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To determine if substance abuse significantly increases the risk of relapse in first episode psychosis patients over a two year follow-up even after adherence to medication is improved.
Relapse was based on ratings on the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms and weekly ratings on Life Chart Schedule (WHO). Predictor variables included gender, duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), duration of untreated illness from the time of first psychiatric symptoms (DUI), age of onset, pre-morbid adjustment, co-morbid diagnosis of substance abuse at one year, time to remission of psychotic symptoms and adherence to medication. Univariate analyses were followed by logistic regression for rate of relapse and survival analysis with Cox proportional hazard regression was used for time to relapse as the dependent variable.
Of the 207 patients, 162 achieved remission of positive symptoms and were treated and followed for two years. Relapse rates were relatively low (21.6% in the first and 13.8% in 2nd year, respectively) with 33 weeks as the mean time to relapse. Relapse rates were significantly higher for patients with a co-morbid diagnosis of substance abuse (OR= 2.59, CI 1.28-5.21), especially for the second year (OR=3.66, CI 1.30-10.27) and for those with shorter DUI (OR=0.437, CI 0.209-0.914) after controlling for other predictors. Likelihood of relapse during follow-up was associated only with a co-morbid diagnosis of substance abuse (HR= 2.49, p=.01, CI 1.21-5.10).
Specialized treatment of substance abuse may further reduce risk of relapse even after improving adherence to medication.
− ESG–Agency scholars frequently use power as an explanatory variable, but often without definition or theoretical conceptualization. − Reflections on power in earth system governance research are divided between agency-centered (power to) and structure-centered (power over) perspectives, which mirrors the historic schism between liberal and critical International Relations scholars. − In the future, more comprehensive conceptualizations of power will strengthen the persuasiveness of normative arguments in ESG–Agency scholarship.
Using legumes in forage mixes can help decrease the use of nitrogen fertilizers and possibly increase the nutritive value of pasture. The aim of the current study was to determine animal production and behavioural and ingestion parameters by evaluating the production and nutritive value of Aruana grass (Panicum maximum ‘Aruana’) intercropped with forage peanut (Arachis pintoi ‘Amarillo’) or fertilized with nitrogen. The treatments were N200 (200 kg N/ha per season – summer and winter), 100N + PE (100 kg N/ha per season plus pasture mixture with forage peanut) and N100 (100 kg N/ha per season). The presence of forage peanut in the pasture did not replace nitrogen fertilization as the pasture fertilized with 200 kg of nitrogen had a greater leaf/stem ratio (0.66 v. 0.54), stocking rate (2600 v. 2290 kg live weight/ha), average daily gain (0.880 v. 0.700 kg/day) and live weight gain (LWG) (652 v. 468 kg/ha) during summer. During winter, no effect of increased nitrogen fertilization on pasture and animal production was observed. In the total study period (summer + winter), a greater LWG (897 v. 741 kg/ha) occurred when a higher quantity of nitrogen (N200) was placed in the pasture compared to the insertion of forage peanuts in the system.
The goals of the present study were to examine the associations between depressive symptoms, sleep problems and the risk of developing heart disease in a Canadian community sample.
Baseline data were from the CARTaGENE study, a community health survey of adults aged 40–69 years in Quebec, Canada. Incidence of heart disease was examined in N = 33 455 participants by linking survey data with administrative health insurance data. Incident heart disease was identified using the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases, 9th or 10th edition (ICD-9 and ICD-10) diagnostic codes for heart disease. Sleep problems were assessed with diagnostic codes for sleep disorders within the 2 years preceding the baseline assessment. Average sleep duration was assessed by self-report. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire.
In total, 2448 (7.3%) participants developed heart disease over an average follow-up period of 4.6 years. Compared to those without depressive symptoms and with no sleep disorders, those with elevated depressive symptoms and a sleep disorder (HR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.83–3.69), those with depressive symptoms alone (HR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.25–1.57) and those with sleep disorders alone (HR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.03–1.73) were more likely to develop heart disease. Test of additive interaction suggested a synergistic interaction between depressive symptoms and sleep disorders (synergy index = 2.17 [95% CI 1.01–4.64]). When sleep duration was considered, those with long sleep duration and elevated depressive symptoms were more likely to develop heart disease than those with long sleep alone (HR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.37–2.28; and HR = 1.16, 95% CI 0.99–1.36, respectively).
Depression and diagnosed sleep disorders or long sleep duration are independent risk factors for heart disease and are associated with a stronger risk of heart disease when occurring together.
