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Frailty is associated with cognitive decline in older adults. However, the mechanisms explaining this relationship are poorly understood. We hypothesized that sleep quality may mediate the relationship between frailty and cognition.
154 participants aged between 50-90 years (mean = 69.1 years, SD = 9.2 years) from the McKnight Brain Registry were included.
Participants underwent a full neuropsychological evaluation, frailty and subjective sleep quality assessments. Direct relationships between frailty and cognitive function were assessed using linear regression models. Statistical mediation of these relationships by sleep quality was assessed using nonparametric bootstrapping procedures.
Frailty severity predicted weaker executive function (B = −2.77, β = −0.30, 95% CI = −4.05 – −1.29) and processing speed (B = −1.57, β = −0.17, 95% CI = −3.10 – −0.16). Poor sleep quality predicted poorer executive function (B = −0.47, β = −0.21, 95% CI = −0.79 – −0.08), processing speed (B = −0.64, β = −0.28, 95% CI = −0.98 – −0.31), learning (B = −0.42, β = −0.19, 95% CI = −0.76 – −0.05) and delayed recall (B = −0.41, β = −0.16, 95% CI = −0.80 – −0.31). Poor sleep quality mediated the relationships between frailty severity and executive function (B = −0.66, β = −0.07, 95% CI = −1.48 – −0.39), learning (B = −0.85, β = −0.07, 95% CI = −1.85 – −0.12), delayed recall (B = −0.47, β = −0.08, 95% CI = −2.12 – −0.39) and processing speed (B = −0.90, β = −0.09, 95% CI = −1.85 – −0.20).
Relationships between frailty severity and several cognitive outcomes were significantly mediated by poor sleep quality. Interventions to improve sleep quality may be promising avenues to prevent cognitive decline in frail older adults.
Infection of pregnant cows with noncytopathic (ncp) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) induces rapid innate and adaptive immune responses, resulting in clearance of the virus in less than 3 weeks. Seven to 14 days after inoculation of the cow, ncpBVDV crosses the placenta and induces a fetal viremia. Establishment of persistent infection with ncpBVDV in the fetus has been attributed to the inability to mount an immune response before 90–150 days of gestational age. The result is ‘immune tolerance’, persistent viral replication and shedding of ncpBVDV. In contrast, we describe the chronic upregulation of fetal Type I interferon (IFN) pathway genes and the induction of IFN-γ pathways in fetuses of cows infected on day 75 of gestation. Persistently infected (PI) fetal IFN-γ concentrations also increased at day 97 at the peak of fetal viremia and IFN-γ mRNA was significantly elevated in fetal thymus, liver and spleen 14–22 days post maternal inoculation. PI fetuses respond to ncpBVDV infection through induction of Type I IFN and IFN-γ activated genes leading to a reduction in ncpBVDV titer. We hypothesize that fetal infection with BVDV persists because of impaired induction of IFN-γ in the face of activated Type I IFN responses. Clarification of the mechanisms involved in the IFN-associated pathways during BVDV fetal infection may lead to better detection methods, antiviral compounds and selection of genetically resistant breeding animals.
This article proposes that a recent shift in our understanding of dopamine function may support translational research to target deficits in positive emotions and reward processing in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). We review how dopamine functions to modulate approach behaviors in response to positive incentives, and we describe the incentive salience hypothesis, which posits that dopamine primarily modulates “wanting,” or anticipatory reward, rather than “liking,” or subjective pleasure. Although the incentive salience hypothesis was first proposed to help explain how drugs of abuse may reinforce harmful behaviors in the absence of continued pleasure or “liking,” it may also provide a basis for understanding and developing new treatment approaches for MDD. Specifically, it provides a rationale for combining behaviorally activating psychotherapies and pro-dopaminergic agents to target impaired reward processing in MDD.
We present a preliminary 3D potential field extrapolation model of the joint magnetosphere of the close accreting PMS binary V4046 Sgr. The model is derived from magnetic maps obtained as part of a coordinated optical and X-ray observing program.
Fifty-seven bacterial isolates previously identified as Bordetella avium or B. hinzii were
characterized by restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and/or ribotyping. Twenty restriction
endonucleases were evaluated for REA. Digestion of chromosomal DNA from the 42 B. avium
and 15 B. hinzii isolates with Hinf I produced 8 and 7 distinct fingerprint profiles, respectively.
Digestion with DdeI further discriminated these Bordetella species and produced 12 fingerprint
profiles for B. avium and 4 profiles of B. hinzii. In addition, B. avium isolates were clearly
distinguishable from B. hinzii isolates by ribotyping with the restriction endonuclease PvuII. The
ribotype patterns of these two species of Bordetella were unique when compared to previously
reported ribotype patterns for B. bronchiseptica isolates. Since it was possible to discern
differences among isolates within each Bordetella species by REA analysis, we suggest that
REA could be used in developing a typing system based on the fingerprint profiles generated.
An all-optical technique based on laser excitation and detection of surface acoustic waves is capable of precise, fast, noncontact and nondestructive measurements of metal film thickness. The technique is integrated into a compact and robust instrument. Applications to metal interconnect process control in integrated circuit technology are presented.
Pulsed γ radiation from the Geminga pulsar was recorded by the COS B satellite from 50 MeV to 5 GeV between 1975 and 1982. It has been analysed to derive the source spectral properties as a function of time and phase. The two main peaks are separated by 0.50 ± 0.01 in phase. Significant pulsed emission has also been detected in both phase regions between the two main peaks. Significant spectral differences with phase have been found; the emission from the first peak is slightly softer than from the second one and the Interpeak 2 radiation is extremely soft. The first peak emission remained stable within the statistics over 7 years while the flux from the other phase intervals changed significantly with time. The phase dependence of the variability implies that all the observed source emission should be pulsed and that it consists of four discrete beams with different apertures and spectra. The beams characteristics are strikingly similar to those of four γ-ray beams generated by the Vela pulsar.
The development of emergency medical services (EMS) systems in the United States, incorporating various levels of sophistication in prehospital care and echelons of capability in hospital resource availability, has brought new connotations to the word “triage” (sorting).
Heretofore, triage consisted entirely of estimating treatment needs so that prioritized transfer of patients could be made to hospitals. The decision is no longer binary, since the introduction of Trauma Centers requires the triage decision maker to not only decide which patient first, but also which patient to which hospital. Clear cut decision rules for this process applied to routine civilian emergency medical practice have yet to emerge.
When we talk of Gamma-Ray Astronomy we refer in general to celestial photons covering the energy domain from a fraction of MeV up to the highest detected energies at hundreds or thousands of GeV. The six to seven decades altogether spanning the overall energy range constitute a very wide domain to be compared with those of the optical (less than one decade) or of the neighbouring X-Ray Astronomy (about two decades). The observational technique varies widely with changing energy; detector performances and characteristic parameters are not, in general, comparable.
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