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The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
The clinical manifestation and course of Leishmania infections depend on factors such as species, virulence and host-immunity. Although trypanosomatids are considered to have clonal propagation, genetic hybridization has produced successful natural hybrid lineages. Hybrids displaying strong selective advantages may have an impact on pathogenesis and the eco-epidemiology of leishmaniasis. Thus, characterization of phenotypic properties of Leishmania hybrids could bring significant insight into the biology, infectivity, pathogenicity and transmission dynamics of these atypical strains. The present study focuses on phenotypic features and survival capacity of Leishmania infantum/Leishmania major hybrid isolates as compared with representative putative parental species, L. infantum and L. major. In vitro assays (growth kinetics, susceptibility to different conditions) and in vivo infection (parasite detection and histopathological alterations) showed that hybrids present higher growth capacity and decreased susceptibility to reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, evaluation of infected spleen tissue suggests that hybrids induce a stronger immune reaction than their putative parents, leading to the development of white pulp hyperplasia in B-lymphocyte compartments. Overall, these hybrids have shown high plasticity in terms of their general behaviour within the different phenotypic parameters, suggesting that they might have acquired genetic features conferring different mechanisms to evade host cells.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incubating semen for different periods (90, 270 or 450 min) with or without Trolox® (100 or 150 µM) on the quality of sperm from Saimiri collinsi. Sperm motility, vigour, and plasma membrane integrity (PMI) were evaluated in both fresh semen and semen incubated for different time periods, i.e. 90, 270 or 450 min of incubation. Supplementation of semen extender with Trolox® 100 µM improved sperm motility, vigour and PMI for up to 270 min of incubation.
Metal oxides like zinc oxide (ZnO) are promising materials for the active layer of thin-film transistors (TFTs) used in the drive circuit of next-generation large-area active matrix displays due to their high electronic mobility, high transmittance in the optical visible range and processability. Traditional deposition techniques employ RF sputtering or pulsed-laser deposition (PLD), which are relatively sophisticated techniques. The deposition of very thin (less than 50 nm thick) layers of ZnO using soluble organic precursors have been extensively investigated recently as an alternative to traditional deposition methods. Solution-based deposition processes include simple and affordable techniques like dip-coating, spin-coating, spray-pyrolysis and ink-jet printing. Spray-pyrolysis is particularly interesting due to the high film uniformity, low cost and high device performance. We carried out several experiments analyzing the performance of ZnO based devices using zinc acetate as organic precursor to confirm that spray pyrolysis deposition is a suitable technique for production of high-performance and reproducible TFTs. Moreover, we observed that device performance can significantly vary with little modifications on the deposition parameters, even for the same active layer composition and pyrolysis temperature. Electrical parameters, as the electrical mobility and the on/off ratio, varied several orders of magnitude, whereas the threshold voltage varied up to 20 V for the tested devices. Deposition parameters as the nozzle height during the deposition, nozzle air pressure and deposition time were varied until we obtained devices with optimum electrical performance. Optimized devices presented mobilities in the order of 1 cm2.V-1.s-1, on/off ratio of about 106 and relatively low operation voltages. A statistical analysis of a great number of devices manufactured using the same deposition parameters was also carried out to assure the reproducibility of the deposition technique.
This study describes the effects of extracts and fractions of Persea willdenovii leaves against goat gastrointestinal nematodes and their cytotoxicity on Vero cells. The in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activities of the crude ethanolic, hexane, ethyl acetate (EAE), butanolic and residual hydroethanolic extracts were assessed through the inhibition of egg hatching and larval motility assays. The most active extract (EAE) was then fractionated by chromatography in an open column containing silica gel, to furnish six fractions (Fr1–Fr6), which were also tested. The cytotoxicity of active extracts and fractions was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and trypan blue exclusion assay. The EAE and two fractions (Fr1 and Fr2) showed inhibitory activity in the egg hatching of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats in a concentration-dependent manner. The effective concentrations for 50% inhibition (EC50) of egg hatching were 2.3, 0.12 and 2.94 mg/ml for EAE, Fr1 and Fr2, respectively. All extracts and fractions were not effective in inhibiting 50% of motility of infective larvae. EAE and Fr2 had IC50 values (50% inhibitory concentration) of 4.95 and 2.66 mg/ml, respectively. Fr1 showed a slight cytotoxic effect (cellular inviability <30%) only after 48 h of treatment (MTT test). Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis showed the presence of six fatty acid ethyl esters, a fatty acid methyl ester and a long-chain ketone in the most active fraction. These constituents identified in P. willdenovii can be related to the high ovicidal activity and relatively non-toxic effect of the extracts.
