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Pellet injection is currently the primary candidate for achieving efficient plasma fuelling, one of the key issues for steady-state operation in large fusion devices. In this paper, pellet injection experiments are performed for several magnetic configurations of the TJ-II stellarator. The aim of this study is to increase the understanding of the role played by rational surfaces in plasmoid drift and deposition profiles in stellarators. The analysis of experimentally observed plasmoid drifts is supported by simulations of such cases made with the HPI2 code. Plasmoid drift is found to be significantly reduced, as in tokamaks, in the vicinity of rational surfaces. This is attributed to the fact that plasmoid external charge reconnection lengths are shorter near rational surfaces, resulting in a more effective damping of the plasmoid drift. Although the effect of plasmoid external currents on the drift is expected to be negligible in stellarators, compared with those caused by plasmoid internal currents, the effect observed in TJ-II is clearly measurable. In addition, simulations show that enhanced drift reductions near rational surfaces lead to significantly different deposition profiles for the magnetic configurations included in this study. This implies that it should be possible to select the magnetic configurations to obtain more efficient pellet fuelling.
Accessory mitral valve tissue is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly that is typically discovered incidentally during echocardiographic evaluation prompted by an asymptomatic murmur. This pathology has characteristic echocardiographic elements and is usually associated with other CHD. The decision to perform surgical resection depends on factors such as the degree of obstruction, presence of symptoms, presence of other CHDs, and risk of thrombosis. The researchers hereby present a case of an asymptomatic paediatric patient with accessory mitral valve tissue that produced left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.
The ASD Day Therapeutic Unit of the HUMT is an interdisciplinary reference center specialized in ASD, for the care of children and adolescents with this pathology, that offers care by programs with the aim of achieving functionality altered.
The main objective of this study is to know the clinical characteristics of the patients admitted to our center and to offer preliminary data on the functional improvement achieved in a pilot program that works by processes.
This is a prospective clinical study of patients with ASD, treated at the ASD Day Therapeutic Unit of the Hospital Universitario Mutua Terrassa (HUMT), since februay 2022 till nowadays. We compare the clinical improvement and functionality acquired through the evaluation through various scales: Conners scale, SRS, BRIEF and CBCL.
Our sample is made up of 19 patients with ASD who are admitted to the HUMT ASD Day Hospital. 13 belonged to the intensive care program, 5 to recovery of low-functioning functionality, and 1 to the differential diagnosis program. 84.21% (n=16) have preserved cognitive capacity. The median age is 13.1 years. 73.7% of the sample are men.
We observed that 89% of patients admitted to our unit presented comorbid symptoms with ADHD. more than 78.9% present isolation, anxiety/depression, altered thinking and attention difficulties. 13/19 present a SEVERE RANGE of affectation upon admission, in social area. Facing discharge, the CBCL shows us a general improvement in behavior and comorbidity in the total scale. The SRS shows us an improvement in social awareness, social communication, social motivation, repetitive behavior and stereotypes and in the total score.
Specific interventions in social skills, autonomy, social understanding, daily routines, and sensory integration in patients with ASD improve core symptoms, as well as associated behavior.
Specific interventions and working on social relationships during admission improve comorbidity derived from ASD.
More studies are needed to specify the most efficient interventions to improve the quality of life in children and teenagers with ASD.
Since the beginning of the modern psychiatry the acute units have established a “locked door” policy. Some studies show that this condition may increase patient’s discomfort and affect the perception of health quality of care (Boyer L, 2009, Eur Psychiatry Dec;24(8):540-9). Lately, several European countries such as Germany, Switzerland and Spain are starting to implement the “open-door” policy but its impact on patient’s satisfaction is still unknown (Hochstrasser, L, Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9(57). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00057) .
To help characterize the advantages of the “open-door” policy implemented in an acute inpatient psychiatric unit in order to assess the patient’s view of it.
This is a descriptive observational study carried out at an inpatient psychiatric unit. Data were collected after the implementation of the open door policy on June 2019, assessing the patient satisfaction of 31 subjects who completed the SATISPSY-22 scale at the time of discharge. Results are described using the average and its standard deviation.
