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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with elevated risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the direction of this association is not yet established, as most prior studies employed cross-sectional designs. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate bidirectional associations between PTSD and MetS using a longitudinal design.
A total of 1355 male and female veterans of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan underwent PTSD diagnostic assessments and their biometric profiles pertaining to MetS were extracted from the electronic medical record at two time points (spanning ~2.5 years, n = 971 at time 2).
The prevalence of MetS among veterans with PTSD was just under 40% at both time points and was significantly greater than that for veterans without PTSD; the prevalence of MetS among those with PTSD was also elevated relative to age-matched population estimates. Cross-lagged panel models revealed that PTSD severity predicted subsequent increases in MetS severity (β = 0.08, p = 0.002), after controlling for initial MetS severity, but MetS did not predict later PTSD symptoms. Logistic regression results suggested that for every 10 PTSD symptoms endorsed at time 1, the odds of a subsequent MetS diagnosis increased by 56%.
Results highlight the substantial cardiometabolic concerns of young veterans with PTSD and raise the possibility that PTSD may predispose individuals to accelerated aging, in part, manifested clinically as MetS. This demonstrates the need to identify those with PTSD at greatest risk for MetS and to develop interventions that improve both conditions.
Recent studies have claimed the existence of very massive stars (VMS) up to 300 M⊙ in the local Universe. As this finding may represent a paradigm shift for the canonical stellar upper-mass limit of 150 M⊙, it is timely to discuss the status of the data, as well as the far-reaching implications of such objects. We held a Joint Discussion at the General Assembly in Beijing to discuss (i) the determination of the current masses of the most massive stars, (ii) the formation of VMS, (iii) their mass loss, and (iv) their evolution and final fate. The prime aim was to reach broad consensus between observers and theorists on how to identify and quantify the dominant physical processes.
The role of estradiol and the estrogen receptor (ER-α) in the etiology of breast cancer have long been appreciated. This understanding has been complicated by two discoveries in the 1990s: (1) a second estrogen receptor (ER-β) whose expression pattern and activity overlap with but are distinct from those of ER-α; and (2) a pool of ERs located at the plasma membrane. This plasma membrane-localized ER constitutes a distinct pool of receptors whose protein interactions, signaling mechanisms, and cellular functions are not the same as that of the cytoplasmic- and nuclear-localized ER and are not as well understood. Here, we will consider the structure and function of the membrane-localized ER protein. We will then discuss what is known about the role of the membrane ER in the development and its implications for breast cancer treatment.
Two techniques are described for synthesizing nanometer-sized TiB2 particles by gas-phase combustion reactions of sodium vapor with TiCl4 and BCl3: a low-pressure, low-temperature burner and a high-temperature flow reactor. Both methods produce TiB2 particles that are less than 15 nm in diameter. The combustion by-product, NaCl, is efficiently removed from the TiB2 by water washing or vacuum sublimation. Material collected from the low-temperature burner and annealed at 1000 °C consists of loosely agglomerated particles 20 to 100 nm in size. Washed material from the high-temperature flow reactor consists of necked agglomerates of 3 to 15 nm particles. A thermodynamic analysis of the Ti/B/Cl/Na system indicates that near 100% yields of TiB2 are possible with appropriate reactant concentrations, pressures, and temperatures.
We report on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observation of the polar, QS Tel, made during 1994 June. Orbital modulation is present in both the continuum and lines. A narrow dip is observed in the continuum folded light curve. The spectrum of the occulted source during this dip is broadly consistent in shape with the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the EUV source.
HST UV observations of V795 Her reveal a strong 2.6-h orbital variation in the prominent UV lines, in contrast to earlier (IUE) evidence of a 4.8-h period. Only the C IV line contains a strong blue-shifted, wind formed absorption component. Several lines exhibit a ‘narrow’ absorption feature near rest velocity which may originate in the disk, and a blue-shifted emission feature which accounts for most of the line profile variability.
We present high resolution optical spectroscopy of the cataclysmic variable (CV) V795 Her. The time- and phase- dependent behaviour of the emission source is examined using two-dimensional image analysis and Doppler reconstruction techniques on the orbital profiles. A clear S-wave modulation of a weak emission feature in the Hβ and Hγ line wings (extending to ~1800 km s−1) is present, with complex asymmetric properties.
