To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We present the first results obtained from an extensive study of eclipsing binary (EB) system candidates recently detected in the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) near-infrared (NIR) Survey. We analyse the VVV tile d040 in the southern part of the Galactic disc wherein the interstellar reddening is comparatively low, which makes it possible to detect hundreds of new EB candidates. We present here the light curves and the determination of the geometric and physical parameters of the best candidates found in this ‘NIR window’, including 37 contact, 50 detached, and 13 semi-detached EB systems. We infer that the studied systems have an average of the
mag and a median period of 1.22 days where, in general, contact binaries have shorter periods. Using the ‘Physics Of Eclipsing Binaries’ (PHOEBE) interactive interface, which is based on the Wilson and Devinney code, we find that the studied systems have low eccentricities. The studied EBs present mean values of about 5 700 and 4 900 K for the
components, respectively. The mean mass ratio (q) for the contact EB stars is
0.44. This new galactic disk sample is a first look at the massive study of NIR EB systems.
Treatment of medical catatonia sometimes requires management of presenting psychiatric syndrome as well as treatment of causative medical illnesses. Treatment response to these approaches may, however, differ even in the same patient suffering a relapse of a similar clinical picture, and this presents a therapeutic challenge for physicians. We therefore report a case of medical catatonia due to Graves’ disease which responded to antithyroid therapy in the first episode but required electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) when relapsed, then discuss the possible mechanism which caused different treatment response.
We describe the clinical course with the laboratory findings of recurrent catatonic episodes of a patient with Graves’ disease.
A 25-year-old woman manifested stupor, catalepsy and echolalia accompanying goiter, proptosis and tachycardia. Laboratory findings on thyroid function were consistent with Graves’ disease. Treated with thyamazole (TMZ), her psychiatric and physical symptoms gradually subsided. She had remained euthyroid and symptom free for 10 years on TMZ 5 mg every other day. However, at age 35, she exhibited stupor with mannerism and stereotypy. Laboratory findings revealed mild exercerbation of thyroid function. Though antithyroid therapy regained euthyroid, her psychiatric symptoms persisted. Further treatment with neuroleptics did not ameliorate her symptoms. She was thus administered bitemporal ECT and recovered after 7th trial.
Aggravation of thyroid function associated with catatonic symptoms when relapsed was milder compared to the first episode. This suggested that dysregulation of thyroid homeostasis in the central nervous system might have persisted despite the peripheral euthyroid and could affect the treatment response.
Overuse of antibiotics has caused secondary poor outcomes and has led to a current rate of antibiotic resistant infections that constitutes a public health crisis. In pediatric surgical specialties, children continue to receive unnecessary antibiotics.
To understand the factors that contribute to pediatric surgeons’ decisions regarding the use of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis.
Focus groups included pediatric proceduralists/surgeons from the following specialties: interventional cardiology, otolaryngology, orthopedic surgery, cardiothoracic surgery, and general surgery.
A total of 23 surgeons with a median of 9 years of experience (range, 0.5–29 years) participated in the focus groups that lasted 30–90 minutes each. Five themes emerged influencing beliefs about antibiotic prescribing practices: (1) reliance on previous experience and early education, (2) balancing antibiotic use with risk of infection, (3) uncertainty about the state of the scientific evidence, (4) understanding importance of communication and team collaboration, and (5) a prevalence of hospital-level concerns.
Surgeons describe a complex set of factors that impact their antibiotic prescribing in pediatric surgical cases. They reported initial, but not ongoing, training and a use of individual weight of risk and benefit as a major dictator of prescribing practices. Antimicrobial stewardship programs should work with surgeons to develop acceptable implementation strategies to optimize antibiotic prescribing.