Results show scores in all items above 50 points, being the care team and the quality of care the most valued ones with 82 and 79 points respectively. The overall score is above 65 points (Fig. 1).
In line with previous studies, our data suggests that the main impact of the “open-door” policy implementation is on patients’ perception of the care, being Quality of care and satisfaction with the Staff the items with highest scores. This could be explained by patients trusting more in the Care team, which would help enhance the therapeutic relationship improving therapeutic adherence, treatment adequacy and the outcome. Nevertheless, the Feeling related to hospitalisation was found to be the item with the lowest score. This could mean strategies should focus on improving patient’s insight regarding their clinical state and their need to be admitted. Our study supports the hypothesis that open-door policy in acute psychiatric units is seen positively by patients and that further research should be carried.
Severe mental illnesses characterized by periods of relapse that require intensive resource management. Caregivers of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients feel a considerable burden of care (Tanna et al. Ind Psychiatry J 2021, 30(2):299-304).
The main objective of Hospital at home for psychiatric patients is to provide intense care to patients with severe mental disorders at home as an alternative to acute admission (Alba et al. Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment. 2019, 12 (4) 207-212).
The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of patients attended at the Psychiatric Home Hospitalization Unit of our hospital (HAD-CAEM) and to assess the of burden of care that caregivers feel while giveing care to this patients.
Data were collected retrospectively at admission and discharge of all patients treated at HAD-CAEM between August 2018 to March 2022. Incomes of patients who met DSM-5 criteria for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. Severity of disease and patient’s level of functionality was evaluated with the global assessment of functioning scale (GAF) and the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI). Burden Caregivers was evaluated with The Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale (ZCBS). Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS program.
109 patients were included in the study. 49.5% were women. The mean age was 48 years (SD 18.47 years). 44% met criteria for schizophrenia, 25.7% for depressive disorder, and 30.3% for bipolar disorder. Most of them lived with their own family (47.7%); had secondary education (51.4%) and were unemployed (33%). 81% had a history of at least one admission to an acute psychiatric unit.
The mean duration of admission in HAD-CAEM was 33.8 days (SD 15.72 days), with a mean follow-up of 8.75 visits (SD 3.58 visits).
The mean CGI severity item at admission was 4.36 and there was an improvement at the time of discharge according to the CGI improvement item (mean CGI-I=2.43).
The GAF scale on admission was 46.74 (SD 11.2) and on discharge 64.24 (SD 13.85), showing an improvement of 17.5 points at discharge (p<0.001).
The mean ZCBS of the sample was 48.21 (SD 15.11). Mean ZCBS in Schizophrenia group (n=22) was 46.13 (SD 16.53), in depressive group (n=18) was 43.61 (SD 12.89) and for bipolar group (n=17) was 55.76 (SD 13.19). A statistical test is performed with ANOVA, showing significant differences between groups (p=0.039). Post-hoc analyzes show significant differences between bipolar disorder group and the depressive disorder group (p=0.04). No significant differences are found between the other groups.
Caregivers of schizophrenia, depressive and bipolar disorder patients feel a considerable burden of care. ZCBS was administered to the caregivers on the last day of admission, when the patient presented clinical and functional improvement. More studies are needed to support these results.
Psychotherapy is a treatment of proven efficacy in bipolar disorder (BD), but little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms that it produces in the brain. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is thought to be important in neuroplasticity and could be increased by psychopharmaceuticals and psychotherapy in BD patients, but evidence in the literature is limited.
To analyze the scientific studies that relate psychotherapies with the increase in BNDF levels in patients with BD.
Systematic review with PRISMA recommendations in PUBMED and Web of Science in July 2022. The search was performed using the combination of keywords “bipolar disorder” AND (“BDNF” OR “Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor”) AND “psychotherapy”.
With the initial search, 839 studies were obtained, finally 8 articles were analyzed. The available literature supports the role of psychotherapy in increasing BNDF in patients with BD.
BDNF could be a biomarker of therapeutic efficacy in BD. Psychotherapy increases BDNF levels. No differences were found between the different types of psychotherapies. More studies are needed to determine the mechanisms by which psychotherapies produce molecular changes in the brain.