This study investigated the emission of subaquatic noise from recreational tourism motorboats, schooners and a sea-bottom mounted water pump. Analyses demonstrated alterations in several whistle (IF: t = 2.42, P = 0.015; FF: t = −2.22, P = 0.025) and calls patterns (MIF: t = −3.13, P = 0.001; MAF: t = −3.49, P = 0.0005; FD: t = −2.21, P = 0.027; D: t = 2.89, P = 0.004), caused primarily by motorboats. Duration of clicks was also modified (D: t = −3.85, P = 0.0001), mainly by the water pump. The frequency range of all noises (0.43–35.8 kHz) overlaps that used by dolphins (1–48 kHz), causing sound emissions changes, with a considerable increase in number of whistles and a reduction in clicks trains. These changes may be a strategy developed by these dolphins to overcome the noise band. Mitigation measures, such as boating regulations and environmental education for the local community, boaters and tourists are needed to conserve the species. The Guiana dolphin population is apparently already suffering, evidenced by diminished residence time and reduced number of individuals entering the inlet during the presence of pleasure craft.
Soybean oil (SBO) is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) and rumen bypass of SBO can contribute to increase the polyunsaturated FA proportion in milk fat. Citrus pulp (CPP) is a source of antioxidants but there is little information on the effects of CP administration on milk properties. This study was performed to determine the role of rumen microorganisms in the transfer of antioxidants from CPP into milk when cows receive SBO as a source of polyunsaturated FA. Four ruminally fistulated lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: (1) SBO administered in the rumen; (2) SBO infused in the abomasum; (3) SBO + CPP administered in the rumen; and (4) SBO + CPP infused in the abomasum. Product and site of administration had no effect on yield of milk components. Concentrations of total polyphenols and flavonoids, reducing power and production of conjugated diene (CD) hydroperoxides in milk were not affected by products, but infusion in the abomasum compared with administration in the rumen increased production of CD. Milk fat FA profile was not affected by products. However, cows infused in the abomasum compared with those administered in the rumen showed lower proportions of short-chain and monounsaturated FA and higher proportions of polyunsaturated, omega 3 and omega 6 FA in milk fat, which resulted in enhanced health-promoting index of milk. Administration of SBO and CPP (0·2 + 1·0 kg/d) in the rumen or the abomasum resulted in similar milk antioxidant properties, thus suggesting that the rumen microbes have little involvement in the metabolism of antioxidants from CPP.
Intestinal mucositis is an important toxic side effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment. Saccharomyces boulardii is known to protect from intestinal injury via an effect on the gastrointestinal microbiota. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of S. boulardii on intestinal mucositis induced by 5-FU in a murine model. Mice were divided into saline, saline (control)+5-FU or 5-FU+S. boulardii (16 × 109 colony-forming units/kg) treatment groups, and the jejunum and ileum were removed after killing of mice for the evaluation of histopathology, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and non-protein sulfhydryl group (mainly reduced glutathione; GSH), nitrite and cytokine concentrations. To determine gastric emptying, phenol red was administered orally, mice were killed 20 min after administration, and the absorbance of samples collected from the mice was measured by spectrophotometry. Intestinal permeability was measured by the urinary excretion rate of lactulose and mannitol following oral administration. S. boulardii significantly reversed the histopathological changes in intestinal mucositis induced by 5-FU and reduced the inflammatory parameters: neutrophil infiltration (control 1·73 (sem 0·37) ultrastructural MPO (UMPO)/mg, 5-FU 7·37 (sem 1·77) UMPO/mg and 5-FU+S. boulardii 4·15 (sem 0·73) UMPO/mg); nitrite concentration (control 37·00 (sem 2·39) μm, 5-FU 59·04 (sem 11·41) μm and 5-FU+S. boulardii 37·90 (sem 5·78) μm); GSH concentration (control 477·60 (sem 25·25) μg/mg, 5-FU 270·90 (sem 38·50) μg/mg and 5-FU+S. boulardii 514·00 (sem 38·64) μg/mg). Treatment with S. Boulardii significantly reduced the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β by 48·92 and 32·21 % in the jejunum and 38·92 and 61·79 % in the ileum. In addition, S. boulardii decreased the concentrations of chemokine (C–X–C motif) ligand 1 by 5-fold in the jejunum and 3-fold in the ileum. Interestingly, S. boulardii reduced the delay in gastric emptying (control 25·21 (sem 2·55) %, 5-FU 54·91 (sem 3·43) % and 5-FU+S. boulardii 31·38 (sem 2·80) %) and induced the recovery of intestinal permeability (lactulose:mannitol ratio: control 0·52 (sem 0·03), 5-FU 1·38 (sem 0·24) and 5-FU+S. boulardii 0·62 (sem 0·03)). In conclusion, S. boulardii reduces the inflammation and dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract in intestinal mucositis induced by 5-FU.