The deviation from thermodynamic equilibrium of the ion velocity distribution functions (VDFs), as measured by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission in the Earth’s turbulent magnetosheath, is quantitatively investigated. Making use of the unprecedented high-resolution MMS ion data, and together with Vlasov–Maxwell simulations, this analysis aims at investigating the relationship between deviation from Maxwellian equilibrium and typical plasma parameters. Correlations of the non-Maxwellian features with plasma quantities such as electric fields, ion temperature, current density and ion vorticity are found to be similar in magnetosheath data and numerical experiments, with a poor correlation between distortions of ion VDFs and current density, evidence that questions the occurrence of VDF departure from Maxwellian at the current density peaks. Moreover, strong correlation has been observed with the magnitude of the electric field in the turbulent magnetosheath, while a certain degree of correlation has been found in the numerical simulations and during a magnetopause crossing by MMS. This work could help shed light on the influence of electrostatic waves on the distortion of the ion VDFs in space turbulent plasmas.
Thermoelectric (TE) materials, or materials that can generate an electrical energy from temperature gradient, are promising for renewable energy technology. One fundamental aspect in the TE research is the demand to maximize the TE power-factor, PF = S2 σ, by having as large Seebeck coefficient (S) and electrical conductivity (σ) as possible. In the early 90s, Hicks and Dresselhaus proposed the PF enhancement by using low-dimensional materials, in which electrons are confined in certain directions and they move freely in the other directions. This quantum effect is known as the confinement length (L) effect, in which L is the thickness or diameter of the two-dimensional (2D) or one-dimensional materials, respectively. However, a key challenge is to understand the critical value of L, at which the PF can be significantly enhanced. Recently, we reevaluated the confinement theory of the low-dimensional materials to solve this issue. We showed that electrons are fully confined only when L is smaller than an intrinsic length Λ, the so-called thermal de Broglie wavelength, which depends on the materials and can be experimentally measured. Monolayer 2D materials naturally satisfy the condition of L < Λ since their confinement length is ∼ 1 nm, while their thermal de Broglie wavelength is ∼ 5-10 nm. Therefore, they could be a good candidate for TE materials. In this review article, we first review the TE materials with low dimensions. Then, we show the basic concept of the confinement effect and the consequence of such an effect. Finally, based on this effect, we turn our attention to the progress achieved recently in the TE properties of the 2D materials such as monolayer InSe, GaN electron gas, and SrTiO3 superlattices.
The giant Hii region W 31 hosts the populous star cluster W 31-CL and others projected on or in the surroundings. The most intriguing object is the stellar cluster SGR 1806-20, which appears to be related to a Luminous Blue Variable (LBV)—a luminous supergiant star. We used the deep VVV J-, H-, and
-band photometry combined with 2MASS data in order to address the distance and other physical and structural properties of the clusters W 31-CL, BDS 113, and SGR 1806-20. Field-decontaminated photometry was used to analyse colour–magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and stellar radial density profiles, using procedures that our group has developed and employed in previous studies. We conclude that the clusters W 31-CL and BDS 113 are located at 4.5 and 4.8 kpc and have ages of 0.5 and 1 Myr, respectively. This result, together with the pre-main sequence distribution in the CMD, characterises them as members of the W 31 complex. The present photometry detects the stellar content, addressed in previous spectroscopic classifications, in the direction of the cluster SGR 1806-20, including the LBV, Wolf–Rayet, and foreground stars. We derive an age of
and a distance of
. The cluster is extremely absorbed, with
. The present results indicate that SGR 1806-20 is more distant by a factor 1.8 with respect to the W 31 complex, and thus not physically related to it.
Subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) play a significant role in obesity-associated systemic low-grade inflammation. High-fat diet (HFD) is known to induce inflammatory changes in both scAT and PBMC. However, the time course of the effect of HFD on these systems is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the time course of the effect of HFD on PBMC and scAT. New Zealand white rabbits were fed HFD for 5 or 10 weeks (i.e. HFD-5 and HFD-10) or regular chow (i.e. control (CNT)-5 and CNT-10). Thereafter, metabolic and inflammatory parameters of PBMC and scAT were quantified. HFD induced hyperfattyacidaemia in HFD-5 and HFD-10 groups, with the development of insulin resistance in HFD-10, while no changes were observed in scAT lipid metabolism and inflammatory status. HFD activated the inflammatory pathways in PBMC of HFD-5 group and induced modified autophagy in that of HFD-10. The rate of fat oxidation in PBMC was directly associated with the expression of inflammatory markers and tended to inversely associate with autophagosome formation markers in PBMC. HFD affected systemic substrate metabolism, and the metabolic, inflammatory and autophagy pathways in PBMC in the absence of metabolic and inflammatory changes in scAT. Dietary approaches or interventions to avert HFD-induced changes in PBMC could be essential to prevent metabolic and inflammatory complications of obesity and promote healthier living.
Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that often persists into adulthood and old age. Yet ADHD is currently underdiagnosed and undertreated in many European countries, leading to chronicity of symptoms and impairment, due to lack of, or ineffective treatment, and higher costs of illness.
Methods The European Network Adult ADHD and the Section for Neurodevelopmental Disorders Across the Lifespan (NDAL) of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA), aim to increase awareness and knowledge of adult ADHD in and outside Europe. This Updated European Consensus Statement aims to support clinicians with research evidence and clinical experience from 63 experts of European and other countries in which ADHD in adults is recognized and treated.
Results Besides reviewing the latest research on prevalence, persistence, genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How should ADHD be properly diagnosed in adults? (3) How should adult ADHDbe effectively treated?
Conclusions ADHD often presents as a lifelong impairing condition. The stigma surrounding ADHD, mainly due to lack of knowledge, increases the suffering of patients. Education on the lifespan perspective, diagnostic assessment, and treatment of ADHD must increase for students of general and mental health, and for psychiatry professionals. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available, as are effective evidence-based treatments for ADHD and its negative outcomes. More research is needed on gender differences, and in older adults with ADHD.
Competition from weeds is one of the major biophysical constraints to rice (Oryza spp.) production in sub-Saharan Africa. Smallholder rice farmers require efficient, affordable and labour-saving weed management technologies. Mechanical weeders have shown to fit this profile. Several mechanical weeder types exist but little is known about locally specific differences in performance and farmer preference between these types. Three to six different weeder types were evaluated at 10 different sites across seven countries – i.e., Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria, Rwanda and Togo. A total of 310 farmers (173 male, 137 female) tested the weeders, scored them for their preference, and compared them with their own weed management practices. In a follow-up study, 186 farmers from Benin and Nigeria received the ring hoe, which was the most preferred in these two countries, to use it during the entire crop growing season. Farmers were surveyed on their experiences. The probability of the ring hoe having the highest score among the tested weeders was 71%. The probability of farmers’ preference of the ring hoe over their usual practices – i.e., herbicide, traditional hoe and hand weeding – was 52, 95 and 91%, respectively. The preference of this weeder was not related to gender, years of experience with rice cultivation, rice field size, weed infestation level, water status or soil texture. In the follow-up study, 80% of farmers who used the ring hoe indicated that weeding time was reduced by at least 31%. Of the farmers testing the ring hoe in the follow-up study, 35% used it also for other crops such as vegetables, maize, sorghum, cassava and millet. These results suggest that the ring hoe offers a gender-neutral solution for reducing labour for weeding in rice as well as other crops and that it is compatible with a wide range of environments. The implications of our findings and challenges for out-scaling of mechanical weeders are discussed.
In temperate zones, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) outbreaks typically occur in cold weather, i.e. in late autumn and winter. However, recent outbreaks in Japan have tended to start during summer and autumn. This study examined associations of meteorological conditions with the numbers of HRSV cases reported in summer in Japan. Using data from the HRSV national surveillance system and national meteorological data for summer during the period 2007–2014, we utilized negative binomial logistic regression analysis to identify associations between meteorological conditions and reported cases of HRSV. HRSV cases increased when summer temperatures rose and when relative humidity increased. Consideration of the interaction term temperature × relative humidity enabled us to show synergistic effects of high temperature with HRSV occurrence. In particular, HRSV cases synergistically increased when relative humidity increased while the temperature was ⩾28·2 °C. Seasonal-trend decomposition analysis using the HRSV national surveillance data divided by 11 climate divisions showed that summer HRSV cases occurred in South Japan (Okinawa Island), Kyushu, and Nankai climate divisions, which are located in southwest Japan. Higher temperature and higher relative humidity were necessary conditions for HRSV occurrence in summer in Japan. Paediatricians in temperate zones should be mindful of possible HRSV cases in summer, when suitable conditions are present.
