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The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.
Introduction: Creatine kinase (CK) measurement, despite not being recommended for the diagnosis of a Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) is still routinely performed in the emergency department (ED) for the workup of NSTEMI. The diagnostic utility of CK among ED patients with suspected NSTEMI is still not well understood. The objectives of this study were to assess: the additional value of CK in NSTEMI diagnosis and the correlation between the highest CK/TNI values and ejection fraction (EF) on follow-up echocardiography among patients with suspected NSTEMI. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study conducted at the Civic and General Campuses of The Ottawa Hospital from March 2014 to March 2016. We enrolled adults (18 years) for whom troponin (TNI) and CK were ordered for chest pain or non-chest pain symptoms within the past 24 hours concerning for NSTEMI and excluded those with suspected ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI). Primary outcome was a 30-day NSTEMI adjudicated by two blinded physicians. Demographics, medical history, and ED CK/TNI values were collected. We used descriptive statistics and report test diagnostic characteristics. Results: Of the 1,663 patients enrolled, 84 patients (5.1%) suffered NSTEMI. The sensitivity and specificity of CK was 30.9% (95%CI 21.1, 40.8) and 91.4% (95%CI 90.0, 92.8) respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of troponin was 96.4% (95%CI 92.4, 100) and 88.1% (95%CI 86.5, 89.7) respectively. Among 3 (0.2%) patients with missed NSTEMI diagnosis with TNI, CK measurements did not add value. The mean CK values were not significantly different between those with normal and abnormal EF on follow-up (132.4 U/L and 146.3 U/L respectively; p=0.44), whereas the mean TNI values were significantly different (0.5 µg/L and 1.3 µg/L respectively; p=0.046). Conclusion: CK measurements neither provide any additional value in the work-up of NSTEMI in the ED nor correlate with EF on follow-up. Discontinuing routine CK measurements would reduce overall costs and improve resource utilization in the ED, and streamline the management of patients in the ED with chest pain.
IRAS 15194-5115 was discovered by IRAS and identified as a carbon star by Meadows et al. (1987). It is the third brightest carbon star at 12 μm, the brighter ones are IRC+10216 and CIT6. Its infrared properties are similar to those of IRC+10216. Le Bertre and Epchtein (1990) have monitored the star in the near-infrared and derived a period of 578 days. The distance to IRAS 15194-5115 is estimated to about 1 kpc from infrared observations, and also by comparing its bolometric luminosity with that of IRC+10216.
Synthesis maps of stellar OH maser emission have revealed that the OH lies in expanding spherical shells typically about 1016 cm in diameter. From the maps and the expansion velocity, derived from the OH spectrum, stellar mass loss rates may be determined. Typical values are 10−5 M⊙/yr. An important application of the stellar OH masers is in the estimation of stellar distances.
The flocculent spiral galaxy NGC 5055 has been mapped along the major axis in the 12CO (J = 1-0) line using the Onsala 20-m telescope (HPBW = 33″). Figure 1, which gives the spatial velocity diagram of CO emission on the major axis with observed Hα velocities (Kruit and Bosma, 1978) superimposed, seems to imply higher velocities of the regions responsible for the optical emission. Taking into account the cruder spatial resolution of the CO observations, this effect is expected in a region where the rotation curve rises rapidly provided that the CO emission increases toward the centre. Figure 2 shows the rotation velocities for the eastern and western parts of the galaxy separately, as observed in Hα and CO. For CO we only give the portion of the rotation curve which is accurately determined, i.e. where it is relatively flat. The CO velocities in this region agree closely with those observed in HI (Bosma, 1978). These data suggest a difference of 10-20 km s−1 between the Hα and CO velocities at a distance of ∼ 60″ from the centre. The radial distribution of the CO emission, also indicated in Fig. 2, is defined by an iterative fitting procedure to the observed line profiles (see Scoville et al. 1983). This procedure requests an a priori knowledge of the velocity field, here assumed to be defined by the Hα data inside a radius of 60″. However, the shapes of the observed spectra and “best fit” model profiles differ significantly in some cases, again indicating that the Hα velocities do not apply to the molecular gas. The derived radial distribution of the CO emission is dependent on the assumed velocity field; however, the gross characteristics are retained for more feasible rotation curves (i.e. rotation curves giving better fits to the observed profiles).
Scattering of radio waves off inhomogeneities in electron density in the interstellar medium can produce an apparent broadening in the angular diameter of an intrinsically compact background radio source. The magnitude and distribution of this effect at low galactic latitudes (|b|<5°) is not well known, although several cases suggest substantial broadening in certain directions, such as the Cygnus X region (Anderson et al. 1972), and the galactic center (Davies, Walsh, and Booth 1976). Large scattering in the plane is consistent with the scintillation properties of pulsars seen through substantial thicknesses (≳ 1 kpc) of the galactic disk.
