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Despite the well-known relevance of twin studies in the medical and social sciences and the growing number of twin registries throughout the world, Latin America has not fully incorporated into the twin research community. We describe the first steps taken toward developing a twin registry in Mexico: its aim, organization, recruiting potential and main short-term objectives.
This study explores Latino perceptions of commonality and competition with African Americans across the country, focusing on the South. Using the Latino National Survey (LNS), we test the existing inter-group relation theories using an original measurement approach. With the creation of relative measures of commonality and competition of Latinos toward Blacks, we find that Latinos perceive co-ethnics as a greater source of competition than Blacks when our relative measure is used to interpret Latino perceptions of competition with African Americans. Moreover, our results suggest that Latinos in the South have similar perceptions of commonality to Blacks as Latinos more generally, across both approaches that measure perceptions of commonality. Most importantly, we find that when the relative competition measure is employed, Latinos who live in Southern states do in fact have higher perceptions of competition with Blacks than Latinos at large. These trends provide a valuable addition to the extant literature focused on inter-group relations by emphasizing that not only place and context matter, but also the way perceptions of competition and commonality are measured and operationalized.
Social cognition has been associated with functional outcome in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). Social cognition has also been associated with neurocognition and cognitive reserve. Although cognitive reserve, neurocognitive functioning, social cognition, and functional outcome are related, the direction of their associations is not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to analyze the influence of social cognition as a mediator between cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning in FEP both at baseline and at 2 years.
The sample of the study was composed of 282 FEP patients followed up for 2 years. To analyze whether social cognition mediates the influence of cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning, a path analysis was performed. The statistical significance of any mediation effects was evaluated by bootstrap analysis.
At baseline, as neither cognitive reserve nor the cognitive domains studied were related to functioning, the conditions for mediation were not satisfied. Nevertheless, at 2 years of follow-up, social cognition acted as a mediator between cognitive reserve and functioning. Likewise, social cognition was a mediator between verbal memory and functional outcome. The results of the bootstrap analysis confirmed these significant mediations (95% bootstrapped CI (−10.215 to −0.337) and (−4.731 to −0.605) respectively).
Cognitive reserve and neurocognition are related to functioning, and social cognition mediates in this relationship.
While the United States has had almost fifty years of experience with anticorruption law involving transnational enforcement, Brazilian anticorruption enforcement has not yet celebrated its first decade. In the notorious Car Wash case, however, Brazil is wrestling with the largest anticorruption investigation ever. The Car Wash case has resulted in numerous claims brought by a host of domestic agencies and foreign governments, many of which lack experience in anticorruption law. This essay argues that the Car Wash case reveals the weaknesses of the transnational anticorruption legal apparatus in Brazil. At both the national and transnational levels, the lack of coordination and the existence of competition among different levels of authority have undermined the main pillar of the regime: the collaboration agreements and the corresponding protection granted to whistleblowers. The Car Wash case illustrates how the current transnational anticorruption legal regime fails to promote order over disorder.
The Altamira Yellowthroat Geothlypis flavovelata is endemic to north-eastern Mexico, with a restricted distribution due to the spatial arrangement of its major habitat: wetlands. Given the lack of information regarding this vulnerable and endemic landbird, here we describe and analyse the sites where we recorded it in Northern Veracruz, as well as its population density, and natural history information. Our results show that the average density of this endemic yellowthroat is 1.006 ind/ha, with more individuals recorded in Tecolutla when compared to Tuxpan. We found a strong association between the Altamira Yellowthroat and southern cat-tail Typha domingensis, although we found scenarios under which the presence of the cat-tail was not a determinant of Altamira Yellowthroat presence. In light of the strong anthropogenic pressures on wetlands in the region, the Altamira Yellowthroat has become highly vulnerable. Thus, if we aim to preserve this endemic species, together with other wetland-dependent species, it is crucial to moderate –and even stop– human pressures on these ecosystems and mitigate past damages.
We describe Hedruris dratini n. sp. (Nematoda, Hedruridae) from Hydromedusa tectifera and Phrynops hilarii in Argentina based on morphological and molecular characters. Also, we provide information about its life cycle. The new species differs from other species of the genus by possessing the excretory pore, nerve ring and deirids at equal distance from the anterior end. Additionally, H. dratini n. sp. has mammilated eggs and males possess nine pairs of caudal papillae. The subadults and adults of H. dratini n. sp and H. orestiae were characterized by sequencing the small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S). We present for the first time a life cycle of a species of Hedruris that includes an amphipod as intermediate host and a reptile as definitive host. Furthermore, we analysed the host and geographic distribution of all Hedruris species. Although the genus has a cosmopolitan distribution and parasitizes a great host diversity, the majority of species have a Gondwanian distribution, with amphibians being the preferred hosts.
The Murcia Twin Registry (MTR) is the only population-based registry in Spain. Created in 2006, the registry has been growing more than a decade to become one of the references for twin research in the Mediterranean region. The MTR database currently comprises 3545 adult participants born between 1940 and 1977. It also holds a recently launched satellite registry of university students (N = 204). Along five waves of data collection, the registry has gathered questionnaire and anthropometric data, as well as biological samples. The MTR keeps its main research focus on health and health-related behaviors from a public health perspective. This includes lifestyle, health promotion, quality of life or environmental conditions. Future short-term development points to the expansion of the biobank and the continuation of the collection of longitudinal data.
Vaccination coverage (VC) against pertussis can increase when management practices and policies at primary care centres (PCCs) are reinforced. From 2011 to 2015, we performed a case–control study to evaluate VC among pertussis patients treated at PCCs in Barcelona, Spain. We recorded pertussis in patients from 8- to 16-year-olds at 52 PCCs. Pertussis cases had laboratory diagnostic and controls were healthy outpatients visiting the same facility for reasons other than cough. DTaP/dTap VC was recorded as either proper vaccination status (five doses recorded) or improper vaccination status (<5 doses recorded). We used a logistic regression model to estimate OR and 95% CI. We included 229 cases and 576 controls. VC was higher in cases (mean 5.01, s.e.: 0.57) than in controls (4.89, s.e.: 0.73). Around 69% of the cases had received DTaP primary immunisation after 2–5 years and 31.4% of cases had the dTap booster immunisation after 7–10 years. The 87% of children 5–9 years were properly vaccinated. We found no protection from becoming ill among properly vaccinated children (OR 1.87; 95% CI 1.22–2.85). The highest VC was observed in patients with confirmed pertussis, which was likely due to a more exhaustive follow-up of the VC in these patients. Being properly vaccinated against pertussis will probably not increase VC.