Documenting past changes in the East Antarctic surface mass balance is important to improve ice core chronologies and to constrain the ice-sheet contribution to global mean sea-level change. Here we reconstruct past changes in the ratio of surface mass balance (SMB ratio) between the EPICA Dome C (EDC) and Dome Fuji (DF) East Antarctica ice core sites, based on a precise volcanic synchronization of the two ice cores and on corrections for the vertical thinning of layers. During the past 216 000 a, this SMB ratio, denoted SMBEDC/SMBDF, varied between 0.7 and 1.1, being small during cold periods and large during warm periods. Our results therefore reveal larger amplitudes of changes in SMB at EDC compared with DF, consistent with previous results showing larger amplitudes of changes in water stable isotopes and estimated surface temperature at EDC compared with DF. Within the last glacial inception (Marine Isotope Stages, MIS-5c and MIS-5d), the SMB ratio deviates by up to 0.2 from what is expected based on differences in water stable isotope records. Moreover, the SMB ratio is constant throughout the late parts of the current and last interglacial periods, despite contrasting isotopic trends.
Norovirus (NoV) epidemics normally peak in December in Japan; however, the peak in the 2009–2010 season was delayed until the fourth week of January 2010. We suspected intensive hand hygiene that was conducted for a previous pandemic influenza in 2009 as the cause of this delay. We analysed the NoV epidemic trend, based on national surveillance data, and its associations with monthly output data for hand hygiene products, including alcohol-based skin antiseptics and hand soap. The delayed peak in the NoV incidence in the 2009–2010 season had the lowest number of recorded cases of the five seasons studied (2006–2007 to 2010–2011). GII.4 was the most commonly occurring genotype. The monthly relative risk of NoV and monthly output of both alcohol-based skin antiseptics and hand soap were significantly and negatively correlated. Our findings suggest an association between hand hygiene using these products and prevention of NoV transmission.
We present the detection of molecular gas using CO(1–0) line emission and followup Hα imaging observations of galaxies located in nearby voids. The CO(1–0) observations were done using the 45m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO) and the optical observations were done using the Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT). Although void galaxies lie in the most underdense parts of our universe, a significant fraction of them are gas rich, spiral galaxies that show signatures of ongoing star formation. Not much is known about their cold gas content or star formation properties. In this study we searched for molecular gas in five void galaxies using the NRO. The galaxies were selected based on their relatively higher IRAS fluxes or Hα line luminosities. CO(1–0) emission was detected in four galaxies and the derived molecular gas masses lie between (1 - 8)×109M⊙. The Hα imaging observations of three galaxies detected in CO emission indicates ongoing star formation and the derived star formation rates vary between from 0.2 – 1.0 M7odot; yr-1, which is similar to that observed in local galaxies. Our study shows that although void galaxies reside in underdense regions, their disks may contain molecular gas and have star formation rates similar to galaxies in denser environments.
We studied the spatial trend of norovirus (NoV) epidemics using sentinel gastroenteritis surveillance data for patients aged <15 years (n = 140) in the Tokyo area for the 2006–2007 to 2008–2009 seasons utilizing the kriging method of geographical information system (GIS). This is the first study of the spreading pattern of NoV epidemics using sentinel surveillance data. Correlations of sentinel cases between the seasons and with demographic data were examined to identify the trend and related factors. A similar pattern of diffusion was observed over the seasons, and its mean correlation between seasons was significantly high. A higher number of cases were found in the peripheral area, which surrounds the most populated central area, and showed a correlation with the ratio of the children population (r = 0·321, P < 0·01) and the ratio of residents in larger families (r = 0·263, P < 0·01). While NoV susceptibility remained, the results suggest a transmission route in the local community as a possible epidemic factor. Prevention with focus on the peripheral area is desirable.