Preston et al (1976) and Burke (1982, these proceedings) have long extolled the virtues of launching a radio telescope into space to increase VLBI baseline lengths and thus angular resolution, and to provide a much enhanced image formation capability. The scientific motivation for this has been covered in a number of memoranda referenced by Burke in these proceedings, and by Anderson et al (1982). Efforts to mobilise western astronomical support for space VLBI met with success in late 1982 at a meeting of US and European radio astronomers in Toulouse, France, at which a decision was taken to propose a joint mission to ESA and NASA. Shortly thereafter, a formal proposal was made to ESA (Anderson et al 1982) for a free flying satellite in an elliptical orbit out to 15000 km from the Earth, designed to observe in concert with the major ground-based VLBI networks and arrays. The mission, dubbed QUASAT, was received favourably in both ESA and NASA, with the result that formal Assessment Studies are scheduled to begin in both agencies in October 1983.
3C 120 is a nearby radio galaxy (z = 0.033) that shows superluminal motions in its radio jet within one parsec of the nucleus. The apparent velocities of the moving features are approximately 1.5 mas/yr. This object is of particular interest because it is clearly identified with an N-type galaxy, unlike all other superluminal radio sources which are only seen in quasars and BL Lac objects. Because of the close proximity of 3C 120, we have been able to make a series of VLBI and VLA images at stepped resolutions, and thereby map the radio jet continuously from the radio nucleus (0.5 h−1 parsec) into the diffuse 400 h−1 kpc structure.
Using the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope, we have mapped the CO (1-0) emission in two small areas of the LMC near 30 Dor. Some 20 molecular clouds have been identified and analysed. Cloud masses are calculated assuming virial equilibrium and the relationship between mass and CO luminosity is discussed.
In this short review we describe recent new observations of millimetre transitions of molecules in selected regions of the Magellanic Clouds. The observations were made using the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope, SEST, (Booth et al. 1989), the relatively high resolution of which facilitates, for the first time, observations of individual giant molecular clouds in the Magellanic Clouds. We have mapped the distribution of the emission from the two lowest rotational transitions of 12CO and 13CO and hence have derived excitation conditions for the molecule. In addition, we have observed several well-known interstellar molecules in the same regions, thus doubling the number of known molecules in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The fact that all the observations have been made under controlled conditions with the same telescope enables a reasonable intercomparison of the molecular column densities. In particular, we are able to observe the relative abundances among the different isotopically substituted species of CO.
The SUSI control system is a distributed real-time system currently consisting of 17 processors. A custom real-time operating system and network protocols ensure synchronous operation of servo loops across multiple processors.
On 1980 February 20 we conducted an 8-station intercontental VLBI experiment in order to study the nucleus and jet of M87 at 1666.6 MHz in right circular polarization. Our array was sensitive to structures from 0.001 to 0.1 arcsec. We made a hybrid map of the nucleus of M87, and also searched for compact structures within the knots of the jet. The map (Figure 1) shows that the nucleus of M87 contains a one-sided jet. This morphology is similar to that observed in many compact extragalactic sources. The position angle of the nuclear jet is 290.5 (±1) degrees, which precisely matches that of the 20 arcsec jet. No bending of the jet through an angle greater than about 2 degrees is observed. The nucleus also contains a large component (>0.1 arcsec) which is elongated along the same position angle as the jet and has a flux density of roughly 1 Jy. This component is fully resolved by the vast majority of our (u, v) points, and we could not map it with standard techniques.
We have measured the absolute positions of five OH maser sources associated with HII regions, using the Jodrell Bank phase compensated radio linked interferometer (Norris, Booth & Davis, 1980); these are reproduced in Table 1. In addition, we have mapped the relative positions of the features in the OH spectra at 1665 MHz for all of the sources and at 1667 MHz for 3 of them (W30H, NGC 7538 and W49). We are now able to compare the distribution of the OH masers in a given source with its radio continuum map and to investigate the proximity of masers in the 2 main line transitions and the H2O masers.
New angular diameter determinations for the bright southern F8 supergiant δ CMa enable the bolometric emergent flux and effective temperature of the star to be determined with improved accuracy. The spectral flux distribution and bolometric flux have been determined from published photometry and spectrophotometry and combined with the angular diameter to derive the bolometric emergent flux ℱ = (6.50 ± 0.24) × 107 Wm−2 and the effective temperature Teff = 5818 ± 53 K. The new value for the effective temperature is compared with previous interferometric and infrared flux method determinations. The accuracy of the effective temperature is now limited by the uncertainty in the bolometric flux rather than by the uncertainty in the angular diameter.
