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Mental disorders can have a major impact on brain development. Peripheral blood concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are lower in adult psychiatric disorders. Serum BDNF concentrations and BDNF genotype have been associated with cortical maturation in children and adolescents. In 2 large independent samples, this study tests associations between serum BDNF concentrations, brain structure, and psychopathology, and the effects of BDNF genotype on BDNF serum concentrations in late childhood and early adolescence.
Children and adolescents (7-14 years old) from 2 cities (n = 267 in Porto Alegre; n = 273 in São Paulo) were evaluated as part of the Brazilian high-risk cohort (HRC) study. Serum BDNF concentrations were quantified by sandwich ELISA. Genotyping was conducted from blood or saliva samples using the SNParray Infinium HumanCore Array BeadChip. Subcortical volumes and cortical thickness were quantified using FreeSurfer. The Development and Well-Being Behavior Assessment was used to identify the presence of a psychiatric disorder.
Serum BDNF concentrations were not associated with subcortical volumes or with cortical thickness. Serum BDNF concentration did not differ between participants with and without mental disorders, or between Val homozygotes and Met carriers.
No evidence was found to support serum BDNF concentrations as a useful marker of developmental differences in brain and behavior in early life. Negative findings were replicated in 2 of the largest independent samples investigated to date.
The Japanese Murrelet Synthliboramphus wumizusume is a rare, globally ‘Vulnerable’ seabird, endemic to Japan and South Korea. However, little is known of its at-sea distribution, habitat or threats. We conducted several years of at-sea surveys around Japan to model Japanese Murrelet density in relation to habitat parameters, and make spatial predictions to assess the adequacy of the current Japanese marine Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) network for the species. During a five-year period, 3,485 km of at-sea surveys recorded 3,161 Japanese Murrelets around four breeding locations. Maximum murrelet group size was 90 individuals with a mean group size of 2.9 ± 4.2 individuals. Models of Japanese Murrelet at-sea density around the two largest breeding locations predicted that almost all murrelets occur within 30 km of the breeding colony and most within 10 km. Murrelets were predicted closer to the colony in May than in April and closer to the colony at a neritic colony than at an offshore island colony. Additionally, murrelets breeding on an offshore island colony also commuted to mainland neritic habitat for foraging. The marine habitat used by Japanese Murrelets differed between each of the four surveyed colonies, however oceanographic variables offered little explanatory power in models. Models with colony, month and year generated four foraging radii (9–39 km wide) containing murrelet densities of > 0.5 birds/km2. Using these radii the Japanese marine IBA network was found to capture between 95% and 25% of Japanese Murrelet at-sea habitat while breeding and appears appropriately configured to protect near-colony murrelet distributions. Given the range of marine habitats that breeding murrelets inhabit, our simple models offer an applicable method for predicting to unsampled colonies and generating ecologically-informed seaward extension radii. However, data on colony populations and further at-sea surveys are necessary to refine models and improve predictions.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
Section 4 of the FM14 focus on the outreach action and advocacy in the context of IAUs 2020-2030 Strategic Plan. This paper also contains supplementary materials that point to contributed talks and poster presentations that can be found online.
Non-traumatic bone fractures in cancer patients are usually pathological fractures due to bone metastases. In head and neck cancer patients, clavicle stress fractures may occur as a result of atrophy of the trapezius muscle after neck dissection in which the accessory nerve becomes structurally or functionally damaged.
A 71-year-old man underwent modified radical neck dissection with accessory nerve preservation and post-operative radiotherapy for submandibular lymph node metastases of tongue cancer. Four weeks after the radiotherapy, a clavicle fracture, with osteomyelitis and abscess formation in the pectoralis major muscle, occurred. Unlike in simple stress fracture, long-term antibiotic administration and drainage surgery were required to suppress the inflammation.
As seen in the present patient, clavicle stress fractures may occur even after neck dissection in which the accessory nerve is preserved, and may be complicated by osteomyelitis and abscess formation owing to risk factors such as radiotherapy, tracheostomy and contiguous infection.
Personal disaster and emergency support networks of rural older adults are described before and after participation in a disaster preparedness intervention, PrepWise.
At baseline, a total of 194 disaster support network members were identified by 27 older adults in a rural Midwest community. After the intervention, these participants identified 232 support network members. Multilevel logistic regression models were constructed to identify characteristics of the network members and social interactions associated with support providers at baseline as well as newly added support sources after the PrepWise intervention.
Member and interaction characteristics associated with being identified as emergency support sources at baseline were as follows: family, lived in close proximity, weekly or more frequent contact, and being someone whom participants shared concerns with, trusted, and exchanged emotional support with. After receiving PrepWise, participants on average identified 3 new sources of emergency support within their networks. Support sources added at follow-up tended to be nonfamily members and those participants trusted.
