, ovarian and adrenal steroid secretion post-weaning, and reproductive variables in sows remain equivocal.
The present study investigated the effect of hydrothermic maize processing and supplementation of amino acids (AA) in two experiments. In total, 60 barrows and 384 broilers were fed four diets including either unprocessed (T1), or hydrothermically processed maize, that is short- (T2), or long-term conditioned (LC) (T3), and subsequently expanded maize of the same batch. Assuming a higher metabolizable energy (ME) content after processing, the fourth diet (T4) contains maize processed as treatment T3, but AA were supplemented to maintain the ideal protein value. Performance, digestibility and product quality in both species were assessed. Results show that in pigs receiving T4 the average daily feed intake was lower compared with the other treatments, whereas no difference was observed in broilers. The T3 improved the feed conversion rate compared with T1 (P<0.10) for both species. In contrast, average daily gain (ADG) (1277 g/day for T2 and 1267 g/day for T3 v. 971 g/day for T1) was only altered in pigs. The hydrothermic maize processing increased the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, starch and ether extract after acid hydrolysis. This may be a consequence of higher ATTD of gross energy in the finishing phase for both animal species, suggesting a higher ME content in diets with processed maize. The higher ME content of diets with processed maize is supported also by measurements of product quality. Supplementation of AA in T4 enhanced the loin depth in pigs as well as the amount of breast meat in broilers. Further effects of processing maize on meat quality were the reduced yellowness and antioxidative capacity (P<0.10) for broilers, likely due to the heat damage of xanthophylls and tocopherols. Processing also increased springiness and chewiness (P<0.10) of the broilers breast meat, whereas the loin meat of pigs showed a decreased lightness and yellowness (P<0.10) in meat when hydrothermic processed maize was used (for T2, T3 and T4). LC processed maize (T3) showed the lowest springiness in pork, however the supplementation of AA in T4 did not show differences between the treatments. Shown results demonstrated positive effects of hydrothermic processing of maize on animal performance and digestibility in both species. However, effects on carcass characteristics and product quality differed. The negative effects on product quality could be partly compensated with the AA supplementation, whereas a change in meat colour and reduced antioxidative capacity was observed in all groups fed hydrothermic maize processing.
Azaperone treatment can control aggression and decrease stress due to weaning, re-grouping and hierarchical fighting of gilts and sows. However, the effects of this butyrophenone neuroleptic and sedative administered at weaning on pig reproductive function are poorly characterized. In this year-long study, a total of 619 cross-bred sows (Polish Large White×Polish Landrace) kept on a commercial farm received an i.m. injection of azaperone (Stresnil®; 2 mg/kg BW) just before weaning and were artificially inseminated during the ensuing estrus with 3×109 spermatozoa per dose of an inseminate; 1180 sows served as untreated controls. Immediately after weaning, the sows were moved to four pens of seven to nine animals each. A teaser boar was used twice daily to check for estrus and sows were bred at heat detection. Subsequently, all sows stayed in individual stalls until pregnancy testing on day 30 post-artificial insemination and were then re-grouped until farrowing. The proportion of pigs that were in estrus within 6 days post-weaning was significantly lower in azaperone-treated groups of animals than in controls (71.4% v. 84.2%). Overall, the azaperone-treated sows had a significantly longer weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI; 8.7±10.1 v. 6.3±8.1 days; mean±SD) and a significantly larger litter size (LS: 11.8±3.0 v.11.3±3.2; azaperone-treated v. control sows). Treatment of the winter-farrowing sows was associated with increased LS (12.8±2.6 and 11.3±3.1 piglets/sow, respectively; P<0.05) and longer (P<0.05) weaning-to-effective-service intervals (11.7±19.3 and 8.4±12.3 days, respectively) as well as farrowing intervals (155.7±19.7 and 152.2±16.1 days, respectively) compared with untreated controls. In the summer months, significantly longer WEIs (12.1±21.0 v. 8.4±16.9 days) were accompanied by a significant decline in LS only in azaperone-treated sows that were inseminated within 6 days post-weaning (10.8±2.9 v. 11.5±3.3 piglets/sow; azaperone-treated v. controls). Azaperone-treated second parity sows had greater LS (P<0.001) along with prolonged WEIs (P<0.05) in comparison to their respective controls, regardless of the timing of estrus. An application of azaperone at weaning increased the annual piglet productivity of winter-farrowing animals and of second parity sows but depressed it significantly in summer. The extra cost and labor due to delayed onset of estrus may cancel out any reproductive benefits of azaperone treatment.
Precise applying of PPP (Plant Protection Products) in orchards and vineyards requires new kinds of sprayer technologies and new methods of sensor data evaluation. In this paper a selective electrical driven sprayer, carried by the autonomous robotic platform elWObot, is introduced. A 3D-Simulation environment and the framework ROS (Robot Operating System) helps developing and testing the interaction between the sprayer and the robot. The calculated leaf wall area (LWA) and the distance from the sprayer to the leaves in the spray region, control the flow-rate and the air-assist of eight adjustable sprayers individually. First field trials showed that the adaption of the software from the simulation to the hardware worked as expected.
