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Approaches that bring families and educators together as partners can promote positive outcomes for children, families, and schools. Family-school partnerships may be most effective when aligned and integrated within existing school frameworks, such as multitiered systems of support, including positive behavioral interventions and supports. National and international policy supports embedding a social justice paradigm in services for children and families to improve equity and reduce disproportionate practices. Embedding a social justice paradigm in family-school partnership systems and practices promotes cultural responsiveness and equitable systems. The purpose of the chapter is to describe embedded social justice approaches within family-school partnership interventions as aligned and integrated within positive behavioral interventions and supports. Systems and practices at Tiers 1, 2, and 3 are described, with corresponding practical guidelines. Cultural responsiveness, from a social justice paradigm, is included as a core feature of each approach reviewed. International examples of tiered family-school partnership approaches are included to illustrate key points.
Targeting higher efficiencies and lower fuel consumption of turbomachines, heat transfer and profile loss are research topics of particular interest. In contrast to that, the interaction of both was, so far, rarely investigated, but gains in importance in recent research activities. The profile loss of engine components can be characterised by the airfoil wakes at the blade rows utilising established measurement and evaluation methods for which an adiabatic flow is typically supposed. To enable the investigation of the influence of heat transfer at the blade on the loss characteristics, a novel evaluation procedure was set up. In addition to the pneumatic data, the total temperature in the airfoil wake at a linear cascade was measured by means of a five-hole probe with an integrated thermocouple. For the evaluation and analysis of these data, different definitions of the loss coefficient were investigated and, finally, extended to account for thermal aspects. Furthermore, established techniques to average the local wake data were applied and compared with special focus to their suitability for non-adiabatic cases. Moreover, an extended version of the mixed-out average as defined by Amecke was utilised applying not only a far-reaching consideration of a temperature gradient but also the inclusion of the third spatial dimension to enable the evaluation of field traverses in addition to single wake traverses. These techniques were applied to wake measurement data from a linear compressor cascade gained in a special test set-up in the high-speed cascade wind tunnel for different operating points and different blade temperatures. The suitability of the new methods could be proven, and initial steps of the aerodynamic analysis of the resulting data are presented. Thereby, the acquired techniques turned out as powerful methods for the evaluation of wake traverses on compressor and turbine cascades under non-adiabatic conditions.
Little is known about the determinants of community integration (i.e. recovery) for individuals with a history of homelessness, yet such information is essential to develop targeted interventions.
We recruited homeless Veterans with a history of psychotic disorders and evaluated four domains of correlates of community integration: perception, non-social cognition, social cognition, and motivation. Baseline assessments occurred after participants were engaged in supported housing services but before they received housing, and again after 12 months. Ninety-five homeless Veterans with a history of psychosis were assessed at baseline and 53 returned after 12 months. We examined both cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships with 12-month community integration.
The strongest longitudinal association was between a baseline motivational measure and social integration at 12 months. We also observed cross-sectional associations at baseline between motivational measures and community integration, including social, work, and independent living. Cross-lagged panel analyses did not suggest causal associations for the motivational measures. Correlations with perception and non-social cognition were weak. One social cognition measure showed a significant longitudinal correlation with independent living at 12 months that was significant for cross-lagged analysis, consistent with a causal relationship and potential treatment target.
The relatively selective associations for motivational measures differ from what is typically seen in psychosis, in which all domains are associated with community integration. These findings are presented along with a partner paper (Study 2) to compare findings from this study to an independent sample without a history of psychotic disorders to evaluate the consistency in findings regarding community integration across projects.
In an initial study (Study 1), we found that motivation predicted community integration (i.e. functional recovery) 12 months after receiving housing in formerly homeless Veterans with a psychotic disorder. The current study examined whether the same pattern would be found in a broader, more clinically diverse, homeless Veteran sample without psychosis.
We examined four categories of variables as potential predictors of community integration in non-psychotic Veterans: perception, non-social cognition, social cognition, and motivation at baseline (after participants were engaged in a permanent supported housing program but before receiving housing) and a 12-month follow-up. A total of 82 Veterans had a baseline assessment and 41 returned for testing after 12 months.
The strongest longitudinal association was between an interview-based measure of motivation (the motivation and pleasure subscale from the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms) at baseline and measures of social integration at 12 months. In addition, cross-lagged panel analyses were consistent with a causal influence of general psychiatric symptoms at baseline driving social integration at 12 months, and reduced expressiveness at baseline driving independent living at 12 months, but there were no significant causal associations with measures of motivation.