In this work we discuss the turbulent evolution of structures in the intracluster medium based on the two fluid approximations: MHD and collisionless plasma under Chew Goldberger Low (CGL) closure. Turbulence excited by galactic motions and gas inflow in intracluster medium will develop in very different ways considering the two fluid approaches. Statistics of density distributions, and velocity and magnetic fields are provided. Compared to the standard MHD case, the instabilities that arise from CGL-MHD models strongly modify the probability distribution functions of the plasma velocity and density, basically increasing their dispersion. Moreover, the spectra of both density and velocity show increased power at small scales, due to the instabilities growth rate that are larger as smaller scales. Finally, in high beta plasmas, i.e. B2 << P, a fast increase of the magnetic energy density is observed in the CGL-MHD models, faster than the standard MHD turbulent dynamo that operates at timescales τ ~ L/vL. The signatures of the increased power at small scales and the increase of magnetic field intensity from CGL-MHD models could be observed at radio wavelengths. A comparison of the structure function of the synchrotron emission, as well as the statistics of Faraday rotation effects on the synchrotron polarization, for both the MHD and CGL-MHD models is provided.
The role of turbulence in astrophysical environments and its interplay with magnetic fields is still highly debated. In this lecture, we will discuss this issue in the framework of dynamo processes. We will first present a very brief summary of turbulent dynamo theories, then will focus on small scale turbulent dynamos and their particular relevance on the origin and maintenance of magnetic fields in the intra-cluster media (ICM) of galaxies. In these environments, the very low density of the flow requires a collisionless-MHD treatment. We will show the implications of this approach in the turbulent amplification of the magnetic fields in these environments. To finalize, we will also briefly address the connection between MHD turbulence and fast magnetic reconnection and its possible implications in the diffusion of magnetic flux in the dynamo process.
Solitary Tinamou Tinamus solitarius is a threatened Brazilian bird, and very little is known about its ecology and behaviour. In this study we aimed to verify the use of habitats in different stages of plant succession and the circadian activity pattern of the species. The study was conducted in Santa Catarina state (27º43’S, 48º49’W). Six camera traps were used to record the species in three areas of different successional stages during a 12-month period. Traps remained at each sample site for two months, after which they were moved to a new site, a minimum distance of 100 m apart. A total of 76 independent records of Solitary Tinamou were obtained, and its habitat use was found to be different within the three successional stages (P = 0.02). The majority of 54 independent records were obtained in the secondary forest; not one photo of the species was taken in the most degraded area. Solitary Tinamou exhibited a crepuscular pattern of activity, with most records (n = 38) taken at 07h00 and 06h00, and it appears to be sensitive to forest clearance.
There is a paucity of efficient cryopreservation protocols for primordial follicles enclosed in the ovarian tissue from non-human primates (NHP), in special New World primates. Our objective was to establish an optimal procedure for the recovery of ovarian biopsies from capuchin monkeys. To this end, we adapted a trap door biopsy method. Follicular density and quality of the biopsies were evaluated and ultrasound analysis was performed before and continuously after surgery to assess ovarian structure. Ovarian tissue biopsies recovered by the trap door technique allowed the successful harvesting of primordial follicles from capuchin monkeys, and no complication was recorded. The female cycle was not affected by surgery and no adherence was found thereafter. In conclusion, the adaptation of a trap door biopsy method is a safe procedure and allows recovery of healthy primordial follicles.
