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Tebufenozide (Mimic) kills Lepidoptera larvae that ingest it. Aerial applications of tebufenozide were made against spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens)) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in boreal forest in Manitoba, Canada, in 1999 and 2000. In 2000 and 2001, moths in sprayed and unsprayed plots were sampled with light traps; trapping was supplemented by foliage sampling. Relative to unsprayed plots, catches of spruce budworm moths in plots sprayed in 1999 and 2000 were depressed in 2000, but not in 2001. Host tree defoliation was reduced in 2000 by 1999 and 2000 applications; the 2000 application reduced numbers of spruce budworm larvae in 2000 and 2001. Multivariate analysis revealed negative effects of tebufenozide application on two species of non-target moths in 2000 and no negative effects in 2001. Negatively affected species have larvae feeding in the tree canopy at the time of spray application. Higher catches of non-target species in sprayed treatments were observed for three species in 2000 and two species in 2001. We conclude that tebufenozide can depress the numbers of spruce budworm larvae and provide foliage protection during the year of application and the following year, and that negative effects on non-target species are detectable for about 15 months after application.
This article examines issues of island sovereignty and lighthouse administration in maritime Southeast Asia in the context of post-war decolonisation. It does so by demonstrating how lax and complacent colonial governance in British North Borneo led to the construction of a lighthouse on contested island territory. By the late 1940s these islands became the focal point of a regional dispute between the Philippines, North Borneo's colonial government, and the United Kingdom. While lighthouses were, in the colonial mind-set, deemed essential for illuminating the coasts and projecting order onto the seas, the Philippine government sought to renege on colonial-era obligations and wrest a new sense of post-colonial legitimacy.
The legacy of the Turtle Island transfer was therefore significant in recalibrating imperial lighting in the Sulu Sea, as well as giving rise to a Philippine post-colonial authority that was characterised by an acknowledgement of indigenous Suluk maritime heritage. Similarly, it reflected an extension of previous instances of transnational disputes in the region, where the island shoal had been simultaneously claimed and administered by the United States, the United Kingdom and the historical Sulu Sultanate. While the lighthouse remained destroyed, and the seas dimmed, by mid-1948 the Turtle Islands had attained a new post-colonial and transnational status. Utilising a range of archival sources, memoirs and published material, this article sheds light on an under-examined period of Southeast Asian history.
The book brings together papers covering the most recent scientific research from the top endophyte researchers in the world. It presents the state of the art in our knowledge and technical capacity and explores future directions of this work. It is highly relevant and timely because of the need to improve global food security and its sustainability, and also to provide novel bioactive molecules for medicine. There is also a need to protect forestry in a changing and growing world. Endophytes offer a huge potential to reduce environmentally damaging agricultural inputs such as fertilisers and pesticides. They are also a largely overlooked group of organisms where much basic science remains to be undertaken. For example, new molecular tools of DNA profiling using high throughput environmental sequencing are allowing the exploration of a previously largely unknown resource. There is a pressing need to convert scientific research on endophytes into practical application. This book describes how that will be achieved.
In some environments, the survival and production of ryegrass and fescue is heavily reliant on its mutualistic association with Epichloë endophytes. Epichloë endophytes produce a range of bioactive alkaloids, or secondary metabolites that can be effective in deterring insect pests, although some have also been shown to be toxic to grazing animals. These endophytes are being used in grassland farming systems in Australia, New Zealand, USA and some parts of South America. However, to achieve this outcome there has been considerable investment into developing a research pipeline for delivery of animal-safe endophyte strains that are still capable of deterring insect pests and providing protection against abiotic stresses. The pipeline starts with the discovery and isolation of endophytes from wild populations of ryegrass and fescue, characterisation of the known alkaloids they produce, use of genetic markers to determine the relationship between known well-characterised strains and new strains entering the collection, determination of their bioactivity against insect pests of economic significance, understanding issues of compatibility of a strain of interest with the elite germplasm into which it has been inoculated, determining ease of transmission to subsequent seed generations, and ensuring there will be no or minimal animal health and welfare issues associated with using the strain in grazing systems.
A study to detect the diversity of endophytic Actinobacteria from Australian rice was conducted using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Rice samples were collected from the rice growing area near Yanco, New South Wales, Australia. Isolation of the endophytic Actinobacteria was done over two consecutive growing seasons. The results demonstrated that most isolates were obtained from plants 10 weeks and older, and only a few were found in younger plants. Microbispora spp. were the most commonly isolated endophytic Actinobacteria (94%) with Streptomyces spp. and other genera present at lower numbers (6%). The culture-dependent method findings were confirmed by T-RFLP profile analysis. Restriction digests using HhaI and RsaI also showed an abundance of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) profiles related to the genus Microbispora. Furthermore, other biological properties of the endophytic Actinobacteria isolates were also determined. Four isolates, Saccharothrix OSH21, Saccharopolyspora OSR26, Streptomyces OSR46 and Microbispora OSR61, were found to suppress the growth of the pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Moreover, these isolates might be able to promote plant growth by producing indole acetic acid or to solubilise phosphate making this nutrient available for plant uptake.
