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We have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Planetary Camera (PC) images of a number of Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae. The objects, except for SMP 83 were observed as part of the Cycle I GO program. The observations were made in the [O III] λ5007Å line. The object SMP 83, was observed as part of the GTO program, and in this case observations were also made in the Hα line using the F650N filter. In order to characterise the point spread function, a star was placed at the same point on the chip as the PN. This allowed us to determine the diameters of barely resolved PN in an accurate manner, by convolving the PSF with a function until it matched the appearance of the PN image. The results are given in Table 1.
Reflecting telescopes designed to do astrometry can obtain parallaxes essentially free of systematic errors. Improvements in detection and mensuration now make it possible to produce parallaxes of unprecedented accuracy without undue cost or effort.
We present the results of our major HST study of the evolution of PN in the Magellanic Clouds. This consists of imaging studies in [O III] and FOS UV spectroscopy. These data are then used in theoretical photoionisation models in conjuction with ground-based spectrophotometry, absolute flux and expansion velocity and density to derive self consistent diameters, ages, masses, and nebular abundances and to accurately place the central stars on the H-R Diagram. We find that observed sizes and ages can be reconciled with evolutionary theory provided that the He-burners outnumber the H-burners in the approximate ratio 2:1. For the LMC observed abundance patterns are qualitatively consistent with the (mass-dependent) operation of the various chemical dredge-up processes as predicted by theory. However, the observed dredge-up efficiencies do not agree with current theory. Finally, since core masses are determined with adequate precision, we are able to derive, for the first time, the metallicity age relation for of the LMC. We find that the base metallicity of the LMC rapidly increased ∼ 2 Gyr ago, consistent with the age of the burst of star formation inferred from field stars and clusters.
The majority of planetary nebulae (PNe) at the distance of the Magellanic Clouds typically subtend 1 arcsec or less on the sky. The Planetary Camera onboard the Hubble Space Telescope has a scale of 0.044 arcsec per pixel and is therefore ideal to use to image these objects. At present, 16 LMC and 5 SMC objects have been imaged in the [O III] 5007 angstrom emission line, as part of this program. An additional 10 LMC and 5 SMC objects have been imaged in the same line under the Guaranteed Time Observer program.
Spectra at 16 - 45 μm of several regions within the central 80″ of the Galaxy have been obtained at 20″ resolution using the Goddard Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer No. 2 on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. A broad band of excess emission extending from 24 to 45 μm is present in the spectra at positions covering the “tongue” and the inner edge of the circumnuclear disk. A similar dust emission feature has been observed in some carbon-rich evolved stars and in a nitrogen-rich evolved massive star. The observations reported here are the first detection of this dust emission feature in the interstellar medium. After considering several possible candidates of the carrier for this 30 μm dust feature, we find that MgS is the best owing to its good fit to the observed spectra. The origin of this ~ 30 μm feature in the Galactic center is unknown. Based on the theoretical results of dust condensation and elemental abundances in a supernova, we find that the supernovae in the central 500 pc could provide the amount of MgS dust, which we proposed as the carrier of the 30 μm dust feature, observed in the central 3 pc.
In the recent years new techniques are expanding visual binary star astronomy into previously inaccessible regimes of angular resolution and accuracy of measurements regarding the astrometric and astrophysical parameters of their components. New techniques and algorithms are providing enhanced sensitivity to low mass companions and the determination of photometric properties of the components of close visual binaries. The potential now exists for significantly narrowing, if not eliminating entirely, the historic gap separating spectroscopic from visual binaries. Advances in closely related fields as in precision radial velocity measurement and enhanced accuracy of parallax determination from ground and space based observatories will place demands upon double star astronomy that have been absent for half a century. Today double and multiple star astronomy is perhaps closer to fulfilling its true potential than it has ever been, entering a fundamentally important area of modern astrophysics.
As a contribution toward settling the question of the distances of Murray-Sanduleak (M-S) stars (Murray and Sanduleak, 1972), two of these stars were added to the U. S. Naval Observatory (USNO) program in 1973. After the initial plates had been taken, it appeared that parallax for an additional star could be measured on one series, while parallaxes for two additional stars were possible from the second. As a result provisional parallaxes are now available, Table I.
In terms of USNO parallaxes, these are considered provisional because they are based on half the number of plates on which the final parallaxes are ordinarily determined; only small changes are expected when additional material is added beyond the present.
