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Maruca vitrata (Fabricius, 1787) is a cryptic pantropical species of Lepidoptera that are comprised of two unique strains that inhabit the American continents (New World strain) and regions spanning from Africa through to Southeast Asia and Northern Australia (Old World strain). In this study, we de novo assembled the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the New World legume pod borer, M. vitrata, from shotgun sequence data generated on an Illumina HiSeq 2000. Phylogenomic comparisons were made with other previously published mitochondrial genome sequences from crambid moths, including the Old World strain of M. vitrata. The 15,385 bp M. vitrata (New World) sequence has an 80.7% A+T content and encodes the 13 protein-coding, 2 ribosomal RNA and 22 transfer RNA genes in the typical orientation and arrangement of lepidopteran mitochondrial DNAs. Mitochondrial genome-wide comparison between the New and Old World strains of M. vitrata detected 476 polymorphic sites (4.23% nucleotide divergence) with an excess of synonymous substitution as a result of purifying selection. Furthermore, this level of sequence variation suggests that these strains diverged from ~1.83 to 2.12 million years ago, assuming a linear rate of short-term substitution. The de novo assemblies of mitochondrial genomes from next-generation sequencing (NGS) reads provide readily available data for similar comparative studies.
The efficacy of three sources of vitamins A and D supplements was tested in an experiment with fattening pigs involving the following four treatments :
(1) Control—basal meal.
(2) As control, but at one week of age the pigs had been given a single intramuscular injection of a commercial preparation, supplying 500,000 i.u. of vitamin A and 100,000 i.u. of vitamin D3.
(3) Basal meal + 1 % cod-liver oil (containing 500 i.u./g. of vitamin A and 68 i.u./g. of vitamin 3), supplying 2,270 i.u. of vitamin A and 309 i.u. of vitamin D3 per lb. of diet.
(4) Basal meal + synthetic vitamins A and D concentrate (containing 50,000 i.u./g. of vitamin A and 5,000 i.u./g. of vitamin D3), added to supply 2,250 i.u. of vitamin A and 300 i.u. of vitamin D3 per lb. of diet.
The basal meal which was the standard fattening diet used at Shinfield consisted of: fine miller’s offal 50, barley meal 30, flaked maize 10, white fish meal 10, all parts by weight. It should be noted that the diet contained a precursor of vitamin A, and it was calculated that this would provide about one-third of the recommended allowance of vitamin A for fattening pigs.
We present an overview of the survey for radio emission from active stars that has been in progress for the last six years using the observatories at Fleurs, Molonglo, Parkes and Tidbinbilla. The role of complementary optical observations at the Anglo-Australian Observatory, Mount Burnett, Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories and Mount Tamborine are also outlined. We describe the different types of star that have been included in our survey and discuss some of the problems in making the radio observations.
The subsurface exploration of other planetary bodies can be used to unravel their geological history and assess their habitability. On Mars in particular, present-day habitable conditions may be restricted to the subsurface. Using a deep subsurface mine, we carried out a program of extraterrestrial analog research – MINe Analog Research (MINAR). MINAR aims to carry out the scientific study of the deep subsurface and test instrumentation designed for planetary surface exploration by investigating deep subsurface geology, whilst establishing the potential this technology has to be transferred into the mining industry. An integrated multi-instrument suite was used to investigate samples of representative evaporite minerals from a subsurface Permian evaporite sequence, in particular to assess mineral and elemental variations which provide small-scale regions of enhanced habitability. The instruments used were the Panoramic Camera emulator, Close-Up Imager, Raman spectrometer, Small Planetary Linear Impulse Tool, Ultrasonic drill and handheld X-ray diffraction (XRD). We present science results from the analog research and show that these instruments can be used to investigate in situ the geological context and mineralogical variations of a deep subsurface environment, and thus habitability, from millimetre to metre scales. We also show that these instruments are complementary. For example, the identification of primary evaporite minerals such as NaCl and KCl, which are difficult to detect by portable Raman spectrometers, can be accomplished with XRD. By contrast, Raman is highly effective at locating and detecting mineral inclusions in primary evaporite minerals. MINAR demonstrates the effective use of a deep subsurface environment for planetary instrument development, understanding the habitability of extreme deep subsurface environments on Earth and other planetary bodies, and advancing the use of space technology in economic mining.
Radio interferometric observations of extragalactic radio sources have been made with antennas at the Haystack Observatory in Massachusetts and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory in California during fourteen separate experiments distributed between September 1976 and May 1978. The components of the baseline vector and the coordinates of the sources were estimated from the data from each experiment separately. The root-weighted-mean-square scatter about the weighted mean (“repeatability”) of the estimates of the length of the 3900 km baseline was approximately 7 cm, and of the source coordinates, approximately or less, except for the declinations of low-declination sources. With the source coordinates all held fixed at the best available, a posteriori, values, and the analyses repeated for each experiment, the repeatability obtained for the estimate of baseline length was 4 cm. From analyses of the data from several experiments simultaneously, estimates were obtained of changes in the x component of pole position and in the Earth's rotation (UT1). Comparison with the corresponding results obtained by the Bureau International de l'Heure (BIH) discloses systematic differences. In particular, the trends in the radio interferometric determinations of the changes in pole position agree more closely with those from the International Polar Motion Service (IPMS) and from the Doppler observations of satellites than with those from the BIH.