Heteroepitaxy of β-FeSi2 on (100) and (111) silicon surfaces has been achieved by gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE). Fe(CO)5 and SiH4 are used as sources for the silicide growth in the substrate temperature range 400 – 750°C. Depending on growth temperature different growth modes are observed. Concerning morphology two best temperatures were identified for the growth of β-FeSi2 on Si(111). Tg = 550°C - the epitaxial relationship with the substrate is β-FeSi2(100)||Si(111) as shown by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED); a thin γ-FeSi2 (metallic cubic phase) layer is seen to be stabilized at the interface acting as a buffer layer for the further growth of the orthorhombic semiconducting phase. Tg = 700°C - the same epitaxial relationship as in SPE grown layers is observed: β-FeSi2(101) or β-FeSi2(110)||Si(111) and no γ-FeSi2 is present at the substrate interface. In accord with the lower growth temperature, the silicide layers show slightly higher surface roughness. On Si(100) the epitaxial relationship with the substrate is β-FeSi2(100)||Si(100) in the whole temperature range. On both Si substrates domains with different azimuthal orientations are observed by LEED. In-situ electronic characterization is performed by photoelectron and electron energy loss spectroscopies. Electrical characterization at room temperature shows relatively high mobility values (up to 70cm2/Vs) but the complex temperature behaviour of the Hall constant suggests the presence of both carrier types in the β-FeSi2 grown layers. Measurements of the absorption coefficient at RT show an indirect minimum gap for β-FeSi2.
We recently demonstrated that C60 and C70, as well as other fullerenes, can be deposited and accumulated on surfaces using laser ablation of graphite in an Inert gas atmosphere. After learning of the work of Krätschmer et al. indicating the presence of C60 in carbon soot, we showed that samples consisting almost exclusively of C60 and C70 can be sublimed from such soot. Vibrational Raman spectra of C60 and C70 were obtained from these samples. The C60 spectrum Is consistent with the calculated spectrum of Buckmlnsterfullerene, and the strongest three lines can be assigned on the basis of frequency and polarization. The NMR spectrum of dissolved C60 was then obtained, and found to consist of a single resonance, establishing the icosahedral symmetry of this molecule. STM images of the C60 molecules on a Au(111) crystal face show that these clusters form hexagonal arrays with an intercluster spacing of 11.0 Å and are mobile at ambient temperature. Distinctly taller species evident in the arrays are believed to be C70 clusters. Vibrational Raman and infrared spectra have also been obtained for separated C60 and C70.
Multilayer structures composed of alternating, ultrathin layers of Ru and B4C have been fabricated using DC magnetron sputtering. These multilayers are potentially important as normal incidence x-ray reflectors at wavelengths above the boron K-absorption edge at 65Å. The detailed structure of the layers has been characterized using x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is found that, under optimized deposition conditions, continuous layers can be grown that have smooth and abrupt interfaces. The normal incidence reflectivity at x-ray wavelengths of ∼70Å has been measured, and values as high as 20% have been obtained.
Auditory Brainstem Evoked Potentials (ABEP) were recorded from 29 adults and children, accidentally exposed to lead through food until approximately a year prior to this study. ABEP were recorded in response to 75 dBHL click presented at rates of 10/sec. and 55/sec. Average values were calculated for peak latency and for interpeak latency differences. Average values of the effect of increasing stimulus rate were calculated as well. Similar values were calculated for normative child and adult control groups.
IPLD (I-III) showed the most significant and recurring results, with longer intervals in lead-exposed children compared with their control group. Increasing stimulus rate, on the other hand, affected the adult lead-exposed subjects more than the children. These results may imply an impairment of the auditory system with azonal and myelin involvement. ABEP is suggested as a sensitive detector of subclinical lead exposure effects on the nervous system.
Numerous workers (Plaut, 1935; Altaman, 1937; Monouni, 1937) have reported that the blood and spinal fluid ascorbic acid levels are low in the aged. No adequate explanation of this fact has been given. Wortis (1938) has suggested that, since oral administration increases the ascorbic acid level of the spinal fluid in the aged as in the young, defective absorption probably does not play a significant part. He believes that the lower values in older persons may be due to increased intensity of metabolic processes concerned with the elaboration of ascorbic acid. Friedman, in discussing this contribution, advanced the suggestion that in older persons there may be less need for ascorbic acid because metabolism is slowed.
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