Enhancements in personal emergency support networks occurred after the intervention. Understanding characteristics of the network members and social interactions may assist in identifying additional emergency support sources. Larger studies investigating the impacts of enhanced support networks on disaster-related behaviors and outcomes will be beneficial. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:110–119)
There is accumulating evidence for the role of fronto-striatal and associated circuits in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) but limited and conflicting data on alterations in cortical thickness.
To investigate alterations in cortical thickness and subcortical volume in OCD.
In total, 412 patients with OCD and 368 healthy adults underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans. Between-group analysis of covariance of cortical thickness and subcortical volumes was performed and regression analyses undertaken.
Significantly decreased cortical thickness was found in the OCD group compared with controls in the superior and inferior frontal, precentral, posterior cingulate, middle temporal, inferior parietal and precuneus gyri. There was also a group x age interaction in the parietal cortex, with increased thinning with age in the OCD group relative to controls.
Our findings are partially consistent with earlier work, suggesting that group differences in grey matter volume and cortical thickness could relate to the same underlying pathology of OCD. They partially support a frontostriatal model of OCD, but also suggest that limbic, temporal and parietal regions play a role in the pathophysiology of the disorder. The group x age interaction effects may be the result of altered neuroplasticity.
The cold HI cloud in the region of the M17SW giant molecular cloud comprises three major fragments with a mean size of ~ 30 pc. Their overall distribution is rather similar to that of CO gas, but one of the fragments does not seem to have a molecular counterpart. It is shown that such a cloud is also a future site of star formation.
The invasive orange spiny whitefly (OSW) Aleurocanthus spiniferus has extended its distribution to non-native areas since the early 20th century. In a similar manner, the invasive tea spiny whitefly (TSW) A. camelliae has been expanding over East Asia in recent decades. In this study, the genetic diversity of OSW and TSW and of their important parasitoid wasp Encarsia smithi was investigated in China and Japan to enable more efficient biological control policies. We detected two phylogenetic groups (haplogroups A1 and A2) in OSW and three phylogenetic groups (haplotypes B1 and B2, and haplogroup B3) in TSW in China; however, only a single haplotype was detected in each whitefly species in Japan. Based on historical records and molecular data, OSW was considered to be native to China whereas TSW has probably expanded to China from a more southern location in the last 50 years; China appears to be the source region for OSW and TSW invading Japan. In E. smithi, two phylogenetic groups were detected in Japan: haplotype I, associated with OSW, and haplogroup II mostly associated with TSW, except in two locations. These data support the hypothesis that E. smithi parasitizing TSW in Japan did not originate from the existent population parasitizing OSW but was newly imported into Japan following the invasion of its host.
In this study, we investigated GaN channel layer quality to suppress drain-lag, which is an important parameter for switching performance. In this experiment, we confirmed that drain-lag performance has dependence on the tilt of the GaN channel layer. GaN channel layer with the tilt angle of 243 arcsec showed faster drain-lag recovery than the tilt angle of 209 arcsec. The results of the drain-lag test and isolation leakage current measurement indicated that the tilt angle and hopping distance contributed to drain-lag recovery. We proposed the mechanism of trap effect during the drain-lag test.
This study examined whether the occurrence of late neck metastasis in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma can be predicted by evaluating HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1) expression in the primary lesion.
A case–control study was conducted. The cases comprised 10 patients with late neck metastasis. The controls consisted of 16 patients without recurrence. All were examined immunohistochemically for HMGB1 protein expression. The odds ratio for late neck metastasis in relation to HMGB1 was estimated.
Results for HMGB1 were dichotomised into positive staining scores (score, 5–7) and negative scores (0–4). Six cases (60 per cent) and four controls (25 per cent) were HMGB1-positive. Although no significant result was seen, compared with HMGB1-negative patients the odds ratio for late neck metastasis in HMGB1-positive patients was 3.8 (95 per cent confidence interval, 0.6–26.5) after adjusting for other factors.
In the present study, immunohistochemical study of HMGB1 in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma did not appear to be very useful for predicting occult neck metastasis. Further study is necessary to clarify the relationship between HMGB1 expression and late neck metastasis in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
Many endemic species, particularly those on remote islands, have been driven to extinction or near extinction by anthropogenic influences. The short-tailed albatross Phoebastria albatrus once numbered in the millions but was thought to be extinct by the mid 20th century. Albatrosses, of the family Diomedeidae, are among the most threatened birds globally as a result of commercial exploitation, introduced predators, and mortality in commercial fisheries. We applied an experimental approach over 5 years to evaluate the translocation and hand-rearing of albatross chicks by comparing growth, physiological health indices, post-fledging survival, and migration patterns with a control group of naturally reared chicks in the source population. Hand-reared chicks had comparable or superior health and similar rates of immediate post-fledging mortality (15%), with mortality strongly female-biased in both groups. Hand-reared birds had longer post-fledging drift periods before attaining sustained flight (also female-biased) but comparable, albeit somewhat wider ranging, migration patterns to naturally reared chicks during their first 6 months at sea. Recruitment to the translocation site of a breeding pair that included a hand-reared bird occurred within 5 years of the first translocation. Success will ultimately depend on continued recruitment and breeding over the coming decades, given delayed breeding in these long-lived species. The results to date, however, have exceeded initial expectations and can inform potential reintroductions of other long-lived, migratory avian species with strong natal philopatry, and reintroductions of native species to former breeding islands.