The findings from this study complement and reinforce those in Veterans with psychosis. Across these two studies, our findings suggest that motivational factors are associated at baseline and at 12 months and are particularly important for understanding and improving community integration in recently-housed Veterans across psychiatric diagnoses.
The first aim of this study was to provide prevalence suicidal feelings over time (past week, past month, past year and lifetime) in a population-based sample of old to very old adults without dementia. Does prevalence change with rising age? The second aim was to examine the fluctuation of suicidal feelings over time. How does this coincide with depression status?
Data were derived from the Gothenburg H70 Birth Cohort Studies (the H70 studies) which are multidisciplinary longitudinal studies on ageing. A representative sample of adults in Gothenburg, Sweden with birth years 1901–1944 were invited to take part in a longitudinal health study on ageing and participated at one or more occasions during 1986–2014. The sample consisted of 6668 observations originating from 3972 participants without dementia between the ages of 70 and 108, including 1604 participants with multiple examination times. Suicidal feelings were examined during a psychiatric interview using the Paykel questions (life not worth living, death wishes, thoughts of taking own life, seriously considered taking life, attempted suicide).
Prevalence figures for suicidal feelings of any severity were as follows: past week 4.8%, past month 6.7%, past year 11.2% and lifetime 25.2%. Prevalence rates increased with age in the total group and in women but not in men. Suicidal feelings were common in participants with concurrent major or minor depression, but over a third of the participants who reported suicidal feelings did not fulfil criteria for these diagnoses nor did they present elevated mean depressive symptom scores. The majority of participants consistently reported no experience of suicidal feelings over multiple examination times, but fluctuation was more common in women compared with men.
Suicidal feelings in late-life are uncommon in individuals without depression indicating that such behaviour is not a widespread, normative phenomenon. However, such feelings may occur outside the context of depression.
We study data from an organization in which fund managers privately share and discuss detailed investment recommendations. Buy recommendations generate positive abnormal returns, and sell recommendations result in negative abnormal returns. In the context of these results, we explore an important economic question: Why do skilled investors share profitable ideas with others? Evidence suggests that the managers in our sample share to receive feedback on their ideas and to attract additional arbitrageur capital to the securities they recommend in order to correct mispricings.
Measures of social cognition are increasingly being applied to psychopathology, including studies of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Tests of social cognition present unique challenges for international adaptations. The Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, Managing Emotions Branch (MSCEIT-ME) is a commonly-used social cognition test that involves the evaluation of social scenarios presented in vignettes.
This paper presents evaluations of translations of this test in six different languages based on representative samples from the relevant countries. The goal was to identify items from the MSCEIT-ME that show different response patterns across countries using indices of discrepancy and content validity criteria. An international version of the MSCEIT-ME scoring was developed that excludes items that showed undesirable properties across countries.
We then confirmed that this new version had better performance (i.e. less discrepancy across regions) in international samples than the version based on the original norms. Additionally, it provides scores that are comparable to ratings based on local norms.
This paper shows that it is possible to adapt complex social cognitive tasks so they can provide valid data across different cultural contexts.
The number of separable cognitive dimensions in schizophrenia has been debated. Guided by the extant factor analytic literature, the NIMH Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) initiative selected seven cognitive domains relevant to treatment studies in schizophrenia: speed of processing, attention/vigilance, working memory, verbal learning, visual learning, reasoning and problem solving, and social cognition. These domains are assessed in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). The aim of this study was to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the beta battery of the MCCB to compare the fit of the MATRICS consensus seven-domain model to other models in the current literature on cognition in schizophrenia.
Using data from 281 schizophrenia outpatients, we compared the seven correlated factors model with alternative models. Specifically, we compared the 7-factor model to (a) a single-factor model, (b) a three correlated factors model including speed of processing, working memory, and general cognition, and (c) a hierarchical model in which seven first-order factors loaded onto a second-order general cognitive factor.
Multiple fit indices indicated the seven correlated factors model was the best fit for the data and provided significant improvement in model fit beyond the comparison models.
These results support the assessment of these seven cognitive dimensions in clinical trials of interventions to improve cognition in schizophrenia. Because these cognitive factors are separable to some degree, it is plausible that specific interventions may have differential effects on the domains.