The occurrence of dolphins in the Belém area, northern Brazil, has been poorly surveyed. In addition, there has been much speculation on the identity of cetaceans inhabiting these brackish waters. Vantage point observations conducted from September 2008 to October 2010 resulted in the observation of 44 groups of dolphins and 79 individuals. Among these, 56 were Inia geoffrensis (71%) and 23 Sotalia. In addition, 21 boat transects were conducted and recorded 50 individuals in 19 sightings. Among sighted during transects 36 were Sotalia (72%) and 14 were Inia. In both observation methods, Tasco Offshore binoculars were used and size and group composition and behaviour (feeding, resting, socializing, travelling and not identified) were recorded. All the categories of behaviour were recorded for Inia and Sotalia, except resting. The Inia group size ranged from one to four individuals, the solitary ones prevailing (57% in vantage point and 67% in boat surveys). Groups ranging from one to seven Sotalia dolphins were registered, in both observation methods. Boto calves were observed in September 2008 and 2009, and February 2010. In April 2010 two botos were sighted in courtship behaviour. Sotalia calves were found in March, May and December 2009. Botos frequently came closer to the right river margin, often entering the Igarapé do Tucunduba, usually in feeding behaviour. On the other hand, Sotalia was sighted in the main channel, or closer to the left margin, opposite to the observation point. Sotalia were observed in the rainy season, except for three sightings in the dry season.
Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) migrate between their feeding grounds, located in high latitudes, and their breeding grounds, located in low latitudes, exhibiting certain levels of site fidelity to their migratory destinations. The residence time, also known as occupancy rate, can be defined as the minimum number of days that those individuals remained in the same area. In this paper, site fidelity and residence time of humpback whales that breed off the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil were investigated. Data were collected between 2000 and 2009 on-board research cruises and whale watching vessels. This paper also studies possible differences between males and females with respect to site fidelity off the Brazilian coast, using data collected since 1989. A total of 841 whales were photo-identified. The vast majority of the whales (96%, N = 809) were seen only once in the studied area, while 4% (32 individuals) were seen twice. Most of the resights occurred within the same season (72%, N = 23), while 9 resights (28%) occurred in different years. None of the individuals were seen more than twice. The average site fidelity rate was 1% and the occupancy rate varied from one up to 21 days (mean = 5.3; SD = 5.4, N = 23).
The efficiency of in vitro fertilization (IVF) depends on the viability of spermatozoa. For capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), in vitro capacitation of spermatozoa is challenging because of their unique seminal coagulum. Motile spermatozoa can be obtained after liquefaction of the semen coagulum in coconut water-based solution. The objective of the present study was to establish an optimal in vitro maturation (IVM) protocol for capuchin monkeys and to observe the effect of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH) on IVF and parthenogenetic activation (PA) of oocytes collected from unstimulated females. We assessed spermatozoa quality after recovery from seminal coagulum using the solution ACP-118® as an extender. Oocytes were matured in vitro for 36 or 40 h and subjected to IVF or PA by applying ionomycin combined either with 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) or roscovitine. In total, 87% of oocytes reached metaphase II (MII) after 40 IVM and 4-cell embryo production was obtained after IVF and parthenogenesis using ionomycin/6-DMAP. ACP-118® was used successfully to harvest viable spermatozoa from semen coagulum and in the preservation of spermatozoa, which were able to fertilize oocytes in vitro.
An outbreak of meningococcal disease (MD) with severe morbidity and mortality was investigated in midwestern Brazil in order to identify control measures. A MD case was defined as isolation of Neisseria meningitidis, or detection of polysaccharide antigen in a sterile site, or presence of clinical purpura fulminans, or an epidemiological link with a laboratory-confirmed case-patient, between June and August 2008. In 8 out of 16 MD cases studied, serogroup C ST103 complex was identified. Five (31%) cases had neurological findings and five (31%) died. The attack rate was 12 cases/100 000 town residents and 60 cases/100 000 employees in a large local food-processing plant. We conducted a matched case-control study of eight primary laboratory-confirmed cases (1:4). Factors associated with illness in single variable analysis were work at the processing plant [matched odds ratio (mOR) 22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·3–207·7, P<0·01], and residing <1 year in Rio Verde (mOR 7, 95% CI 1·11–43·9, P<0·02). Mass vaccination (>10 000 plant employees) stopped propagation in the plant, but not in the larger community.