Eggen (1969) has defined a subluminous star “… as one that is fainter by at least a factor of 10 in visual luminosity than the main sequence stars of the same(U-V).” Implicit is the suggestion that single stars might exist in the region of the HR diagram between the subdwarfs and the normal degenerate sequence. While the evolutionary calculations of Chin and Stothers (1971) indicate that stars with masses <0.2 M⊙ will pass through this region following the completion of nuclear burning, these models have not yet been confirmed. We summarize Naval Observatory astrometry and photometry as it pertains to the existence of such stars.
The U.S. Naval Observatory program on trigonometric stellar parallaxes with the 61-in. astrometric reflector has been in progress since 1964. To date 201 definitive and 8 preliminary negligible parallaxes have been published, including the UBV photometry of these stars. Data for an additional 35 stars are still unpublished.
The mean error in position for an image of unit weight is 1.2 μ or 0″.016, of which 0.8 μ originates from the measuring error of the automatic measuring machine.
An error of the parallax of 0″.004 can usually be obtained with 40 or fewer plates and with an average parallax factor of 0.7.
A statistical investigation of the derived parallaxes shows that they are free from significant internal systematic errors.
Continuum scattering by free electrons can be significant in early type stars, while in late type stars Rayleigh scattering by hydrogen atoms or molecules may be important. Computer programs used to construct models of stellar atmospheres generally treat the scattering of the continuum radiation as isotropic and unpolarized, but this scattering has a dipole angular dependence and will produce polarization. We review an accurate method for evaluating the polarization and limb darkening of the radiation from model stellar atmospheres. We use this method to obtain results for: (i) Late type stars, based on the MARCS code models (Gustafsson et al. 2008), and (ii) Early type stars, based on the NLTE code TLUSTY (Lanz and Hubeny 2003). These results are tabulated at http://www.astro.umd.edu/~jph/Stellar_Polarization.html While the net polarization vanishes for an unresolved spherical star, this symmetry is broken by rapid rotation or by the masking of part of the star by a binary companion or during the transit of an exoplanet. We give some numerical results for these last cases.
The concept of effective stress is one of the basic tenets of rock mechanics where the stress acting on a rock can be viewed as the total stress minus the pore water pressure. In many materials, including clay-rich rocks, this relationship has been seen to be imperfect and a coefficient (χ) is added to account for the mechanical properties of the clay matrix. Recent experimental results during the flow testing (both gas and water) of several rocks (Callovo-Oxfordian claystone, Opalinus Clay, Boom Clay) and geomaterials (bentonite, kaolinite) has given evidence for stable high pressure differentials. The design of the experiments allows multiple measurements of pore pressure, which commonly shows a complex distribution for several different experimental geometries. The observed stable high pressure differentials and heterogeneous pore pressure distribution makes the describing of stress states in terms of effective stress complex. Highly localized pore pressures can be sustained by argillaceous materials and concepts of evenly distributed pore pressures throughout the sample (i.e. conventional effective stress) do not fit many clay-rich rocks if the complexities observed on the micro-scale are not incorporated, especially when considering the case of gas flow.
Understanding flow along fractures and faults is of importance to the performance assessment (PA) of a geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste. Flow can occur along pre-existing fractures in the host-rock or along fractures created during the construction of the GDF within the excavation damage zone (EDZ). The complex fracture network will have a range of orientations and will exist within a complex stress regime. Critical stress theory suggests that fractures close to localized shear failure are critically stressed and therefore most conductive to fluid flow. Analysis of fault geometry and stress conditions at Sellafield has revealed that no features were found to be, or even close to being, classified as critically stressed, despite some being conductive. In order to understand the underlying reasons why non-critically stressed fractures were conductive a series of laboratory experiments were performed. A bespoke angled shear rig (ASR) was built in order to study the relationship between fluid flow (water and gas) through a fracture surface as a function of normal load. Fluid flow reduced with an increase in normal load, as expected. During unloading considerable hysteresis was seen in flow and shear stress. Fracture flow was only partially recovered for water injection, whereas gas flow increased remarkably during unloading. The ratio of shear stress to normal stress seems to control the fluid flow properties during the unloading stage of the experiment demonstrating its significance in fracture flow. The exhumation of the Sellafield area during the Palaeogene–Neogene resulted in considerable stress relaxation and in fractures becoming non-critically stressed. The hysteresis in shear stress during uplift has resulted in faults remaining, or becoming, conductive. The field and laboratory observations illustrate that understanding the stress-history of a fractured rock mass is essential, and a mere understanding of the current stress regime is insufficient to estimate the flow characteristics of present-day fractures.