The fortuitous discovery of penicillin from Penicillium chrysogenum heralded the golden era of antibiotics. Since then, fungi have significantly contributed to the welfare of humans by producing bioactive compounds which have been used as antibacterial, anticancer, antioxidant and immunomodulatory agents. However, in recent years, microorganisms associated with plants have emerged as fountainheads of bioactive molecules with high therapeutic potential. In general terms, endophytes are an extremely diverse and ubiquitous group of microorganisms that resides within the living internal tissues of a host plant in a non-invasive manner. Endophytes communicate with their host plant through metabolic interactions which enables them to produce signal molecules with interesting biological activities. Further, the genetic recombination of endophytes with the host plant enables them to mimic the biological properties of the host and produce analogous bioactive compounds. Thus, they start producing the host plant phytochemicals when cultured independently. The endless need for potent drugs has prompted researchers to explore alternative avenues for finding novel bioactive molecules, and endophytes appear to be a plausible target for drug discovery. This chapter reviews the current research trends with these promising organisms.
Endophytes are any microbes that can live within plants. We divide them into three major functional groups: endosyms (endosymbionts), endopaths (pathogens) and endosympaths (those that exist in both forms along a mutualism–parasitism continuum). Within these groups, endophytologists recognise harmful pathogenic microbes and a diverse range of beneficial/commensal microbes, including bacteria and archaea, such as diazotrophs, and fungi, such as the vertically transmitted clavicipitaceous endophytes, the generally horizontally transmitted class 2 fungal endophytes, mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate endophytes. This chapter introduces the science of endophyte biology and its application for a world population that is projected to grow to over 9 billion by 2050. It explores the potential of endophytes for improved agricultural and silvicultural sustainability including: yield improvement and nutrition; biocontrol of pests and diseases; and abiotic stress resistance in the context of climate change. It outlines how bioprospectors are using endophytes as sources of novel metabolites for the pharmaceutical and biochemical industries, and describes how endophytes can be used in vitro to elicit the increased production of known secondary metabolites from plants.
There are increasing efforts aiming to utilise endophytes as biological control agents (BCAs) to improve crop production. However, reliability remains a major practical constraint for the development of novel BCAs. Many organisms are adapted to their specific habitat; it is optimistic to expect that a new organism added can find a niche or even out-compete those adapted and already present. Our approach for isolating novel BCAs for specific plant diseases is therefore to look in healthy plants in a habitat where disease is a problem, since we predict that it is more likely to find competitive strains among those present and adapted. In vitro inhibitory activities often do not correlate with in planta efficacy, especially since endophytes rely on intimate plant contact. They can, however, be useful to indicate modes of action. We therefore screen for in planta biological activity as early as possible in the process in order to minimise the risk of discarding valuable strains. Finally, some fungi are endophytic in one situation and pathogenic in another (the mutualism–parasitism continuum). This depends on their biology, environmental conditions, the formulation of inoculum, the health, developmental stage and cultivar of the host plant, and the structure of the plant microbiome.
Millions of people across the world suffer from disabling hearing loss. Appropriate interventions lead to improved speech and language skills, educational advancement, and improved social integration. A major limitation to improving care is identifying those with disabling hearing loss in low-resource countries.
This review article summarises information on currently available hearing screening platforms and technology available from published reports and the authors’ personal experiences of hearing loss identification in low-resource areas of the world. The paper reviews the scope and capabilities of portable hearing screening platforms, including the pros and cons of each technology and how they have been utilised in low-resource environments.
Portable hearing screening tools are readily available to assess hearing loss in low-resource areas. Each technology has advantages and limitations that should be considered when identifying the optimal methods to assess needs in each country.