Data are scarce regarding the clinical factors associated with utilization of long-term care facilities among older adults with schizophrenia.
In this multicenter study, we sought to examine potential clinical differences between older adults with schizophrenia who are living in a long-term care facility and their community-dwelling counterparts.
We used data from the French Cohort of individuals with Schizophrenia Aged 55-years or more (CSA) study, a large multicenter sample of older adults with schizophrenia (N = 353).
We used data from the French Cohort of individuals with Schizophrenia Aged 55-years or more (CSA)study, a large multicenter sample of older adults with schizophrenia (N = 353).
Results from the multivariable binary logistic regression analysis including all variables that had a significant association in univariate analyses (i.e., p < 0.05) revealed that older age (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) [95%CI]=1.08 [1.03–1.13]), depression (AOR [95%CI]=1.97 [1.06–3.64]), lower MMSE (AOR [95%CI]=0.94 [0.88–0.99]) and GAF scores (AOR [95%CI]=0.97 [0.95–0.99]), living in an area comprising more than 1000 inhabitants per km2 (AOR [95%CI]=2.81 [1.37–5.80]), having consulted a general practitioner in the past year (AOR [95%CI]=0.28 [0.0.14–0.56]), and a greater lifetime number of hospitalizations in a psychiatric department (AOR [95%CI]=2.30 [1.18–4.50]) were significantly and independently associated with long-term care utilization among older adults with schizophrenia . In the multivariable logistic regression model, the variance inflation factor (VIF) and tolerance values of each predictor variable were respectively lower than 2.5 and higher than 0.2, supporting that multicollinearity was not a concern in our analysis.
In a multicenter sample of 353 older adults with schizophrenia, we found that ong-term care utilization was significantly and independently associated with depression, lower cognitive and global functioning, greater lifetime number of hospitalizations in a psychiatric department, not having consulted a general practitioner in the past year, urbanicity and older age. Patients living in a long-term care facility appear to belong to a distinct group, marked by a more severe course of illness with higher level of depression and more severe cognitive deficits.
Despite its limitations, this study contributes to gain more specific knowledge about this specific understudied population. Our study highlights the need of early assessment and management of depression and cognitive deficits in this population and the importance of monitoring closely this vulnerable population.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Since a large portion of the world’s population is currently unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated and has limited access to approved treatments against COVID-19, there is an urgent need to continue research on treatment options, especially those at low cost and which are immediately available to patients, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Prior in vitro and observational studies have shown that fluoxetine, possibly through its inhibitory effect on the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system, could be a promising antiviral and anti-inflammatory treatment against COVID-19.
The aim of this sudy was to test the potential antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities of fluoxetine against SARS-CoV-2 in a K18-hACE2 mouse model of infection, and against several variants of concern in vitro, and test the hypothesis of the implication of ceramides and/or their derivatives hexosylceramides.
We evaluated the potential antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities of fluoxetine in a K18-hACE2 mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and against variants of concern in vitro, i.e., SARS-CoV-2 ancestral strain, Alpha B.1.1.7, Gamma P1, Delta B1.617 and Omicron BA.5.
Fluoxetine, administrated after SARS-CoV-2 infection, significantly reduced lung tissue viral titres (Figure 1) and expression of several inflammatory markers (i.e., IL-6, TNFα, CCL2 and CXCL10) (Figure 2). It also inhibited the replication of all variants of concern in vitro. A modulation of the ceramide system in the lung tissues, as reflected by the increase in the ratio HexCer 16:0/Cer 16:0 in fluoxetine-treated mice, may contribute to explain these effects (Figure 3).
Our findings demonstrate the antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties of fluoxetine in a K18-hACE2 mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and its in vitro antiviral activity against variants of concern, establishing fluoxetine as a very promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease pathogenesis.
Traditionally, psychiatric wards had established a “locked door” policy but secluded conditions may increase patient’s discomfort1 that could affect the perception of health quality of care2. Recently, the “open-door” policy is being adopted in several European countries but its impact on patient satisfaction remains unknown (Schreiber, LK. BMC Psychiatry. 2019 May 14;19(1):149). Since 2019 our psychiatric hospital has implemented the open-door policy.
