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In November 1934 the President circulated a letter to the members of the Commission as follows:
Since the 1932 meeting the following projects have been completed, or are nearing completion:
(1)The publication of many lists of trigonometric parallaxes.
(2)The determination of the spectroscopic parallaxes of 4179 stars at Mt Wilson Observatory by Adams, Joy and Humason.
(3)A discussion of systematic errors of trigonometric parallaxes by van Maanen and a re-discussion in the Astrophysical Journal of the same material by Mitchell and by Sterne.
(4)The compilation of a second Yale Catalogue to include parallaxes completed before the end of 1934.
(5)Substantial progress on the proper motions of 32,000 stars by Boss and his associates at the Dudley Observatory.
(6)The publication at the Radcliffe Observatory of the proper motions of 32,000 stars from photographs on 115 Selected Areas.
(7)The completion of the dynamical parallaxes of 2000 stars.
(8)The completion of the proper motions of 18,000 stars derived from parallax plates at the Leander McCormick Observatory.
(9)The publication at the Yale Observatory of the proper motions of 40,000 stars with a probable error less than 0”.010 determined from photographs by re-observing in zones the Astronomische Gesellschaft stars.
(10)The determination of the proper motions of 50,000 stars in the Southern Hemisphere by Luyten from Harvard photographs.
In November 1931 the President circulated a letter to the members of the Commission which in part was as follows:
In view of the fact that it is now over a quarter of a century since Schlesinger by photography began to determine trigonometric parallaxes by a long focus telescope, and fifteen years since Adams and Kohlschütter derived the first spectroscopic parallaxes, it would seem appropriate to take stock of our present position and to make plans for future development.
Will you be good enough, therefore, to furnish such statements concerning the following topics as are appropriate to the work of your observatory?
During the past three years the measurement of stellar radial velocities has formed an important part of the spectroscopic programme of most observatories possessing large telescopes. As observations are carried to fainter and fainter stars and the number of observable objects increases rapidly, a natural development has been the selection of special groups and types of stars, the radial velocities of which will aid in the solution of certain specific problems. Illustrations are the studies of the O, B and A type stars made at the Dominion Astrophysical, the Lick, and the Simeis Observatories, of the members of the galactic clusters at the Lick Observatory, and of the fainter Cepheid variables and early-type stars with strong interstellar lines at the Mount Wilson Observatory.
A complete X-ray image of the SNR PKS1209-52 (= G296.5+10.0) was obtained with the IPC and HRI on the Einstein Observatory. The remnant has a shell-like X-ray morphology much like its appearance at radio wavelengths, while a compact X-ray source is clearly detected near the center of the remnant. The flux observed from the X-ray nebula F(0.1−4.5 keV) is 8 × 10−11 ergs cm−2 s−1, which corresponds to a luminosity L(0.1−4.5 keV) = 8 × 1035 ergs s−1 for a distance of 2 kpc. Applying a simple shell model to the X-ray emission distribution, we derived an ambient interstellar medium nO = 0.08 H atoms cm−3, total X-ray emitting plasma mass 150 M⊙, and thermal energy 1.2 × 1050 ergs. The flux from the compact X-ray source F(0.15−4.5 keV) is ~2 × 10−12 ergs cm−2 s−1. There are no obvious optical counterparts brighter than mv ~ 22 within the 3.3″ radius HRI error circle. If the object is a hot neutron star, the HRI/IPC count rate ratio implies a surface temperature of 1.6 × 106 K for NH = 3.2 × 1021 cm−2.
The details of the formation of the first objects, stars and galaxies and their subsequent evolution remain a cosmological unknown. Few observational probes of these processes exist. The Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) originates from this era and measurements of its anisotropy can provide information to test models of both galaxy evolution and the growth of primordial structure. Such measurements should provide a sensitive probe of the large-scale variation in protogalaxy density at redshifts, z ~ 0.5-3, while optical galaxy surveys provide complementary information at z < 0.5 and Lyman alpha absorption forest studies and Cosmic Microwave Background measurements add information at higher redshifts.