Background: Identifying depressed patients unlikely to reach remission and those likely to relapse after reaching remission is of great importance, but there are few pre-treatment factors that can help clinicians predict prognosis and together these explain relatively little variance in treatment outcomes. Attentional control has shown promise in studies to date, but has not been investigated prospectively in routine clinical settings with depressed patients. Aims: This study aimed to pilot the use of a brief self-report measure of attentional control in routine care and investigate the associations between attentional control, psychological treatment response and relapse to depression up to 1 year post-treatment. Method: Depressed patients were recruited from two primary care psychological treatment (IAPT) services and completed the Attentional Control Scale (ACS) alongside routine symptom measures at every therapy session. Participants were tracked and followed up for 1 year post-treatment. Results: Baseline ACS scores were associated with remission and residual depressive symptoms post-treatment, and relapse within 12 months of ending treatment, all independent of pre-treatment depressive symptom severity, and the latter also independent of residual symptoms. Conclusion: A self-report measure of attentional control can potentially be used to predict levels of depressive symptoms post-treatment and can contribute to predicting risk of relapse to depression in IAPT services, without affecting rates of therapy completion/drop-out or data completion of standard IAPT measures. However, this pilot study had a small overall sample size and a very small number of observed relapses, so replication in a larger study is needed before firm conclusions can be made.
The international law of the sea has developed over many hundreds of years. Modern principles can be traced back to the 17th-century debates between scholars such as Grotius and Selden over whether or not nations had the right to control areas of the sea. At that time, nations were concerned over access to fishing grounds and trading routes; today's maritime interests have expanded to include the laying of submarine cables, mining of deep seabed resources, control of people smuggling and other transnational crimes, maintenance of national security, and conservation of high seas biodiversity, to name a few. Although many of the principles of customary international law in this area are well established, the law of the sea is today dominated by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOSC), a monumental agreement that provides the framework for international cooperation in maritime areas.
Freedom of the seas
The current framework of maritime zones, which define the relative rights and obligations of coastal and other States, has evolved against the background of a long-standing tension between States wishing to exercise control over parts of the high seas and those seeking to maintain free access. As O'Connell states:
The history of the law of the sea has been dominated by a central and persistent theme: the competition between the exercise of governmental authority over the sea and the idea of freedom of the seas. The tension between these has waxed and waned through the centuries, and has reflected the political, strategic and economic circumstances of each particular age.
The progression of this debate is dealt with by Shearer in the following extract.
SHEARER, STARKE'S INTERNATIONAL LAW, 11TH EDN, BUTTERWORTHS, LONDON, 1994
 Initially, navigation on the high seas was open to everybody as were also fisheries, but in the fifteenth and sixteenth  centuries – the periods of great maritime discovery by European navigators – claims were laid by the powerful maritime states to the exercise of sovereignty, indistinguishable from ownership, over specific portions of the open sea.
International trade law is a subset of public international law, and consists of the rules governing trade between nations. Historically this area of law was primarily concerned with trade in goods, but now includes trade in services (effectively the cross-border supply and consumption of services) and trade in intellectual property. International trade law has relevance to other fields of international economic law, including investment law. However, the focus of this chapter is on trade law as conducted under the auspices of the World Trade Organization (WTO), an organisation that commenced on 1 January 1995. The WTO administers many agreements, and not all are covered by this chapter. Of particular note, the Agreement on Agriculture and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) are not covered: further reading on these Agreements is listed at the end of the chapter. To understand the laws that the WTO administers, it is necessary to understand both the economic theories of international trade, and the history of international trade law. This chapter introduces these concepts, and then explains the current structure of the WTO, including the dispute settlement processes. It then covers the core disciplines of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 (GATT) and the main exceptions to these disciplines, before turning to the safeguards, dumping and subsidies regimes. The chapter then introduces the two agreements that cover regulatory standards at the WTO, and finally provides an overview of the General Agreement on Trade in Services.
Economic theories of trade
For much of the 16th to 18th centuries, international trade operated in accordance with the theory of mercantilism – goods were exchanged for gold, and nations tried to amass as much gold for themselves as possible. Nations aimed to obtain raw goods (often from colonies), transform them and sell the final products to other nations for a profit. Thus the focus was primarily on exporting goods rather than importing goods. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries new theories of trade emerged – first with Adam Smith's theory of absolute advantage, followed by David Ricardo's theory of comparative advantage. Both theories rest on the idea of specialisation of production of goods, using labour as an input unit for production.
Now in its third edition, International Law: Cases and Materials with Australian Perspectives remains an authoritative textbook on international law for Australian students. With a strong focus on Australian practice and interpretation, the text examines how international law is developed, implemented and interpreted within the international community and considers new and developing approaches within this field. This edition has been comprehensively updated to address recent developments in international law. The selection of cases and materials provides a thorough coverage of core areas and addresses a range of contemporary challenges, including climate change, human rights, nuclear proliferation and the South China Sea. A new chapter on international trade law reflects the growing importance of this body of law in Australian practice. Guiding commentary provides a rigorous analysis of key principles. Written by a team of experts with substantial experience in this field, International Law is an essential resource for students.