Partisan identification is a fundamental force in individual and mass political behavior around the world. Informed by scholarship on human sociality, coalitional psychology, and group behavior, this research argues that partisan identification, like many other group-based behaviors, is influenced by forces of evolution. If correct, then party identifiers should exhibit adaptive behaviors when making group-related political decisions. The authors test this assertion with citizen assessments of the relative physical formidability of competing leaders, an important adaptive factor in leader evaluations. Using original and novel data collected during the contextually different 2008 and 2012 U.S. presidential elections, as well as two distinct measures obtained during both elections, this article presents evidence that partisans overestimate the physical stature of the presidential candidate of their own party compared with the stature of the candidate of the opposition party. These findings suggest that the power of party identification on political behavior may be attributable to the fact that modern political parties address problems similar to the problems groups faced in human ancestral times.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamic association between depressive symptoms and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA).
The sample was comprised of 2886 participants aged ⩾50 years who participated in three clinical assessments over an 8-year period (21% with prediabetes and 7% with diabetes at baseline). Structural equation models were used to address reciprocal associations between depressive symptoms and HbA1c levels and to evaluate the mediating effects of lifestyle-related behaviors and cardiometabolic factors.
We found a reciprocal association between depressive symptoms and HbA1c levels: depressive symptoms at one assessment point predicted HbA1c levels at the next assessment point (standardized β = 0.052) which in turn predicted depressive symptoms at the following assessment point (standardized β = 0.051). Mediation analysis suggested that both lifestyle-related behaviors and cardiometabolic factors might mediate the association between depressive symptoms and HbA1c levels: depressive symptoms at baseline predicted lifestyle-related behaviors and cardiometabolic factors at the next assessment, which in turn predicted HbA1c levels 4 years later. A similar association was observed for the other direction: HbA1c levels at baseline predicted lifestyle-related behaviors and cardiometabolic factors at the next assessment, which in turn predicted depressive symptoms 4 years later.
Our results suggest a dynamic relationship between depressive symptoms and HbA1c which might be mediated by both lifestyle and cardiometabolic factors. This has important implications for investigating the pathways which could link depressive symptoms and increased risk of diabetes.
The Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Laboratory (WiPAL) is a flexible user facility designed to study a range of astrophysically relevant plasma processes as well as novel geometries that mimic astrophysical systems. A multi-cusp magnetic bucket constructed from strong samarium cobalt permanent magnets now confines a
, fully ionized, magnetic-field-free plasma in a spherical geometry. Plasma parameters of
provide an ideal testbed for a range of astrophysical experiments, including self-exciting dynamos, collisionless magnetic reconnection, jet stability, stellar winds and more. This article describes the capabilities of WiPAL, along with several experiments, in both operating and planning stages, that illustrate the range of possibilities for future users.
Microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity (MTI) is an important component of the plant innate immunity response to invading pathogens. Although several MTI responses can be measured in different plant species, their magnitude is probably plant species specific and even cultivar specific. In this study, a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of two soybean parental lines and two progeny lines treated for 30 min with the MAMPs flg22 and chitin was carried out. This analysis revealed a clear variation in gene expression, under both untreated and flg22+chitin-treated conditions. In addition, genes with potential additive and non-additive effects were identified in the two progeny lines, with several of these genes having a potential function in the control of innate immunity. The data presented herein represent the basis for further functional analysis that can lead to a better understanding of the soybean innate immunity response.
We present a radio survey of molecules in a sample of Galactic center molecular clouds, including M0.25 + 0.01, the clouds near Sgr A, and Sgr B2. The molecules detected are primarily NH3 and HC3N; in Sgr B2-N we also detect non-metastable NH3, vibrationally-excited HC3N, torsionally-excited CH3OH, and numerous isotopologues of these species. 36 GHz Class I CH3OH masers are ubiquitous in these fields, and in several cases are associated with new NH3 (3,3) maser candidates. We also find that NH3 and HC3N are depleted or absent toward several of the highest dust column density peaks identified in submillimeter observations, which are associated with water masers and are thus likely in the early stages of star formation.
Research into the neuropsychiatry of epilepsy has become a central focus of interest in the last five years. Comorbidity of epilepsy with behavioral problems is now recognized widely, and the neuroscientific basis for such comorbidity is an active area of investigation. With an expanded international team of authors, this fully revised new edition builds on the strengths of its predecessor, examining in detail the subtleties of behavioral changes in patients with seizure disorders and offering both a diagnostic and a management perspective. New chapters cover genetic disorders, the effects of epilepsy on social behavior as viewed through theory of mind, a discussion of the precuneus, the importance and nature of peri-ictal psychiatric symptoms, depression and the interictal dysphoric disorder, and the relationship between antiepileptic drugs and suicide. This new edition is a must for anyone involved in diagnosing or managing epilepsy.
A novel setup for Raman measurements under small angles of incidence during the parallel plate plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of μc-Si:H films is described. The possible influence of disturbances introduced by the setup on growing films is studied. The substrate heating by the probe beam is investigated and reduced as far as possible. It is shown that with optimized experimental parameters the influence of the in-situ measurements on a growing film can be neglected. With optimized settings, in-situ Raman measurements on the intrinsic layer of a microcrystalline silicon solar cell are carried out with a time resolution of about 40 s corresponding to 20 nm of deposited material during each measurement.