Core-accretion theory predicts that the formation of giant planets predominantly occurs at the dense mid-plane of the inner ∼50 AU of protoplanetary disks. However, due to observational limitation, this critical region remains to be the least charted area in protoplanetary disks. With its great sensitivity, ALMA recently started to image optically thin line emissions arisen from the mid-plane of the inner 50AU in nearby disks, which unlocks an exciting new path to directly constrain the physical properties of the giant planet formation zone through gas tracers. Here we present the first spatially resolved observations of the 13C18O J=3-2 line emission in the TW Hya disk. We show that this emission is optically thin even inside the CO mid-plane snowline. Combining it with the C18O J=3-2 images and the previously detected HD J=1-0 flux, we directly constrain the mid-plane temperature and optical depths of the CO gas and dust. We report a mid-plane CO snowline at 20.5 ± 1.3 AU, a mid-plane temperature distribution of 27+4−3×(R/20.5AU)-0.47+0.06−0.07 K, and a gas mass distribution of 13+8−5×(R/20.5AU)-0.9+0.4−0.3 g cm−2 between 5-20.5 AU in the TW Hya protoplanetary disk. We find a total gas/mm-sized dust mass ratio of 140 ± 40 in this region, suggesting that ∼2.4 earth mass of dust aggregates have grown to > cm sizes (and perhaps much larger).
Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection can cause serious diseases and complications in the HIV-positive population. Due to successful vaccination programmes measles, mumps and congenital rubella syndrome has become neglected in Germany. However, recent outbreaks of measles have occurred from import-associated cases. In this cross-sectional study the serostatus for MMR and VZV in 2013 HIV-positive adults from three different university outpatient clinics in Bonn (n = 544), Cologne (n = 995) and Munich (n = 474) was analysed. Sera were tested for MMR- and VZV-specific immunglobulin G antibodies using commercial immunoassays. Seronegativity was found in 3% for measles, 26% for mumps, 11% for rubella and 2% for VZV. Regarding MMR, 35% of patients lacked seropositivity against at least one infectious agent. In multivariable analysis younger age was strongly associated with seronegativity against all four viruses, measles, mumps, rubella (P < 0·001, P < 0·001 and P = 0·001, respectively) and VZV (P = 0·001). In conclusion, there is high need for MMR and VZV vaccination in people living with HIV in Germany born in 1970 or later. Thus, systematic MMR and VZV antibody screening and vaccination should be implemented in the HIV-positive population to prevent serious disease and complications of vaccine-preventable diseases.
Over the past ten years, there has been considerable interest in the infrared continua of quasars, however few published colours exist in the literature. The only major compilation of infrared data out to 2.2 μ is that of Oke et al. (1970). The intrinsic faintness of the sources prevented the acquisition of significant high quality data. This situation is not expected to remain static for very long. The recent introduction of new high sensitivity InSb detectors has made it possible for a large number of sources to be measured, and published data is expected to increase significantly over the next few years.
This work presents an adsorption model based on the Sips isotherm for sensing different concentrations of DNA with open gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility field effect transistors (HEMTs). Probe-DNA was immobilized on the transistor gate before the application of target-DNA. Concentrations of 10-15 to 10-6 mol/L were tested. The sensor has a detection limit of 10-12 mol/L and saturates after the addition of 10-8 mol/L target-DNA.
This article addresses the problem of structural determinism in archaeological explanations of material culture change, specifically architecture. A discussion of Giddens' structuration theory emphasizes the duality of structure. The concept is updated by drawing on Gell's theory of agency in art and recent ideas on play, innovation, freedom and consensus prevalent in anthropology and archaeology. This approach shows that material culture is changed through structurally shaped innovation, such that agency is distributed across time, among groups regionally and among elites and commoners. The theoretical exposition develops a case study including discussion of an architectural grammar, ethnohistoric analogy and activity-area studies involving ceramic incense burners. The case study is the Classic–Postclassic transition (ad 750–1200) among the Maya of Petén, Guatemala. While earlier explanations of architectural change in this region focused on an in-migration event, the current investigation posits a Postclassic reconfiguration of Maya architecture, specifically changes in ‘C’-shaped stone benches, based on structurally shaped innovation and a distributed view of agency. The benches served as stages for more heterarchical ritual performances with the incense burners as opposed to the hierarchical ritual performances common in the Classic period. This account overcomes structural determinism by allowing for diversity and cultural specificity in our views of agency.