Factors responsible for the onset of dislocation generation in the fields of localized high stresses have been studied in LOCOS-isolated test structures by means of preferential etching, junction leakage analysis, and computer simulation. A strong correlation between densities of stacking faults and dislocations was observed in the experiments. Defect distributions also correlated to leakage currents. 2D simulations of stresses, interstitial injection, and stacking fault growth during field oxidation showed that maximum resolved shear stress in the structures did not exceed the critical level for dislocation generation and that the agglomeration of silicon interstitial atoms did not play a notable role in dislocation nucleation. Dislocation and stacking fault formation was attributed to surface mechanical damage introduced during plasma processing.
Thin coatings of Al2O3, and Y2O3, have been prepared on desized Nicalon yarn. The layers were deposited by dip coating in homogeneous, alcohol solutions of partially hydrolyzed metal alkoxides. The coating thicknesses could be controlled by multiple dipping.
The uniformity of the coatings was affected by the alkoxide concentration. Solutions containing greater than 1 wt % equivalent oxide resulted in oxide bridging the void between the fibers.
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies on alumina coatings formed by dip coating 300 mesh nickel grids, have shown that either eta or gamma alumina is formed after heating at temperatures as low as 700 °C. The rate of grain growth increases as the temperature increases. In addition, increased grain growth is observed for films produced from solutions with higher water:metal ratios.
The strength of coated fibers heat treated in air after coating has been determined. Alumina, and yttria coatings reduce the strength of the fiber after heating at temperatures above 900 °C. Scanning Auger analysis suggests that the coating is reacting with the fiber at these high temperatures.
A precipitation process has been developed to prepare precursor powders which can be calcined and sintered to form high critical temperature superconductors such as YBa2Cu3O7−x. Precursor powders are prepared using a continuous precipitation system in which a solution containing highly soluble salts of the desired metal cations is rapidly and completely mixed with a solution containing precipitating anions such as hydroxide and carbonate ions. The resulting amorphous powder can be calcined to form sub-micron particles of desired superconducting phases which are useful in preparing inks for the ink-jet printing of superconducting interconnects. The powders can be redissolved in organic solvents to form solutions which can be used in spin or dip coating substrates with thin superconducting films. Finally, the powders have been used to prepare bulk ceramics which exhibit the highest reported critical currents of any chem-prep ceramics. Bulk samples prepared from chloride doped precursors exhibit large, oriented grains and extensive flux pinning.
Recent studies have indicated that the birefringent-inducing stress of polarization-maintaining (PM) fibers decreases the long term, permanent loss induced by ionizing radiation and that light polarized along the two orthogonal axes of PM fibers may be attenuated differently by exposure to irradiation sources. This paper reports the results of specific studies of this differential attenuation induced in a series of PM fibers by both steady state and transient irradiations. It has been found that the response to ionizing radiation depends on the materials properties of the fiber, i.e. the core and clad dopants and/or degree of stress, and that the magnitude of the differential attenuation is small relative to the total or one-axis incremental loss.
Many surfaces eroded by ion-sputtering have been observed to develop morphologies which are either periodic, or rough and non-periodic. We have introduced a discrete stochastic model that allows to interpret these experimental observations within a unified framework. A simple periodic pattern characterizes the initial stages of the surface evolution, whereas the later time regime is consistent with self-affine scaling. The continuum equation describing the surface height is a noisy version of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation.
We present a molecular dynamics simulation study of the liquid-solid transition in a two dimensional system consisting of particles of two different sizes interacting via a truncated Lennard-Jones potential. We work with equal number of particles of each kind and the dispersity Δ in the sizes of the particles is varied by changing the ratio of the particle sizes only. For the monodisperse case (Δ = 0) and for small values of Δ, we find a first order liquid-solid transition on increasing the volume fraction p of the particles. As we increase Δ, the first-order transition coexistence region weakens gradually and completely disappears at high dispersities around Δ = 0.10. At these values of dispersity the high density phase lacks long range translational order but possesses orientational order with a large but finite correlation length. The consequences of this effect of dispersity on the glass transition and on the melting transition in general are discussed.