For the “Hot Wire” chemical vapor deposition technique (HWCVD) method to be applicable for photovoltaic applications, certain critical technical issues need to be addressed and resolved such as: lifetime of the filaments, reproducibility, large area demonstration of the material and stable devices. We have developed a new approach (patent applied for) which addresses some of these problems, specifically longevity of the filaments and reproducibility of the materials produced. The new filament material used has so far shown no appreciable degradation even after deposition of >200 μm of amorphous silicon (a-Si). We report that this can produce “state-ofthe-art” a-Si with a dark conductivity of <10-10 (Ohm*cm)-1 and photoconductivity of >10-5 (Ohm*cm)-1 this material can also be doped p- or n-type. We also provide data using XRD as well as the Raman spectra. These materials have been incorporated into simple Schottky barrier structures. The development of microcrystalline silicon materials is also discussed.
To estimate the sensitivity and specificity of computed tomography used for the detection of extranodal spread of metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, by experienced head and neck radiologists.
Materials and methods:
Participants had undergone a neck dissection for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, together with computed tomography scanning prior to surgery (accessible for reporting). Computed tomography images were independently examined by two experienced head and neck radiologists. Nodal involvement by squamous cell carcinoma and the presence or absence of extranodal spread were recorded. Results were compared to the histological specimen. The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of using computed tomography for the detection of nodal involvement and presence or absence of extranodal spread were estimated, and 95 per cent confidence intervals were calculated.
Results and analysis:
The study analysed 149 neck dissections. When using computed tomography to detect the extranodal spread of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, radiologists A and B had sensitivities of 66 and 80 per cent, specificities of 91 and 90 per cent, and positive predictive values of 85 and 87 per cent, respectively.
The sensitivity and specificity of radiological detection of extranodal spread from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is not well reported in the literature. Accuracy of reporting improves in the hands of experienced head and neck radiologists. This finding has clinical implications for surgical planning and adjuvant therapy requirements.
The performance of a 15-cm-radius applied-magnetic-field ion diode was investigated on the PBFA II accelerator at a power of 23 TW. The power coupling between the accelerator and diode was measured and compared with numerical simulations that show the effects of the electron flow in the MITL. The power coupled to the cathode of the diode was 18 MW. Measurements of the lithium beam generated from an electric-field-emission LiF anode showed a lithium beam power of 9 TW. The lithium beam was ballistically focused in a gas cell filled with 2 torr argon. The resultant focused power density was ∼1.8 TW/cm2 equivalent on a cylindrical target at the centerline of the diode. The focused power was limited by the 20- to 30-mR divergence of the beam caused by the LiF source used and by virtual cathode instabilities in the anode–cathode gap. The ion mode instability in the virtual cathode was studied extensively by measurement of waves in the ion emission pattern from the anode and of the E-P0 correlation between variations in the beam energy and transverse momentum. The instability Played a dominant role in the limitation of the focused lithium power.
Fully electromagnetic, relativistic, two-dimensional, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of barrel-type and extractor-type Applied-B ion diodes have increased our confidence in the design of present and future diodes for the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II). In addition, the data from various experiments on Pro to I, Proto II, and PBFA I Applied-B ion diodes are inconsistent with previous models of diode operation, based on anode-cathode gap closure from expanding plasmas. A new model has been devised and applied to the PBFA II diode to explain the diode impedance and its time history, and to suggest methods for controlling the impedance.
Fifty-three hospitalized chronic schizophrenic patients were treated with either propranolol, chlorpromazine or placebo in a double-blind randomized trial for up to three months. Propranolol in a usual dose of 640 mg/day, produced marked cardiovascular effects but no improvement in schizophrenic symptomatology relative to placebo. The effects of chlorpromazine were small and inconsistent.
The structural states of alkali feldspars from the eastern end of the Galway Granite show transitions from orthoclase to microcline as a result of late deformation. Analyses of twenty samples for SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, Na2O, K2O, S, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Ba, and Pb agree with previously determined orders of entry of elements into the ‘alkali site’. A relationship between this order of entry and the melting points of feldspar end-members is discussed.
An account of the eastern part of the Galway Granite is presented together with the first detailed geological map. An aphyric medium-grained alkali granite occurs at the margin of the pluton followed by a coarse porphyritic granite, which becomes more basic towards the granite centre, consistent with findings in the western and northern parts of the batholith. Westwards the coarse porphyritic granite develops a foliation in which xenoliths, and occasionally potash feldspar phenocrysts, are aligned. Chemical fractionation trends illustrate the consanguinity of the granites and aplites. Field, petrographic, and chemical evidence suggest that most of the xenoliths are cognate.
The zonation of the granite is thought to have resulted from crystallization of a magma in which compositional gradients were set up during the early crystallization period. A temperature gradient, decreasing from the centre of the magma chamber outwards into the country rocks, resulted in the migration of water, accompanied by alkalis and other volatiles, towards the granite margin; also the early-crystallizing minerals displaced the residual magma outwards. Crystallization was followed by shearing in the deeper parts of the pluton to produce the granite foliation. A total of 166 rocks have been chemically analysed for 31 constituents.