The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of the “open-door” policy on patient satisfaction during their stay in the acute inpatient unit of our psychiatric hospital.
This is an observational study. Prior to the implementation of the open door policy 31 patient satisfaction data was collected between October 2018 to April 2019 and it was also assessed with 31 subjects between July to October 2019, after the implementation of the open “door-policy”. The inclusion criteria were being >18 years old, reading Spanish correctly and with a length of stay >72 hours. The patients with dementia disorder and intellectual disability where excluded from the study. We used the Satispsy-22-E scale, a self-administered questionnaire (Frías, V., et al. 2018. Psychiatry Res. Oct;268:8-14). It assesses patient’s experience of hospitalization through 22 items distributed into 6 dimensions. The score range is from 0 to 100. Differences in Satispsy-22-E scores were analysed by applying ANOVA using the IBM-SPSS (v. 25).
Total scores in Satispsy-22 are provided in Figure 1. We found that patient satisfaction was increased in the dimensions of “personal experience” and “food” (p<0.05). No significant differences were found in staff, quality of care, information, activity dimensions and Total score (Table 2).
Quality of Care
Our results provide preliminary evidence indicating that the open-door policy could have a positive impact on patient satisfaction, especially in relation to the personal experience on an acute inpatient psychiatric unit.
Lithium associated with hypercalcemia may mimic a psychiatric condition and be confused for a relapse of bipolar disorder. The etiology seems to be due to a reduced sensitivity of the parathyroid cells to calcium, altering the parathyroid hormone (PTH) response. Lithium as an essential monovalent cation has some structural similarity to calcium (Ca) and can interact with protein receptors. This leads to changes in the inhibitory configuration of PTH and increased serum calcium concentrations, rising the threshold necessary to suppress hormone secretion.
Lithium-induced hyperparathyroidism (HIL) is the main cause of hypercalcemia in these patients.
Based on a clinical case of lithium-associated hypercalcemia in a patient with bipolar disorder, review the existing literature and state the needs for periodic monitoring protocols.
Case report and bibliographical review.
A 38-year-old woman, diagnosed with bipolar affective disorder at the age of 18, has been treated with lithium during which she developed secondary tubulointerstitial nephropathy as an adverse effect. Recently, she requested medical evaluation for constitutional syndrome associated with deterioration of general condition with loss of strength and difficulty in walking. Analytically, mild hypercalcemia was detected, and the study was extended to include Ca and PTH.
Chronic lithium therapy often develops mild hypercalcemia (approximately 10 to 20 percent of patients taking lithium), most likely due to increased secretion of PTH. Lithium can also unmask previously unrecognized mild hyperparathyroidism in patients with adenomas within a few years of starting therapy or induce parathyroid hyperplasia with a chronic use.
The hypercalcemia usually, but not always, subsides when the lithium is stopped. Normalization of serum calcium is more likely to occur one to four weeks post-lithium withdrawal in patients with a relatively short duration of lithium use. It is less likely in patients receiving lithium for more than 10 years.
Regarding the case to be presented, a review of the literature is carried out and the need to propose periodic calcium monitoring protocols is exposed.
Recommendations include determination of serum calcium every 6 months, urinary calcium and creatinine every 12 months, and bone mineral density monitoring every 1 to 3 years. Regular analytical monitoring including total calcium, PTH and vitamin D, would identify patients with a tendency to hypercalcemia so that appropriate measures could be taken. So as chronic treatment with lithium can develop mild hypercalcemia, I consider it necessary to develop periodic monitoring protocols for this adverse effect.
Research shows the benefits of music therapy for various mental health conditions, including depression, trauma, and schizophrenia. Music acts as a medium for processing emotions, trauma, and grief.
Playing instruments can encourage emotional expression, socialization and exploration of various therapeutic themes (i.e. conflict, communication, grief, etc.).