The association between depression after myocardial infarction and increased risk of mortality and cardiac morbidity may be due to cardiac disease severity.
To combine original data from studies on the association between post-infarction depression and prognosis into one database, and to investigate to what extent such depression predicts prognosis independently of disease severity.
An individual patient data meta-analysis of studies was conducted using multilevel, multivariable Cox regression analyses.
Sixteen studies participated, creating a database of 10 175 post-infarction cases. Hazard ratios for post-infarction depression were 1.32 (95% CI 1.26–1.38, P<0.001) for all-cause mortality and 1.19 (95% CI 1.14–1.24, P<0.001) for cardiovascular events. Hazard ratios adjusted for disease severity were attenuated by 28% and 25% respectively.
The association between depression following myocardial infarction and prognosis is attenuated after adjustment for cardiac disease severity. Still, depression remains independently associated with prognosis, with a 22% increased risk of all-cause mortality and a 13% increased risk of cardiovascular events per standard deviation in depression z-score.
To evaluate the effectiveness of a brief suicide management training programme for Japanese medical residents compared with the usual lecture on suicidality.
In this multi-center, clustered randomized controlled trial, the intervention group attended a structured suicide management programme and the control group, the usual lecture on depression and suicidality. The primary outcome was the difference in residents' cumulative competency score to manage suicidal persons from baseline (T0) to 1 month after the intervention (T2), determined using the Suicide Intervention Response Inventory (SIRI-1) score, at individual level.
Analysis of 114 residents (intervention group n = 65, control group n = 49) assigned to two clusters in each group revealed no change in SIRI-1 score from T0 to T2 or immediately after the intervention (T1) between the two groups. As a secondary analysis, discrepancy in judgement between the participants and Japanese suicidologists was examined immediately after the intervention in the adjusted model, with a mean difference in score of 9.98 (95% confidence interval: 4.39–15.56; p = 0.001).
The structured programme was not proven to improve competency in suicide management when measured by the SIRI-1 score. Further elaboration of the programme and valid measurement of its outcome would be needed to show the program's effectiveness.
We describe an outbreak of simultaneous Clostridium difficile and norovirus infections in a long-term-care facility. Thirty patients experienced acute gastroenteritis, and four had co-infection with identical C. difficile 027 and genotype II.4 New Orleans norovirus strains. Co-occurring infection requires improved understanding of risk factors, clinical impact, and testing strategies.
Ten ice-sheet models are used to study sensitivity of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to prescribed changes of surface mass balance, sub-ice-shelf melting and basal sliding. Results exhibit a large range in projected contributions to sea-level change. In most cases, the ice volume above flotation lost is linearly dependent on the strength of the forcing. Combinations of forcings can be closely approximated by linearly summing the contributions from single forcing experiments, suggesting that nonlinear feedbacks are modest. Our models indicate that Greenland is more sensitive than Antarctica to likely atmospheric changes in temperature and precipitation, while Antarctica is more sensitive to increased ice-shelf basal melting. An experiment approximating the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s RCP8.5 scenario produces additional first-century contributions to sea level of 22.3 and 8.1 cm from Greenland and Antarctica, respectively, with a range among models of 62 and 14 cm, respectively. By 200 years, projections increase to 53.2 and 26.7 cm, respectively, with ranges of 79 and 43 cm. Linear interpolation of the sensitivity results closely approximates these projections, revealing the relative contributions of the individual forcings on the combined volume change and suggesting that total ice-sheet response to complicated forcings over 200 years can be linearized.
In this paper, we developed a microscopic approach to understand rubber reinforcement using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. We investigated static uniaxial tensile behavior of filled and unfilled rubber models, and found two reinforcement mechanisms. One of these is the same as the mechanism predicted by Guth, which depends only on the volume content of fillers. We have confirmed this mechanism at small strain region. The other is caused by filler-filler network created by the advantage of chemical bond at large strain. In this region, some polymers linked fillers and were stretched, that is, these polymers generated tension. Additionally, we investigated the effect of filler distribution on rubber reinforcement.