We show that high-efficiency and low-degradation hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) p-i-n solar cells can be obtained by depositing absorber layers in a triode-type plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. Although the deposition rate is relatively low (0.01-0.03 nm/s) compared to the conventional diode-type PECVD process (∼0.2 nm/s), the light-induced degradation in conversion efficiency of single-junction solar cell is substantially reduced (Δη/ηini∼10%) due to the suppression of light-induced metastable defects in the a-Si:H absorber layer. So far, we have attained an independently-confirmed stabilized efficiency of 10.11% for a 220-nm-thick a-Si:H solar cell which was light soaked under 1 sun illumination for 1000 hours at cell temperature of 50°C. We further demonstrate that stabilized efficiencies as high as 10% can be maintained even when the solar cell is thickened to >300 nm.
The Vista Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) ESO Public Survey is an ongoing time-series, near-infrared (IR) survey of the Galactic bulge and an adjacent portion of the inner disk, covering 562 square degrees of the sky, using ESO's VISTA telescope. The survey has provided superb multi-color photometry in 5 broadband filters (Z, Y, J, H, and Ks), leading to the best map of the inner Milky Way ever obtained, particularly in the near-IR. The main part of the survey, which is focused on the variability in the Ks-band, is currently underway, with bulge fields observed between 34 and 73 times, and disk fields between 34 and 36 times. When the survey is complete, bulge (disk) fields will have been observed up to a total of 100 (60) times, providing unprecedented depth and time coverage in the near-IR. Here we provide a first overview of stellar variability in the VVV data.
Ten ice-sheet models are used to study sensitivity of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to prescribed changes of surface mass balance, sub-ice-shelf melting and basal sliding. Results exhibit a large range in projected contributions to sea-level change. In most cases, the ice volume above flotation lost is linearly dependent on the strength of the forcing. Combinations of forcings can be closely approximated by linearly summing the contributions from single forcing experiments, suggesting that nonlinear feedbacks are modest. Our models indicate that Greenland is more sensitive than Antarctica to likely atmospheric changes in temperature and precipitation, while Antarctica is more sensitive to increased ice-shelf basal melting. An experiment approximating the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s RCP8.5 scenario produces additional first-century contributions to sea level of 22.3 and 8.1 cm from Greenland and Antarctica, respectively, with a range among models of 62 and 14 cm, respectively. By 200 years, projections increase to 53.2 and 26.7 cm, respectively, with ranges of 79 and 43 cm. Linear interpolation of the sensitivity results closely approximates these projections, revealing the relative contributions of the individual forcings on the combined volume change and suggesting that total ice-sheet response to complicated forcings over 200 years can be linearized.
Herein, we investigated the noncovalent interactions derived from functionalized carbon nanotube matrices grafting metallic alloy PtRu nanoparticle-decorated Vulcan carbon (fMWCNTs-g-PtRu/C) toward the enhancement of alcohol oxidation reactions. The fMWCNTs noncovalently grafted PtRu/C was successfully synthesized and demonstrated significant enhancement of the electro-catalytic activity and stability toward alcohol oxidation reactions as revealed by electrochemical characterizations. The presented results indicate that the grafting matrix specifically enhances ethanol oxidation reaction kinetics much more than methanol and propanol oxidation reactions. Since the same loading of PtRu/C was used for all tests, the differentiation between these reactants revealed the different strength of noncovalent interactions between the functional matrix and corresponding reactants. This result reveals a new strategy for using fMWCNTs matrix as potential catalyst supports due to its facile fabrication and functionalization, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness, factors in which all of them are necessary for the practical application of direct alcohol fuel cells in near future.