Group music therapy, measured by questionnaires and described in qualitative interviews, improved quality of life and self-esteem for people with severe mental illness (SMI).Group singing and song writing provide creative options for social connections. Music therapy should be considered as a component of holistic care for people with SMI. Jungup Lee, Thyer BA. May 2013Journal of Human Behaviour in the Social Environment 23(5):597-609
Music therapy sessions are held in our hospital for people admitted to short-term hospitalization units and to psychosocial rehabilitation units. The goal of the sessions is to create a connection space, promote people’s confidence in their own resources for their recovery, and evoke valuable experiences and memories. Sometimes musicians from the community have been present in the sessions, contributing to overcoming the stigma towards mental illness.
We describe self-assessment of people admitted to psychiatric units after attending music therapy sessions. People from brief hospitalization unit filled out a survey, after each session, voluntarily, about their emotional state at the beginning of the session and after it. People from rehabilitation units, voluntarily filled the SRS V.3.0. 2002-Miller. Duncan & Johnson escale.The SRS was designed for use by clinicians to assess the therapeutic alliance during therapy (Duncan BL et al. The Session Rating Scale: Preliminary Psychometric Properties of a “Working” Alliance Measure JBT 3(1) 3-12 12/14/04 3:53 PM Page 3).
23 sessions took place for each unit. 39 patients from brief hospitalization, 22 women and 17 men, attended the sessions. 15 had a diagnosis of schizophrenia and related disorders, 13 were affective disorders, and 11 others diagnosis. All of them liked the participation either fully or partially. 76% men and 77% women felt better after, none of them reported to feel worse. 82% men and 86% women replied they would repeat the session.
Patients from rehabilitation units were 7 women and 10 men. 14 had a schizophrenia related disorder and 3 had bipolar disorder. All items on the scale were scored above 9 over 10, (I felt heard, understood, and respected/ We worked on and talked about what I wanted to work on and talk about/ The therapist’s approach is a good fit for me) with an overall score of 9,62 over 10 (Overall, today’s session was right for me).
Music therapy sessions achieve benefits on an emotional level in any of the diagnoses, improving alliance with care teams, who value sessions as normalizing spaces, helping to overcome stigma.
Negative symptoms has been classically associated with cognition, psychosocial functioning and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. But negative symptoms are not a unitary construct, encompassing two different factors: diminished expression, and motivation and pleasure. Few works have studied the relationship between these two different negative symptoms factors and cognition (neuro and social cognition), psychosocial functioning and quality of life, jointly, in patients with a first psychotic episode of schizophrenia.
The objective of the present work was to study, in a sample of patients with a first psychotic episode of schizophrenia, the relationship between the negative symptoms (diminished expression and motivation and pleasure) and neurocognition, social cognition, functioning and quality of life.
The study was carried out with 82 outpatients with a first psychotic episode of schizophrenia from two Spanish hospitals (“12 de Octubre” University Hospital, Madrid and “Virgen de la Luz” Hospital, Cuenca). The patients were assessed with the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) for evaluating diminished expression (EXP) and motivation and pleasure (MAP) symptoms, the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) for evaluating neurocognition and social cognition, the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS), and the Quality of Life Scale (QLS).
A negative correlation was found between neurocognition and the two negative symptoms subscales: CAINS-EXP (r=-0.458, p<0.001) and CAINS-MAP (r=-0.374, p<0.001); but with social cognition only CAINS-EXP was correlated (r=-0.236, p=0.033). Also, it was found a high negative correlation between SOFAS scores and CAINS-MAP (r=-0.717, p<0.001); and a medium negative correlation with CAINS-EXP (r=-0.394, p<0.001). Finally, QLS score was high correlated with both CAINS subscales: CAINS-EXP (r=-0.681, p<0.001) and CAINS-MAP (r=-0.770, p<0.001).
This study found a relationship between negative symptoms and neurocognition, social cognition, functioning and quality of life in a sample of patients with a first psychotic episode of schizophrenia. But the two different negative symptom factors, diminished expression, and motivation and pleasure, are associated differently with psychosocial functioning, but especially with social cognition where the relationship was only found with diminished expression symptoms.
To reduce Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related mortality and morbidity, widely available oral COVID-19 treatments are urgently needed. Certain antidepressants, such as fluvoxamine or fluoxetine, may be beneficial against COVID-19.