Results for a radiolysis model sensitivity study of radiolytically produced H2O2 are presented as they relate to Spent (or Used) Light Water Reactor uranium oxide (UO2) nuclear fuel (UNF) oxidation in a low oxygen environment. The model builds on previous reaction kinetic studies to represent the radiolytic processes occurring at the nuclear fuel surface. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the dominant oxidant for spent nuclear fuel in an O2-depleted water environment. The most sensitive parameters have been identified with respect to predictions under typical conditions. As compared with the full model with about 100 reactions, it was found that only 30 to 40 of the reactions are required to determine [H2O2] to one part in 10–5 and to preserve most of the predictions for major species. This allows a systematic approach for model simplification and offers guidance in designing experiments for validation.
The electronic structure of delta plutonium (δ-Pu) and plutonium compounds is investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). Results for δ-Pu show a small component of the valence electronic structure which might reasonably be associated with a 5f6 configuration. PES results for PuTe are used as an indication for the 5f6 configuration due to the presence of atomic multiplet structure. Temperature dependent PES data on δ-Pu indicate a narrow peak centered 20 meV below the Fermi energy and 100 meV wide. The first PES data for PuCoIn5 indicate a 5f electronic structure more localized than the 5fs in the closely related PuCoGa5. There is support from the PES data for a description of Pu materials with an electronic configuration of 5f5 with some admixture of 5f6 as well as a localized/delocalized 5f5 description.
Plutonium and Pu-Ga alloys have been observed to have anomalous hydrogen solubility behavior, including a significant concentration dependence of hydrogen diffusivity in the dilute regime, a sharp drop off in the hydrogen solubility constant in the dilute regime, and a near complete absence of change in the Sieverts’ constant as the alloys are heated across phase transformation boundaries. We are investigating the possibility that a vacancy mechanism is responsible for this behavior. X-ray diffraction measurements show a 0.14% lattice contraction in Pu-2 at. % Ga alloys when they are charged with ~2 at. % hydrogen. The lattice re-expands when the hydrogen is removed. Density functional calculations show that increasing the number of hydrogen atoms associated with a vacant lattice site in Pu lowers the energy of the hydrogen-vacancy complex. These observations support the idea that vacancies are stabilized by hydrogen in the Pu lattice well beyond their thermal equilibrium concentration and could be responsible for the anomalous hydrogen response of Pu.
The five solid-solid phase transformations of pure Pu are typically represented in idealized thermal expansion plots as having sharp onsets and finishes with linear expansion behavior between the transitions. These behaviors are in reality less common, and the various transitions may have bursting behavior, curved onsets and finishes, and non-linear thermal expansion. In this presentation we will review the transformation behavior of diverse set of pure Pu types. These types include zone-refined pure Pu, electro-refined pure Pu, pure Pu doped with 1000 appm Ga, and alpha-phase Pu within an as-cast 1.9 atomic. % Ga alloy.
In d-wave unconventional superconductors, superconducting Cooper pairs are believed to be formed via magnetic fluctuations. In fact, the superconducting transition temperature Tc roughly correlates with the antiferromagnetic spin fluctuation energy in d-wave unconventional superconductors including high Tc cuprates. In addition to this correlation, the superconducting pairing symmetry and the magnetic anisotropy of the normal state are found empirically to be strongly correlated in f-electron unconventional superconductors having crystallographic symmetry lower than cubic. In antiferromagnetic systems, unconventional superconductivity appears with singlet (d-wave) pairing for cases of XY anisotropy. In contrast, in ferromagnetic systems, unconventional superconductivity with triplet (e.g. p-wave) pairing appears for cases of Ising anisotropy. In this report, the d-wave case is addressed, the origin of XY anisotropy is discussed in terms of the orbital character; and the angular momentum character jz for each piece of Fermi surfaces is determined.
There is a growing body of evidence that a number of mixed-valent and heavy-fermion materials show renormalized hybridization gaps either at the Fermi-energy or close to the Fermi-energy. In the former case, a heavy-fermion semiconducting state occurs and in the later case, the system remains metallic at low temperatures. The magnitudes of the hy-bridization gaps are observed to decrease with increasing temperature. The existence of a low-energy electronic energy scale creates a possibility that the Born-Oppenheimer ap-proximation may fail and that there may be a resonant coupling between the phonons and the electronic excitations. Here we argue that such a mechanism may be the cause of the phonon anomalies observed in neutron scattering experiments on the high-temperature phase of alpha-uranium.