Pine wilt disease, caused by the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer) Nickle, is originating severe infections in pine trees. The disease is detected when external symptoms appear (e.g. needle chlorosis), but trees could remain asymptomatic for long periods and serve as a long-term host. The primary goal of this study was to assess the effect of inoculation with an avirulent isolate of B. xylophilus (C14-5) on different Pinus spp. seedlings (P. sylvestris, P. nigra, P. pinea and P. pinaster). At the same time, seedlings were also inoculated with a virulent strain, HF, in order to compare the phenotypic and genomic results of the two types of inoculations. The effect of inoculation was determined in terms of expression of various Pinus genes potentially involved in the response to the disease.The results suggest that P. pinea and P. nigra are more resistant to infection by the nematode than P. sylvestris and P. pinaster. The phenotypic and genetic differences were more marked among P. pinea and P. pinaster.
The standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description of the plasma in the hot, magnetized gas of the intra-cluster (ICM) medium is not adequate because it is weakly collisional. In such collisionless magnetized gas, the microscopic velocity distribution of the particles is not isotropic, giving rise to kinetic effects on the dynamical scales. These kinetic effects could be important in understanding the turbulence as well as the amplification and maintenance of the magnetic fields in the ICM. It is possible to formulate fluid models for collisonless or weakly collisional gas by introducing modifications in the MHD equations. These models are often referred as kinetic MHD (KMHD). Using a KMHD model based on the CGL-closure, which allows the adiabatic evolution of the two components of the pressure tensor (the parallel and perpendicular components with respect to the local magnetic field), we performed 3D numerical simulations of forced turbulence in order to study the amplification of an initially weak seed magnetic field. We found that the growth rate of the magnetic energy is comparable to that of the ordinary MHD turbulent dynamo, but the magnetic energy saturates in a level smaller than that of the MHD case. We also found that a necessary condition for the dynamo to operate is to impose constraints on the anisotropy of the pressure.
The transport of magnetic flux to outside of collapsing molecular clouds is a required step to allow the formation of stars. Although ambipolar diffusion is often regarded as a key mechanism for that, it has been recently argued that it may not be efficient enough. In this review, we discuss the role that MHD turbulence plays in the transport of magnetic flux in star forming flows. In particular, based on recent advances in the theory of fast magnetic reconnection in turbulent flows, we will show results of three-dimensional numerical simulations that indicate that the diffusion of magnetic field induced by turbulent reconnection can be a very efficient mechanism, especially in the early stages of cloud collapse and star formation. To conclude, we will also briefly discuss the turbulence-star formation connection and feedback in different astrophysical environments: from galactic to cluster of galaxy scales.
To evaluate the effectiveness of a positive deviance strategy for the improvement of hand hygiene compliance in 2 adult step-down units.
A 9-month, controlled trial comparing the effect of positive deviance on compliance with hand hygiene.
Two 20-bed step-down units at a tertiary care private hospital.
The first phase of our study was a 3-month baseline period (from April to June 2008) in which hand hygiene episodes were counted by use of electronic handwashing counters. From July to September 2008 (ie, the second phase), a positive deviance strategy was implemented in the east unit; the west unit was the control unit. During the period from October to December 2008 (ie, the third phase), positive deviance was applied in both units.
During the first phase, there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 step-down units in the number of episodes of hand hygiene per 1,000 patient-days or in the incidence density of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) per 1,000 patient-days. During the second phase, there were 62,000 hand hygiene episodes per 1,000 patient-days in the east unit and 33,570 hand hygiene episodes per 1,000 patient-days in the west unit (P < .01). The incidence density of HAIs per 1,000 patient-days was 6.5 in the east unit and 12.7 in the west unit (P = .04). During the third phase, there was no statistically significant difference in hand hygiene episodes per 1,000 patient-days (P = .16) or in incidence density of HAIs per 1,000 patient-days.
A positive deviance strategy yielded a significant improvement in hand hygiene, which was associated with a decrease in the overall incidence of HAIs.