Age structure and hatchling dates of the squid Illex argentinus collected by bottom-trawl fishery in southern Brazilian waters were assessed by the analysis of statolith growth increments. Catches occurred between 2001 and 2002, from 23° to 32°S at depths of 100–700 m. Squid from juvenile to post-spawning stages were collected year round, with age estimated from 98 to 320 days and mantle lengths ranging from 112 to 376 mm. Duration of life cycle events based on statolith growth zones revealed that squids can spend about 14% of their lifespan as paralarva (~30 days), 70% as juvenile (~130 days), leaving maturity and spawning condition to the terminal 10–20% (~30–60 days). The results suggest that, unlike estimates available for Patagonian populations, a general 0.5 year lifespan is predicted for I. argentinus off Brazil. The wide range of size-at-ages implied that catches of shortfin squid off southern Brazil probably include squid hatched throughout the year. Mature and spawning squid caught in summer months hatched in winter and spring, while winter catches revealed mature-spawning individuals hatched both in summer/autumn (~6 months of age) and winter/spring periods (~10–11 months of age). It has been argued that such groups may combine both squid resident of Brazilian outer shelf and slope (22°–34°S) with a six months' lifespan and migrating squid originated from the northern Patagonian shelf (~42°S) with 10–11 months' lifespan.
Two jellynose fish captured in southern Brazilian waters were identified and compared with the previous descriptions of ateleopodid species to improve our understanding of the diversity and distribution of these fish off Brazil. The body of each individual is elongate, tapering, and posteriorly compressed, with a large, robust head with relatively small eyes (~7% head length), a short trunk and a long tail. Radiographs of the specimens show two undeveloped pelvic rays buried in integument and five caudal rays originating from the last vertebrae which are exclusive characteristics of Ijimaia antillarum.
Mechanical energy harvesting from ambient vibrations is an attractive renewable source of energy for various applications. Prior research was solely based on lead-containing materials which are detrimental to the environment and health. Therefore, lead-free materials are becoming more attractive for harvesting applications. The present work is focused on the development of lead-free piezoelectric materials based on solid solution having composition (KNa)NbO3-xABO3, (where A = Li, and B = Nb; x = 0, 5, 5.5, 6, and 6.5 wt%). The solid solutions of the above ceramics were prepared by using solid-state reaction method. The X-ray diffraction spectra exhibited single phase formation and good crystallinity with LiNbO3 addition up to x = 6.5 wt%. Dielectric studies reveal that the composition with LiNbO3 = 6.5 wt% exhibits superior properties suitable for piezoelectric energy harvesting applications. The nanoscale piezoelectric data obtained with piezoresponse force microscopy provide a direct evidence of strong piezoelectricity with LN doping. The best piezoelectric properties are obtained for the composition K0.5Na0.5NbO3 – 6.5%LiNbO3.
High-resolution piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) was used to measure the out-of-plane (effective longtitudinal) and in-plane (effective shear) piezoresponse of zinc oxide films and microrods. Thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and micro rods formed from solution. Measurements of three components of piezoresponse, one out-of-plane (OPP) and two in-plane (IPP) signals, allowed the construction of 3D piezoelectric maps reflecting the polycrystalline nature of the films. Both the IPP and OPP piezoresponse signal distributions are analyzed based on the particular texture of the films. It was observed that the central part of microrods contains polarization inversion with head-to-head ferroelectric-like domains. The as-grown domain boundaries were always parallel to the (0001) basal plane. Analysis of the PFM piezoresponse images was done based on the hexagonal structure of ZnO and topographic features along the hexagonal axis.
This study uses architectural and activity area analyses to examine the Classic-Postclassic transition and the resulting Postclassic-Early Historic (A. D. 1000–1697) Maya society in the Petén Lakes region of Guatemala. The research combines a detailed temporal comparison of architectural styles and an analysis of changing architecture as the restructuring of everyday social action. The methods have significance beyond Maya studies in addressing questions of cultural continuity or in-migration. Archaeological data from recent excavations, including new radiocarbon dates, document the intensive settlement of the Quexil Islands in the Terminal Classic period (A. D. 800–1000) and its occupation thereafter. Architectural evidence from the Quexil Islands and other Petén Lakes sites indicates a mosaic pattern of change, reflecting to varying extents Classic-Postclassic continuity and external contacts, with differences among sites rather than the complete replacement of populations. Evidence of the later incorporation of this small village, known ethnohistorically as “Eckixil,” in the Late Postclassic-Early Historic Itza polity, demonstrates a strong linkage with the political core, illustrating the political complexity of this hinterland region.
With the advent of intense, coherent light sources in the XUV and soft X-ray regime, X-ray Thomson scattering becomes a unique tool for the diagnostics of dense plasmas. The scattering spectrum gives direct access to plasma properties like density, temperature, and composition. In dense systems, collisions among constituents are of primary importance for the prediction and interpretation of the scattering signal. We present a systematic approach to the dynamical structure factor using the Born-Mermin ansatz to include collisions via the dynamical collision frequency. Calculations of the scattering spectrum are performed for X-ray scattering on solid and compressed beryllium targets as well as for XUV-photons scattering on hydrogen at near solid density.