For a variety of scientific, space and defence applications, there is an increasing demand for long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) detector focal plane arrays and compact infrared instruments. In the first part, we present an overview of alternative detectors to standard mercury cadmium telluride photodiodes for LWIR detection, such as the HgCdTe avalanche photodiode, the quantum-well infrared photo-detectors, the superlattice detectors and the carbone nanotubes-based bolometers. In the second part, we focus on new concepts developed to meet the requirement of miniaturization of infrared instruments. Original IRFPA-based micro-optical assemblies have been achieved, demonstrating several optical functions such as imagery, spectral filtering, spectrometry and wavefront sensing.
Nançay radio astronomy station teams are involved in several aspects of the Research and Development (R&D)
for radio astronomy detectors and systems:
i) Microelectronics: Low Noise Amplifiers (LNA), receiver on chip and
system in package. The long-term goal is to provide sub-systems for
the future Square Kilometer Array and its Pathfinders. A beamformer chip has been integrated
in the FP6 SKADS dense aperture array technology demonstrator EMBRACE. Wide band SiGe LNAs are
developed, beamformers with in-chip control are studied and more
complex integrated receivers are designed for the european Aperture Array
Verification Programme demonstrator.
ii) Digital signal processing: EMBRACE beamforming has been implemented
in the digital backend and RFI-mitigation oriented
signal processing has been designed for realtime systems,
including work for FP6 SKADS and FP7 PrepSKA.
iii) A study of Phased Array Feeds has started in 2008, in order to study
the radio electric properties of PAFs at the focus of large F/D
telescopes, such as the Nançay Radio Telescope, as well as to test PAF
systems in collaboration with the SPP/IRFU and LAL/IN2P3 laboratories.
Interpersonal communication problems are common among persons with schizophrenia and may be linked, in part, to deficits in theory of mind (ToM), the ability to accurately perceive the attitudes, beliefs and intentions of others. Particular difficulties might be expected in the processing of counterfactual information such as sarcasm or lies.
The present study included 50 schizophrenia or schizo-affective out-patients and 44 demographically comparable healthy adults who were administered Part III of The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT; a measure assessing comprehension of sarcasm versus lies) as well as measures of positive and negative symptoms and community functioning.
TASIT data were analyzed using a 2 (group: patients versus healthy adults)×2 (condition: sarcasm versus lie) repeated-measures ANOVA. The results show significant effects for group, condition, and the group×condition interaction. Compared to controls, patients performed significantly worse on sarcasm but not lie scenes. Within-group contrasts showed that patients performed significantly worse on sarcasm versus lie scenes; controls performed comparably on both. In patients, performance on TASIT showed a significant correlation with positive, but not negative, symptoms. The group and interaction effects remained significant when rerun with a subset of patients with low-level positive symptoms. The findings for a relationship between TASIT performance and community functioning were essentially negative.
The findings replicate a prior demonstration of difficulty in the comprehension of sarcasm using a different test, but are not consistent with previous studies showing global ToM deficits in schizophrenia.
A key obstacle to the development of new drugs to treat the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia was the absence of a standard by which to measure their efficacy. Before granting approval for any new drug for this condition, the US Food and Drug Administration wanted a standard cognitive endpoint based on a broad consensus-based method. To address this obstacle, the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) intiative oversaw a process to develop a consensus neurocognitive battery. Its development included a ten-step process that is described in this article.
Thin silicon dioxide (SiO2) on Si layers with embedded germanium nanocrystals (Ge-ncs) were fabricated using 74Ge+-implantation at 15 keV and subsequent annealing. Transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry have been used to study the Ge redistribution in the SiO2 films as a function of implantation dose under specific annealing conditions. At low implantation doses, Germanium is found to segregate at the Si/SiO2 interface leading to poor electrical properties. At higher doses and when the disorder limit of one displacement per atom is reached at the interface, transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of a Ge-nc layer array located close to the Si/SiO2 interface and an another one inside the SiO2 host material. This near-interface high density (>1012 ncs/cm2) nc-layer is found to act as a floating gate embedded within the silicon dioxide. Capacitance-voltage measurements performed on metal-oxide-semiconductor structures containing such implanted SiO2 layers show significant memory properties (few volts hysteresis) at low programming voltages (<|10V|) due to the presence of Ge-ncs near the Si/SiO2 interface