Circulation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outside hospitals could alter the impact of hospital-based control strategies. We investigated two groups of cases (each matched to controls with MRSA): 61 ‘community cases’ not in acute hospital in the year before MRSA isolation; and 21 cases with ciprofloxacin-sensitive (CipS) MRSA. Multi-locus sequence typing, spa-typing and Panton–Valentine leukocidin gene testing were performed and demographics obtained. Additional questionnaires were completed by community case GPs. Community cases comprised 6% of Oxfordshire MRSA. Three community cases had received no regular healthcare or antibiotics: one was infected with CipS. Ninety-one percent of community cases had healthcare-associated sequence type (ST)22/36; CipS MRSA cases had heterogeneous STs but many had recent healthcare exposure. A substantial minority of UK MRSA transmission may occur outside hospitals. Hospital strains are becoming ‘feral’ or persisting in long-term carriers in the community with regular healthcare contacts; those with recent healthcare exposure may nevertheless acquire non-hospital epidemic MRSA strains in the community.
Molecular markers have been used to study genetic diversity within a set of Lablabpurpureus accessions collected from the southern states of India. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) molecular marker studies using a total of 78 L. purpureus accessions with nine primer combinations showed there was very little genetic diversity within the L. purpureus accessions from the southern Indian germplasm collection as compared to a set of 15 accessions from other international germplasm collections that included African accessions. The set of 15 were selected from a random amplified length polymorphism (RAPD) marker study and chosen on the basis of widest genetic distance. Further molecular analysis with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) markers from 97 expressed sequence tag (EST) and gene-specific primer pairs, designed from a range of legume sequences, concurred with the AFLP analyses. Both of these approaches provide a wealth of markers for diversity and mapping studies. The 97 sequence-specific primer pairs tested in L. purpureus resulted in 70% amplification success, with 44% of primer pairs amplifying single bands and 10% double bands. Markers generated from these EST and genomic sequences provide useful cross-reference to comparative legume genomics that will potentially have long-term benefit to legume plant breeding.
This contribution describes our solar project at the Antarctic sites of Baia Terranova, South Pole and Dome-C. The project is based on a multi-level helioseismology analysis, aimed to study, for the first time, the local properties of the solar atmosphere. In addition, we plan to detect the presence of Alfvèn waves in and around the active regions, as an energy transfer vehicle from sunspots towards the corona. The technology used is the well known compact, stable, relatively unexpensive and still improving MOF (Magneto-Optical Filter).
Petrological studies of the Sherwood Sandstone of the Marchwood Borehole show that the formation is made up of two units of differing primary lithological character: a lower unit with lithic sandstone and conglomerate, and an upper unit with arkosic sandstone. A combination of compaction and calcite cementation (early and late) has severely reduced porosity and permeability in the lower unit. In the upper unit compaction is again important, but several beds have largely escaped cementation, and their primary porosity has been enhanced by leaching of feldspars. The secondary porosity reaches 7% in some samples. Oxygen and carbon isotope data for the early (calcrete) cements indicate isotopic equilibrium with typical freshwater compositions. The later cements yield more variable values, indicating precipitation under a wider range of conditions.
It is widely recognized that somatic complaints are frequently encountered in depressive illness and in some instances these may predominate in the clinical presentation. Studies relating to the occurrence of such symptoms in depression have been reviewed by Cleghorn and Curtis (1959), who point out that in a number of patients mood disturbance may not be readily apparent. It is not unusual for these patients to be referred initially to a general medical or surgical clinic, where after investigation it is concluded that their complaints cannot be understood in terms of physical disease (Stoeckle and Davidson, 1962).
Among recent developments in human chromosome studies a triple-X state has been recognized in females in whom the chromosome number is 47, composed of 44 autosomes and 3 X chromosomes (Jacobs et al., 1959). Early surveys of nuclear sex have shown that the triple-X state is a not uncommon chromosomal anomaly. A survey of Edinburgh babies gave a frequency at birth of these abnormal females of 1.78/1,000 births (Court Brown, 1962) and by combining data of surveys from Edinburgh (Maclean et al., 1962), Glasgow (Fraser et al., 1960) and Baltimore (Johnston et al., 1961) the estimated frequency of the triple-X state in mental subnormality institutions is 4.51/1,000 in-patients.
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