The main objective was two-fold: (i) to test the hypothesis that the prevalence of antidepressant use in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 would be lower than in patients with similar characteristics hospitalized without COVID-19, and (ii) to examine, among patients hospitalized with COVID-19, whether antidepressant use is associated with reduced 28-day mortality. Our secondary aim was to examine whether this potential association could only concern specific antidepressant classes or molecules, is dose-dependent, and/or only observed beyond a certain dose threshold.
We included 388,945 adult inpatients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at 36 AP–HP (Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de Paris) hospitals from 2 May 2020 to 2 November 2021. We compared the prevalence of antidepressant use at admission in a 1:1 ratio matched analytic sample with and without COVID-19 (N = 82,586), and assessed its association with 28-day all-cause mortality in a 1:1 ratio matched analytic sample of COVID-19 inpatients with and without antidepressant use at admission (N = 1482) (Figure 1).
Antidepressant use was significantly less prevalent in inpatients with COVID-19 than in a matched control group of inpatients without COVID-19 (1.9% versus 4.8%; Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.38; 95%CI = 0.35–0.41, p < 0.001) (Figure 2). Antidepressant use was significantly associated with reduced 28-day mortality among COVID-19 inpatients (12.8% versus 21.2%; OR = 0.55; 95%CI = 0.41–0.72, p < 0.001), particularly at daily doses of at least 40 mg fluoxetine equivalents (Figure 3). Antidepressants with high FIASMA (Functional Inhibitors of Acid Sphingomyelinase) activity seem to drive both associations.
Antidepressant use is associated with a reduced likelihood of hospitalization in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and with a reduced risk of death in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. These associations were stronger for molecules with high FIASMA activity. These findings posit that prospective interventional studies of antidepressants with the highest FIASMA activity may be appropriate to help identify variant-agnostic, affordable, and scalable interventions for outpatient and inpatient therapy of COVID-19.
Numerous studies establish clear connections between traumatic childhood experiences and the risk of developing psychosis. According to the study carried out by Filippo Varese, childhood traumas, understanding by; physical, psychological or sexual abuse, abandonment, death of the parent and “bullying”, increase up to three times the risk of suffering from psychosis.
- Determine the prevalence of traumatic events in the sample studied.
- Determine which traumatic event has a greater relationship with the risk of presenting a psychotic episode.
- To determine whether traumatic events may be more strongly associated or not with gender differences, age at onset and family story.
A descriptive study is carried out in which the traumatic events are evaluated (through the CAVE questionnaire) of 98 patients who have been treated for a psychotic episode in the last two years in the Early Intervention Unit for Psychosis (ITPCan).
The stressful life history questionnaire (CAVE) consists of 52 questions divided into blocks: school stage, work, partner, family, health and other stressful events. All of them focused on those stressful events prior to the onset of psychotic symptoms. Stressful events have been considered to be those events in which the patients studied have scored 10 (maximum score) on the anxiety scale.
- Older than 18 years-old
- Having presented a first psychotic episode.
- Intellectual disabilities
For now, the data studied in this sample are similar to those described in most of the studies reviewed: more than half of the patients present at least one traumatic event before the onset of psychotic symptoms and a third of these have had any traumatic experience before the age of 18.
The percentage of the presence of at least one traumatic event within the categories of the CAVE questionnaire would be:
14.2% in the school stage
26.7% in the workplace
26% in relationships
24.3% in family relationships
12.1% in events related to the patient’s own health problems
We continue to increase the sample to have a more significant result.
Two independent temporal-spatial clusters of hospital-onset Rhizopus infections were evaluated using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that isolates within each cluster were unrelated despite epidemiological suspicion of outbreaks. The ITS1 region alone was insufficient for accurate analysis. WGS has utility for rapid rule-out of suspected nosocomial Rhizopus outbreaks.
Background: Endoscopic endonasal surgeries performed in areas involving the visual pathway are associated with postoperative visual dysfunction. We previously demonstrated that continued eye monitoring during surgery by flash visual evoked potential (FVEP) represents a good method to prevent/reduce visual deficit post-surgery. We wondered whether FVEP monitoring may be more beneficial in patients with meningioma, strongly associated with postoperative visual loss.
The aim was to explore the visual capacity in patients subjected to meningioma resection at The Ottawa Hospital. Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent minimally invasive endoscopic skull base surgery and FVEP monitoring for meningioma resection (July 2018 to present) was conducted. Only patients with available pre- (up to 3 months) and post-surgery (1-9 months) visual evaluation were analyzed. Results: 40 eyes were included (20 patients). The median age was 61 years (range:43-84) and 90% of patients were female. The LogMAR visual acuity was not significantly modified post-surgery (from +0.25 to +0.21; p=0.7). Color vision (# errors reading Ishihara/16-plates) was not modified post-surgery (from 2.6 to 3.2; p=0.6). Visual field (Humphrey, 32-2) was not significantly modified post-surgery (from 78.1% to 81.9%; p=0.7). Conclusions: The prevention of visual pathway injury during surgery by FVEP monitoring prevents visual deficits after endoscopic meningioma resection.
Background: Exercise is commonly recommended to patients following a lumbar microdiscectomy although controversy remains as to the timing and protocols for exercise intervention (early vs late intervention). Our study aimed to evaluate low back pain level, fear avoidance, neurodynamic mobility, and function after early versus later exercise intervention following a unilateral lumbar microdiscectomy. Methods: Forty patients who underwent unilateral lumbar microdiscectomy were randomly allocated to early (Group-1) or later (Group-2) exercise intervention group. The low back pain and fear avoidance were evaluated using Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire, Numeric Pain Rating Scale, and Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire. The neurodynamic mobility and function were recorded with Dualer Pro IQ Inclinometer, 50-foot walk test, and Patient-Specific Functional Scale. Measurements were performed before surgery and post-surgery (1-2, 4-6, and 8-10 weeks) after exercise intervention. Results: Both groups showed a significant decrease in low back pain levels and fear avoidance as well as a significant improvement in neurodynamic mobility and function at 4 and 8 weeks post-surgery. No significant difference was detected between the two groups. Conclusions: These findings showed that early exercise intervention after lumbar microdiscectomy is safe and may reduce the low back pain, decrease fear avoidance, and improve neurodynamic mobility and function.
Tobacco is a highly prevalent substance of abuse in patients with psychosis. Previous studies have reported an association between tobacco use and schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between tobacco use and first-episode psychosis (FEP), age at onset of psychosis, and specific diagnosis of psychosis.
The sample consisted of 1105 FEP patients and 1355 controls from the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene–Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. We assessed substance use with the Tobacco and Alcohol Questionnaire and performed a series of regression analyses using case-control status, age of onset of psychosis, and diagnosis as outcomes and tobacco use and frequency of tobacco use as predictors. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, alcohol, and cannabis use.
After controlling for cannabis use, FEP patients were 2.6 times more likely to use tobacco [p ⩽ 0.001; adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) [2.1–3.2]] and 1.7 times more likely to smoke 20 or more cigarettes a day (p = 0.003; AOR 1.7; 95% CI [1.2–2.4]) than controls. Tobacco use was associated with an earlier age at psychosis onset (β = −2.3; p ⩽ 0.001; 95% CI [−3.7 to −0.9]) and was 1.3 times more frequent in FEP patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia than in other diagnoses of psychosis (AOR 1.3; 95% CI [1.0–1.8]); however, these results were no longer significant after controlling for cannabis use.
Tobacco and heavy-tobacco use are associated with increased odds of FEP. These findings further support the relevance of tobacco prevention in young populations.
What makes immigration a salient issue among Latinos? We focus on immigration – one of the most pressing issues facing the United States (US) – and evaluate the factors that motivate immigration salience among Latinos over several election cycles. Although immigration policy has been linked with the Latino electorate over the period of our study due to high foreign-born rates and mixed-status families within this community, immigration policy has actually not been the dominant issue for the majority of Latino voters over this time period. Using survey responses from the 2008, 2012 and 2016 elections, we test multiple theories of issue salience by exploring social, political and individual determinants of policy salience among Latino voters. We find that in addition to nativity, consumption of ethnic media and group identity are associated with reporting immigration as a salient issue. These findings provide a valuable addition to literature of public opinion on immigration and the origins of policy issue salience among ethno-racial minorities in the US.